International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2016 | October-December | Volume 9 | Issue 4

Original Article

Nitika N Bembi, Sumit Bembi, Jyoti Mago, Gurpreet Kaur Baweja, Parvinder Singh Baweja

Comparative Evaluation of Bioactive Synthetic NovaBone Putty and Calcified Algae-derived Porous Hydroxyapatite Bone Grafts for the Treatment of Intrabony Defects

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:285 - 290]

Keywords: Bone grafts, Bone regeneration, Intrabony defects

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1379  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: To compare and evaluate clinically and radio-graphically the bone regeneration and the amount of bone fill in intrabony component of periodontal osseous defects through the osteoconductive and osteostimulative effect of bioactive synthetic NovaBone Putty - CMF and osteoconductive effect of calcified algae-derived porous hydroxyapatite Frios® Algi-pore® bone grafts. Materials and methods: Twenty-two sites in 11 patients, within the age range of 25 to 60 years, showing intrabony defects were selected according to split mouth design and divided into group I (Frios® Algipore®) and group II (NovaBone Putty - CMF). All the selected sites were assessed with the clinical and radiographic parameters like plaque index, gingival index (full mouth and site specific), sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, and radiographic bone fill. All the clinical and radiographic parameter values obtained at different intervals (baseline, 3, and 6 months) were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A statistically significant reduction in pocket depth of 2.55 ± 0.52 mm (group I), 2.64 ± 0.67 mm (group II) and gain in clinical attachment level of 7.55 ± 1.44 mm (group I), 7.55 ± 2.38 mm (group II) were recorded at the end of the study. A slight increase in gingival recession was observed. The mean percentage change in amount of radiographic bone fill of group II (71.34%) was more than group I (61.93%). Conclusion: Both NovaBone Putty - CMF and Frios® Algipore® improve healing outcomes and lead to a reduction of probing depth, a resolution of osseous defects, and a gain in clinical attachment, but radiographic observation found better results with NovaBone Putty. How to cite this article: Bembi NN, Bembi S, Mago J, Baweja GK, Baweja PS. Comparative Evaluation of Bioactive Synthetic NovaBone Putty and Calcified Algae-derived Porous Hydroxyapatite Bone Grafts for the Treatment of Intrabony Defects. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):285-290.

Original Article

Pritesh N Gawali, Vishwas B Chaugule, Amey M Panse

Comparison of Microleakage and Penetration Depth between Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sealants in Primary Second Molar

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:291 - 295]

Keywords: Fissure sealant, Microleakage, Penetration depth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1380  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Optimal pit and fissure sealing is determined by surface preparation techniques and choice of materials. The performance of pit and fissure sealant materials has been intensively investigated, yet no single product is reported as an ideal sealant. In children, moisture control during cavity preparation is always a big challenge, and hence, hydrophilic sealants have been developed. Aim: To compare the microleakage and penetration depth of hydrophilic and hydrophobic sealants using acid-etching on dry and moist surfaces. Materials and methods: Recently, extracted 28 2nd primary molars are assigned to two groups (hydrophobic group I; hydrophilic group II) depending on the surface condition (dry group: A1 and B1; moist group: A2 and B2) of 7 teeth in each group. Samples from group A1 and B1 are cleaned and dried with a 3-way syringe and etched with etching gel, and sealant is applied to the fissures and cured with visible light. Sample from A2 and B2 are immersed in 0.1 mL of fresh whole human saliva for 20 seconds and dried using a pellet cotton, and the same procedure is carried out. All samples are subjected to 1000 thermal cycles and sectioned to compare the depth of penetration and microleakage. Sections will be examined under light microscope and analyzed using an image analysis software (SigmaScan). Results: The least microleakage was seen with hydrophilic sealant under moist surface condition, and the depth of penetration of hydrophobic sealant was found to be better than that of hydrophilic sealant in both dry and moist surface conditions. Conclusion: Hydrophilic pit and fissure sealants showed higher tolerance to saliva contamination with less microleakage, but in terms of penetration ability hydrophobic sealants were found to be superior. How to cite this article: Gawali PN, Chaugule VB, Panse AM. Comparison of Microleakage and Penetration Depth between Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sealants in Primary Second Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):291-295.

Original Article

Sarika Naidu, Shobha Tandon, Rashmi Nayak, P Venkat Ratnanag, Deepesh Prajapati, Namitha Kamath

Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:296 - 302]

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Fluoride, Incipient lesions, Varnishes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1381  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Materials and methods: Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III received both fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish alternatively, for a period of 4 weeks. Group IV served as the control. At 3-month follow-up, the incipient lesions were assessed again with DIAGNOdent and enamel biopsy. Results: Increased calcium, phosphate, and fluoride levels were noticed in groups I, II, III compared to group IV, at the 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The combined therapy with fluoride and chlorhex-idine varnish may be considered an alternative therapy for early reversal of incipient lesions. How to cite this article: Naidu S, Tandon S, Nayak R, Ratnanag PV, Prajapati D, Kamath N. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):296-302.

Original Article

Dileep Soni, Rachit Mathur, Nidha Madan, Suchita Visnoi

Incidence of Apical Crack Initiation during Canal Preparation using Hand Stainless Steel (K-File) and Hand NiTi (Protaper) Files

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:303 - 307]

Keywords: Cracks, Instrumentation, Root canal preparation, Vertical root fracture, Working length

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1382  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the incidence of apical crack initiation during canal preparation with stainless steel K-files and hand protaper files (in vitro study). Materials and methods: Sixty extracted mandibular premo-lar teeth are randomly selected and embedded in an acrylic tube filled with autopolymerizing resin. A baseline image of the apical surface of each specimen was recorded under a digital microscope (80×). The cervical and middle thirds of all samples were flared with #2 and #1 Gates-Glidden (GG) drills, and a second image was recorded. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 15 teeth each according to the file type (hand K-file and hand-protaper) and working length (WL) (instrumented at WL and 1 mm less than WL). Final image after dye penetration and photomicrograph of the apical root surface were digitally recorded. Results: Maximum numbers of cracks were observed with hand protaper files compared with hand K-file at the WL and 1 mm short of WL. Chi-square testing revealed a highly significant effect of WL on crack formation at WL and 1 mm short of WL (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Minimum numbers of cracks at WL and 1 mm short of WL were observed with hand K-file and maximum with hand protaper files. How to cite this article: Soni D, Raisingani D, Mathur R, Madan N, Visnoi S. Incidence of Apical Crack Initiation during Canal Preparation using Hand Stainless Steel (K-File) and Hand NiTi (Protaper) Files. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):303-307.

Original Article

Afreen Salman, Sundeep Hegde

Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:308 - 312]

Keywords: ABO, Blood grouping, Human identification, Polymerase chain reaction, Primary tooth, Pulp

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1383  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To determine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based blood group on tooth pulp obtained from teeth stored for 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year following extraction and to evaluate the stability of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in primary tooth subjected to a temperature of 200°C ± 5°C for 15 minutes. Materials and methods: Dental pulp tissue was collected from 40 exfoliated primary teeth stored for various time durations and temperature and preserved at 4°C till DNA extraction was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using silica membrane-based spin-column procedure of QIAamp DNA minikit from BioRad. Deoxyribonucleic acid was subjected to PCR amplification and monoplex allele-specific PCR primers for ABO genotyping. Statistical analysis used: The data were analyzed by comparison (based on percentage). Results: In our study, overall, 85% samples showed a DNA yield. Cent percent results were obtained for samples studied at the end of 1 month followed by 90 and 80% for samples studied for 6 months and 1 year respectively. Heated samples showed 70% result. Conclusion: Polymerase chain reaction was found to be an effective method for blood group determination for teeth stored at various time durations and temperatures. However, as the time interval increased, the number of positive results obtained decreased. How to cite this article: Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Hegde S. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):308-312.

Original Article

Meena Syed, Vandana Shrivastava

Comparative evaluation of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash, Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Combination of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash and Xylitol Chewing Gum on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Biofilm Levels in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:313 - 319]

Keywords: Biofilm, Chlorhexidine, Streptococcus mutans, Xylitol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1384  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To assess the effect of combining 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash with xylitol (XYL) chewing gum on Streptococcus mutans and biofilm levels among 8- to 12-year-old children. Materials and methods: Sixty children aged 8 to 12 years were selected with moderate and high salivary S. mutans levels. They were divided into three groups of 20 children each: (1) XYL group where the subjects chewed XYL twice daily; (2) CHX where rinsing was done twice daily; and (3) combination of XYL and CHX group (XYL+CHX) where both the agents were used once daily. The S. mutans colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted by using the mitis salivarius agar plate at the beginning of the study and at 15 days, 1, 2, and 6 months from the start of the study. Results: The XYL+CHX group showed the maximum reduction in both the biofilm and S. mutans scores throughout the study period. Conclusion: The XYL+CHX combination reduced both the biofilm and S. mutans score significantly better than either XYL chewing gums or CHX mouthwash used alone. How to cite this article: Syed M, Chopra R, Shrivastava V, Sachdev V. Comparative evaluation of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash, Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Combination of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash and Xylitol Chewing Gum on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Biofilm Levels in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):313-319.

Original Article

Iram Zaidi, Muhamad Nishad, Divya Tomar

Evaluation of different Diagnostic Modalities for Diagnosis of Dental Caries: An in vivo Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:320 - 325]

Keywords: Caries detector dye (Kuraray), DIAGNOdent, Intraoral camera, Occlusal lesion, Visual examination

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1385  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of different diagnostic aids for diagnosis of dental caries and to compare the validity in terms of sensitivity and specificity of all four diagnostic modalities for diagnosis of caries. Materials and methods: Occlusal surfaces of 100 primary and permanent molars were examined using the four diagnostic systems (visual, intraoral camera, DIAGNOdent, and DIAGNOdent with dye). These results were compared with operative intervention gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each diagnostic system for both enamel and dentin caries. Interrater agreement was calculated for each diagnostic system using kappa statistics. Results: For both enamel and dentin caries, the highest sensitivity values were provided by DIAGNOdent (0.91 and 0.72) and lowest for visual examination on wet surface (0.60 and 0.50). For both enamel and dentin caries, the specificity was found to be highest for intraoral camera on dry surface and lowest for visual examination. The DIAGNOdent gave the highest value of interrater agreement (kappa), i.e., 0.816 as compared with 0.03 for visual examination. Conclusion: The study clearly demonstrated that DIAGNO-dent was the most accurate and valid system tested for the detection of occlusal caries. It has the advantage of quantifying the mineral content, helping to improve the diagnostic efficacy and treatment and accurate assessment of fissures where the visual examination alone is not adequate, thus complementing the traditional dental examination. How to cite this article: Zaidi I, Somani R, Jaidka S, Nishad M, Singh S, Tomar D. Evaluation of different Diagnostic Modalities for Diagnosis of Dental Caries: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):320-325.

Original Article

Ritu G Ubeja, Chetan Bhat

Mode of Delivery and Its Influence on the Acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in Infants

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:326 - 329]

Keywords: Cesarean section, Normal delivery, Oral micro-biota, Streptococcus mutans

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1386  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Dental caries pose distinct challenges when it comes to determining their microbial etymology. Streptococcus mutans play an important role in dental caries. The aim of the present study was to compare oral microbiota in infants delivered by these different routes. A study was conducted on 40 infants. Swab sample collection was done for the detection of S. mutans. Our study indicated no differences in oral microbiota in infants due to mode of delivery. Aim: To assess whether infants born through cesarean section delivery or infants born through normal delivery influence the initial acquisition of S. mutans in infants. Settings and design: The study was carried out on the premises of Bharati Hospital, Pune, wherein 40 infants (3-36 months) were enrolled for the study. Two groups were designed. Group I: Infants born with cesarean section delivery Group II: Infants born with normal section delivery Materials and methods: Bacterial swab sampling was done in the participants for the detection of S. mutans. Colony-forming units on each plate were determined for the estimation of S. mutans level in oral cavity. Statistical analysis used: Bar diagram analysis and chi-square test were performed to derive p-value. Results: The p value derived at the end of the study was 0.52. Hence, analysis of data demonstrates no significant influence of cesarean section delivery and normal delivery on oral microbiota development in infants. Conclusion: Initial acquisition of oral S. mutans in infants is not dependent on the mode of delivery. Key Messages: Initial acquisition of S. mutans, Mode of delivery. How to cite this article: Ubeja RG, Bhat C. Mode of Delivery and Its Influence on the Acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in Infants. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):326-329.

Original Article

Prabhakar Ramasetty Attiguppe, Chandrashekar Yavagal, Rekhamani Maganti, P Mythri

Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere's Stratagem

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:330 - 334]

Keywords: Davangere population, Open apices, Panoramic radiograph, Regression formula

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1387  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere's India specific formula. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Results: Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, s, N0, the variables N0 and X4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N0) - 5.040(X4). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R2 = 0.739, adjusted R2 = 0.735). Conclusion: Cameriere's method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. How to cite this article: Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere's Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334.

Original Article

Triveni Mohan Nalawade, Kishore G Bhat

Antimicrobial Activity of Endodontic Medicaments and Vehicles using Agar Well Diffusion Method on Facultative and Obligate Anaerobes

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:335 - 341]

Keywords: Agar well diffusion, Medicaments, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Vehicles

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1388  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relative antimicrobial effectiveness of these endodontic medicaments and various vehicles using an agar well diffusion assay. Materials and methods: Double Antibiotic Paste(DAP), modified DAP, 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination with four vehicles namely Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), Propylene glycol (PG), combinations of PG with PEG and lastly Glycerine were tested using agar well diffusion assay. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms ie Streptococcus mutans ATCC(American Type Culture Collection) 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550 and Eschericia coli ATCC 25922. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Issues of resistance, limited spectrum of activity and lack of antifungal properties, the hunt for the ideal intracanal medicament continues. In this regard, the vehicles used to form the pastes play a supportive role by forming the appropriate consistency for placement and may dramatically influence their chemical characteristics like their solubility and diffusion. Thus, inorder to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, Chlorhexidine gluconate is being unveiled in this study. Results: The difference between the four vehicles when combined with the same endodontic medicament studied above is nonsignificant (NS) except against Porphyromonas gingivalis. Propylene glycol is significantly effective than Glycerine when used with DAP ie C+M medicament combination. (p = 0.029) Conclusion: 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and modified DAP can definitely replace DAP and triple antibiotic paste as end-odontic medicaments with chlorhexidine having an added advantage of bactericidal action, substantivity, biocompatibility, low toxicity, and lesser chances of developing resistance. How to cite this article: Nalawade TM, Bhat KG, Sogi S. Antimicrobial Activity of Endodontic Medicaments and Vehicles using Agar Well Diffusion Method on Facultative and Obligate Anaerobes. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):335-341.

Original Article

Priyanka Sharma, Mousumi Goswami, Darrel Singh, Shahid S Massod, Khundrakpam Nganba

Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:342 - 348]

Keywords: Mother-child pairs, Streptococcus mutans, Vertical transmission

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1389  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman's correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. Conclusion: The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. How to cite this article: Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348.

Original Article

Madhuchanda Palit, Sundeep K Hegde

Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:349 - 354]

Keywords: Dental caries, Herbal mouth rinse, Streptococcus mutans, Terminalia chebula

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1390  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticar-iogenic efficacy of hot and cold aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula against Streptococcus mutans as an oral rinse and also to discover the acceptability of the mouthwash in children. Settings and design: Sixty children between 8 and 12 years with high caries risk were selected. Materials and methods: 10% concentration of hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared. Children were randomly divided into extract and control group. Baseline salivary samples were taken, and the samples were re-collected at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval after rinsing. Microbial and pH analysis were done. An acceptability questionnaire was filled. Statistical analysis: Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The results show statistically significant difference in S. mutans counts at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval when compared with negative control. However, when the hot and cold extracts were compared, there was no significant difference. Acceptability questionnaire showed 65 to 75% overall acceptability for both types of extract. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that both types of aqueous extract of T. chebula may be used as potential anticariogenic mouthwash with acceptable taste in children. How to cite this article: Palit MC, Hegde SK, Bhat SS. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):349-354.

Original Article

Anirudh Agarwal, Karan Seth, Siddharaj Parmar, Rahul Jhawar

Dental Videographic Analysis using Digital Age Media

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:355 - 363]

Keywords: Anterior malocclusion, Index, Orthodontic, Photoshop, Scoring, Smile, Video

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1391  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives: This study was to evaluate a new method of smile analysis using videographic and photographic softwares (as in this study Photoshop Elements X, Windows Movie Maker 2012) as primary assessment tools and to develop an index for malocclusion and treatment plan that could be used in assessing severity of maloc-clussion. How to cite this article: Agarwal A, Seth K, Parmar S, Jhawar R. Dental Videographic Analysis using Digital Age Media. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):355-363.

SURVEY

Aasim F Shah, Pradeep Tangade, TL Ravishankar, Amit Tirth, Sumit Pal

Dental Caries Status of Institutionalized Orphan Children from Jammu and Kashmir, India

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:364 - 371]

Keywords: Dental caries, Jammu and Kashmir, Orphans, Prevalence, Toothbrushing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1392  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: It has been well documented that the absence of family support influences the general and oral health of the children. Factors that lead to the development of disease at a given point in time are likely to have their roots in a complex chain of environmental events that may have begun years before. A number of studies have examined the relationship between dental caries and material deprivation and found a positive association between them. Though orphans contribute to 2% of world's population, literature regarding their oral health status is very scarce. This study was carried out with the aim to assess the dental caries status of institutionalized orphan children from Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and methods: A total of 1,664 children that included 1,201 boys and 463 girls from registered orphanages in the state of Jammu and Kashmir were included in the study. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the start of the study; decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft)/decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) indices were used to assess the caries status of primary and permanent dentition. Multiple choice, close-ended questionnaires were administered to assess the oral hygiene habits, knowledge, and dietary behavior of orphan children prior to examination. The study subjects were divided into three groups according to the age of ≤ 6, 7 to 11, and ≥12 years. Results: Results showed that caries prevalence in primary dentition was higher in subjects’ ≤6 years of age where the prevalence was 50.9%; in subjects 7 to 11 years of age, the prevalence was 25.2%. Caries prevalence in permanent dentition within the age group 7 to 11 was 69.1%, while in subjects’ ≥12 years, the prevalence was 66.2%. Use of toothbrush was the most prevalent method of cleaning the teeth in both the genders, while toothpaste was reported to be the most prevalent material to be used for tooth cleaning followed by tooth-powder. Highest caries prevalence was seen in the subjects using datun sticks as a method to clean their teeth (80.5%). How to cite this article: Shah AF, Tangade P, Ravishankar TL, Tirth A, Pal S, Batra M. Dental Caries Status of Institutionalized Orphan Children from Jammu and Kashmir, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):364-371.

SURVEY

Aisha Wali, Talha Mufeed Siddiqui, Rabia Khan, Kanza Batool

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Dental Surgeons in managing Child Patients

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:372 - 378]

Keywords: Attitude and practices, Behavioral techniques, Pediatric patients

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1393  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cluster-sampling technique was used and 200 dental surgeons from six different dental institutions were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire was distributed to the dental surgeons that comprised 20 closed-ended questions. The data was entered and analyzed for frequency and percentages by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. The results showed that 76 (38%) dental surgeons took the responsibility of managing pediatric patient when given; 68 (34%) dental surgeons allowed the parents in the clinic; 111 (55.5%) dental surgeons are of the view that colorful and fun environment in dental clinic make the child at ease; 59 (29.5%) always demonstrate the dental procedure to the child to eradicate imaginary fears; 94 (47.0%) dental surgeons preferred the child to be treated in general anesthesia (GA) to avoid difficult behavior of the child; 135 (67.5%) dental surgeons did not show syringe needle or any instrument to the child. All the members of dental profession must be aware of patient perceptions, preferences, and fear to meet patient's needs. Dental studies should include guidelines and techniques to train the upcoming dentists for excellent practice in pediatric dentistry. How to cite this article: Wali A, Siddiqui TM, Khan R, Batool K. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Dental Surgeons in managing Child Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):372-378.

CASE REPORT

Anju S Rajwar, Mahesh Verma

Orocraniofacial findings of a Pediatric Patient with Joubert Syndrome

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:379 - 383]

Keywords: Hypoplasia, Magnetic resonance imaging, Molar tooth sign

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1394  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder, involving agenesis or dysgenesis of cerebellar vermis and brain stem. The neurological features of JS include hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, abnormal eye movements, and neonatal breathing dysregulation. These may be associated with multiorgan involvement, mainly retinal dystrophy, nephronophthisis, hepatic fibrosis, and polydactyly. An obligatory hallmark feature associated with JS is the molar tooth sign (MTS), a complex midbrain-hindbrain malformation visible on brain imaging. This case report presents a pediatric case of JS in a 7-year-old girl. Joubert syndrome cases have been reported by various medical specialties in medical journals; however, this probably could be the first report of this rare developmental disorder in dental and oral health. How to cite this article: Goswami M, Rajwar AS, Verma M. Orocraniofacial findings of a Pediatric Patient with Joubert Syndrome. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):379-383.

CASE REPORT

Anupriya Kaushik, Hindpal Bhatia

Crouzon's Syndrome: A Rare Genetic Disorder

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:9] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:384 - 387]

Keywords: Crouzon's syndrome, Fibroblast growth factor, Premature synostosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1395  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Crouzon's syndrome, also known as brachial arch syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Described by a French neurosurgeon in 1912, it is a rare genetic disorder. Crouzon's syndrome is caused by mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. Normally, the sutures in the human skull fuse after the complete growth of the brain, but if any of these sutures close early, then it may interfere with the growth of the brain. The disease is characterized by craniosynostosis, with associated dentofacial anomalies. This report describes the different clinical features in a 10-year-old male patient, with particular reference to characteristic findings of this syndrome. How to cite this article: Kaushik A, Bhatia H, Sharma N. Crouzon's Syndrome: A Rare Genetic Disorder. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):384-387.

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