International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2016 | January-March | Volume 9 | Issue 1

Original Article

Sivakumar Nuvvula, Kalasandhya Vanjari, Rekhalakshmi Kamatham, Kumar Raja Gaddam

Primary Dentition Analysis: Exploring a Hidden Approach

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1 - 4]

Keywords: Analysis, BU approach, Primary dentition, Tanaka-Johnston

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1323  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths (MDWs) of canines and premolars in children with primary dentition facilitates interception of malocclusion at an early age. Boston University (BU) approach is one, i.e., based on primary teeth for predicting canine and premolar dimensions. Aim: To predict the canine and premolar dimensions, in the contemporary population, using BU approach and compare with the values obtained using Tanaka-Johnston (T/J) approach. Design: Children in the age range of 7–11 years with presence of all permanent mandibular incisors and primary maxillary and mandibular canines and first molars were included in the study. Those with interproximal caries or restorations, abnormalities in shape or size and history of orthodontic treatment were excluded. Impressions of both arches were made using irreversible hydrocolloid and poured with dental stone. The MDWs of the required teeth were measured on the models using electronic digital vernier caliper from which widths of permanent canines and premolars were predicted using both T/J and BU approaches. Results: Statistically significant (p = 0.00) positive correlation (r = 0.52–0.55) was observed between T/J and BU approaches. A statistically significant (p = 0.00) strong positive correlation (r = 0.72–0.77) was observed among girls, whereas boys showed a statistically nonsignificant weak positive correlation (r=0.17–0.42) based on gender. Conclusion: Boston University approach can be further studied prospectively to make it possible as a prediction method of permanent tooth dimensions for children in primary dentition stage. How to cite this article: Nuvvula S, Vanjari K, Kamatham R, Gaddam KR. Primary Dentition Analysis: Exploring a Hidden Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):1-4.

Original Article

Anirudh Agarwal

Assessment of the Airway Characteristics in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:5 - 9]

Keywords: CBCT, Cleft lip, Cleft palate, Nasopharyngeal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1324  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: The aim of our study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess the dimensional changes in the nasopharyngeal soft-tissue characteristics in children of Indian origin with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) and to compare the results with patients with ideal occlusion. Materials and methods: A sample of 20 children (10 girls, 10 boys) with repaired CLP was selected. Cone beam computed tomography scans were taken to measure the nasopharyngeal airway changes in terms of linear measurements and sagittal cross-sectional areas. Error analysis was performed to prevent systematic or random errors. Independent means t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate sex differences and the correlations among the variables. Results: Nasopharyngeal soft-tissue characteristics were different in the control and the study groups. Subjects with repaired CLP had lesser lower aerial width, lower adenoidal width and lower airway width. The upper airway width was also significantly lesser. The retropalatal and the total airway area were significantly greater in the control group. Conclusion: The narrow pharyngeal airway in patients with CLP might result in functional impairment of breathing in patients. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the relationship between pharyngeal structure and airway function in patients with CLP. How to cite this article: Agarwal A, Marwah N. Assessment of the Airway Characteristics in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):5-9.

Original Article

Feda I Zawaideh, Arwa I Owais, Wasan Kawaja

Ability of Pit and Fissure Sealant-containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate to inhibit Enamel Demineralization

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:10 - 14]

Keywords: Aegis®, Amorphous calcium phosphate, Demi-neralization, Pit and fissure sealant, Surface microhardness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1325  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effect of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing pit and fissure sealant on inhibition of enamel demineralization in vitro. Materials and methods: Enamel specimens (n = 75) were prepared using freshly extracted noncarious human third molars. Box-shaped cavities (8 × 2 × 2 mm) on the buccal or lingual surfaces were prepared and restored with resin-based sealant (Concise™), ACP-containing sealant (Aegis®) or fluoride-containing sealant (Conseal-F™). The samples were acid challenged in a demineralizing solution of 50 mmol/l lactic acid at pH 5.0 for 4 days. The change in enamel microhardness (ΔSµH) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey\'s post hoc test. Results: The mean SµH0 (±SD) (in Vicker\'s unit) prior to the acid challenge was: Concise™ (318.83 ± 33.86), Aegis® (331.03 ± 21.52), Conseal-F™ (310.12 ± 34.31). Following the acid challenge, the values dropped in all groups and ΔSµH (±SD) values were 269.17 ± 47.49, 151.39 ± 23.96 and 175.79 ± 32.39 respectively. Conclusion: The ACP-containing pit and fissure sealant has the potential to inhibit enamel demineralization. How to cite this article: Zawaideh FI, Owais AI, Kawaja W. Ability of pit and fissure sealant-containing amorphous calcium phosphate to inhibit enamel demineralization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):10-14.

Original Article

Jayna Sachdev, Kalpana Bansal, Radhika Chopra

Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:15 - 20]

Keywords: Catch-up growth, Height, Rehabilitation, S-ECC, Weight

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1326  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3–6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20.

Original Article

G Thiruvenkadam, Sharath Asokan, Baby John, PR Geetha Priya

Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:21 - 24]

Keywords: Dehydration, Ethanol, Obturation, Paper points, Primary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1327  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Successful obturation in the primary teeth demands complete dryness of the root canal system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 95% ethanol as the final irrigant before root canal obturation in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 20 extracted primary mandibular canines were biomechanically prepared and pre-obturated volume of each tooth was assessed using spiral computed tomography (CT). The specimens were divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1, Metapex group; group 2, zinc oxide eugenol group. Each group was further divided randomly into two subgroups (n = 5): subgroup 1, canals were dried with 95% ethanol; subgroup 2, canals were blot dried with paper points with the last one appearing dry. All canals were obturated and the postobturated volume of each tooth was measured. The percentage of obturated volume (POV) was calculated using the formula: (postobturated volume/preobturated volume) × 100. The POV between the groups was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test appropriately. Results: Root canals that were dried with ethanol showed better obturation than using paper points alone and the difference was statistically significant in both group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.002). Conclusion: Drying of the root canal system with 95% ethanol can result in better obturation in the primary teeth. How to cite this article: Thiruvenkadam G, Asokan S, John B, Geetha Priya PR. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):21-24.

Original Article

Shobha Tandon, Molay Banerjee

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Probiotic and Herbal Oral Rinses against Candida albicans in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:25 - 30]

Keywords: Candida albicans, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Dental caries, Herbal oral agent, Probiotics

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1328  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: A growing number of dentists are embracing the philosophy that natural agents are better for children\'s oral health. Knowledge of probiotics on host immune system has entered a new phase of research, and progression in this field is likely to offer novel means by modulating host immunity for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of oral diseases. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of probiotics in reducing salivary Candida albicans counts with commonly used antimicrobial agents like 0.2% chlorhexidine and herbal rinse. Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 subjects aged between 6 and 14 years, for a period of 9 months. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups comprising 20 subjects in each group. Three oral agents were administered twice daily for a maximum period of 1 week. Candida albicans counts were recorded before and after intervention and the results were submitted for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 software. Results: The change in mean log10 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml of C. albicans in groups A to C was 0.43 ± 0.72, 0.68 ± 1.05 and 0.22 ± 0.66 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: Data obtained from the study demonstrated that probiotic rinse was equally effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate rinse in reducing C. albicans counts after 1 week of intervention. Herbal oral rinse was least effective. Probiotic oral rinses have opened new horizons in improvement of oral health by maintaining healthy ecosystem. However, a longitudinal study with larger sample size needs to be undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics and herbal agents. How to cite this article: Mishra R, Tandon S, Rathore M, Banerjee M. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Probiotic and Herbal Oral Rinses against Candida albicans in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):25-30.

Original Article

Aarti H Relwani, Shital Kiran, Rohan Bhatt, Megha Patel

Impact of Dental Health Education on “Specific Learning Needs” Children

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:31 - 34]

Keywords: Oral health education, Schoolteacher, Specific learning disability

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1329  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: This article compares and evaluates the effect of dental health education through schoolteachers and dental health professionals to “specific learning needs” children attending special school. Materials and methods: A total of 71 “specific learning needs” children attending special school participated in the study. The baseline oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) for all the participants was recorded. The training of schoolteachers was done using audiovisual and verbal methods on dental health facts and how to provide instructions on oral hygiene measures for reinforcing to the students. The students were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 – No further dental health education by the schoolteachers or by the dental professionals was given to these students after the initial oral health education. Group 2 – In this group, the trained teachers taught students about the importance of oral health and demonstrated them brushing technique at intervals of 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Group 3 – The dental professionals imparted dental health education and also demonstrated brushing techniques to these students at intervals of 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Six months following the intervention a second examination was done to find out the OHI-S scores. Data analysis were done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test. Results: Group 2 demonstrated significant decline in OHI-S scores after intervention and all the three groups showed a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI-S score and the scores after 6 months. Conclusion: School teachers can be utilized for reinforcing dental health education among “specific learning needs” children effectively. How to cite this article: Relwani AH, Kiran S, Bhatt R, Patel M. Impact of Dental Health Education on “Specific Learning Needs” Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):31-34.

Original Article

Raksha K Ballal, Shenoy Shailesh Ramdas, Shrinidhi Ballal

Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:35 - 38]

Keywords: Gum chewing, Oral health, Salivary flow rate, Salivary pH, Sugar-free gum

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1330  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20–22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38.

Original Article

Ekta Singh, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannath, Sanjay Singh

Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:39 - 44]

Keywords: Dental caries, Dermatoglyphics, Fingerprint pattern, Preschool children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1331  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2–6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using \"Dentition status and treatment needs\" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0–2), group II (dmft score = 3–4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student\'s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):39-44.

Original Article

Attiguppe R Prabhakar, Chandrashekar Yavagal, Kratika Dixit, Saraswathi V Naik

Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-file Systems

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:45 - 49]

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography, One shape, Pulpectomy, Reciprocating motion, Wave one

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1332  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. \"Wave one\" and \"one shape\" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. Study design: This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. Materials and methods: A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. Results: A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Conclusion: Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49.

SURVEY

Retna Kumari Narayanan, MT Jeseem, TV Anupam Kumar

Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10–12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:50 - 55]

Keywords: Crossbite, Malocclusion, Prevalence

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1333  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10–12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10–12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle\'s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10–12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55.

SURVEY

Jyothsna Vittoba Setty

Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:56 - 61]

Keywords: Awareness, Knowledge, Parents, Primary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1334  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Often people responsible for the oral care of children feel or believe that since primary teeth will eventually shed, it is not worthwhile to spend time/money on providing good oral health to children. Parents are the ones who take care of their children and make decisions for them. Hence, they should have knowledge about primary teeth, their health and caring in order to build confidence in their children through tiny teeth. Aim: To assess the knowledge of primary teeth and their importance among parents with children below 12 years. Materials and methods: A total of 1,000 questionnaires containing questions written both in English and in the local language (Kannada) were prepared for data collection and were personally distributed to parents visiting dental clinics for their children\'s dental treatment. Statistical analysis: Both descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used. Results: Complaints related to dental caries constituted 82% of children visiting dental clinics among children in Bengaluru city. Only 39% of respondents were aware of all functions of primary teeth. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the parents of Bengaluru city had superficial or partial knowledge of primary teeth and that there is a need to improve this awareness. How to cite this article: Setty JV, Srinivasan I. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):56-61.

SURVEY

Mitakshara Nirwan, Ather Ahmed Syed, Shefali Chaturvedi, Puneet Goenka

Awareness in Primary School Teachers regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in Children and Their Emergency Management: A Survey in South Jaipur

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:62 - 66]

Keywords: Dental trauma, Emergency management, Teachers

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1335  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Trauma to primary and permanent teeth and their supporting structures is one of the most common dental problems seen in children. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on timely attention with prompt and appropriate treatment, which often relies on knowledge of the teachers who may be present at the place of accidents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate via a questionnaire the knowledge level of primary school teachers in South Jaipur regarding dental trauma. Design: Questionnaire survey. Materials and methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 300 primary school teachers from 20 randomly selected private and semi-aided schools of South Jaipur. Results: A total of 278 teachers responded to the survey. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that most of the respondents had accepted poor knowledge regarding dental trauma, with a mean knowledge of 10.56 ± 2.58. Conclusion: This study highlighted inadequate knowledge regarding emergency management of traumatic dental injuries, and teachers felt the need for training in the management of dental trauma as part of their training program. How to cite this article: Nirwan M, Syed AA, Chaturvedi S, Goenka P, Sharma S. Awareness in Primary School Teachers regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in Children and Their Emergency Management: A Survey in South Jaipur. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):62-66.

CASE REPORT

Raju U Patil, Amit Prakash, Anshu Agarwal

Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:67 - 73]

Keywords: Class II malocclusion, Distalization, Mixed dentition, Pendulum, Space regainer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1336  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient\'s compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73.

CASE REPORT

Pawwan Kumar Kagitha, Srinivas Namineni, Abhinaya Reddy Tupalli, Santhosh Kumar Challa

Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:74 - 77]

Keywords: Agenesis, Central incisor, Concordance, Hypodontia, Siblings

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1337  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Concordance is an identical expression of phenotype in two related individuals. Concordance expression of hypodontia is an uncommon condition where associated individuals are affected with exactly similar kind and number of missing teeth. There is very limited documentation of this condition either in twins or in siblings, and literature shows paucity of data with regard to this anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the literature, which has actually showed similar missing lower central incisors in siblings. This report presents a case of two girl siblings aged 11 and 13 years with congenital bilateral missing of permanent mandibular central incisors, which is an absolute concordant condition. Apart from discussing etiology, clinical implications and management, this article highlights the significance of concordant and discordant condition of hypodontia and expression of this condition in twins and siblings. How to cite this article: Kagitha PK, Namineni S, Tupalli AR, Challa SK. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):74-77.

CASE REPORT

Ritesh Rambharos Kalaskar, Alkesh Godhane, Swati Demble

A Rare Clinical Variant of Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Syndrome Type I B

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:78 - 81]

Keywords: Aglossia, Environmental factors, Hypodactyli, Microstomia, OLHS, Rudimentary ears

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1338  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aglossia is a rare congenital malformation that often occurs as an isolated disorder or is observed in association with other congenital deformities, particularly limb defects. We present a unique case of a 7-year-old girl with aglossia, hypodactyli, rudimentary ears, retrognathic and V-shaped mandible. Her parental history revealed intrauterine exposure of medicines. The patient had problems in difficulty in eating, speech, taste sensation and hearing. The present case does not fit into Hall\'s classification of oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndrome (OLHS) which best describes hypoglossia and limb deformities. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to document the rare variant of OLHS which can be included in Hall\'s classification. How to cite this article: Kalaskar RR, Godhane A, Kalaskar A, Demble S. A Rare Clinical Variant of Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Syndrome Type I B. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):78-81.

CASE REPORT

Gyanendra Saroj, Anshul Gangwar

Hypothyroidism and Sturge-Weber Syndrome associated with Bilateral Port-wine Nevus

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:82 - 85]

Keywords: Hypothyroidism, PWSs, Sturge-Weber syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1339  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare, nonhereditary developmental condition that is characterized by a hamartomatous vascular proliferation of the brain, resulting in multiple angiomas that occur on the same side due to arteriovenous malformations. It is believed to be caused by persistence of a vascular plexus around the cephalic portion of the neural tube and is present at birth in about 1 in every 50,000 babies. It is one of the phakomatoses which is often associated with port-wine stains (PWSs) of the face, glaucoma, seizures, mental retardation and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma. Many people with SWS probably never know they have it. Hypothyroidism is a condition that arises from inadequate release of thyroid-stimulating hormone to stimulate an otherwise normal thyroid gland. This condition is often associated with a deficient secretion of other pituitary hormone, and growth hormone deficiency occurs with an increased prevalence in SWS, presumably secondary to involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Diagnosis is made by the presence of a facial PWS and evidence of leptomeningeal angioma either by skull X-ray or computed tomography scan that shows intracranial calcifications. Presently, there is no specific treatment for SWS, and the management of the clinical manifestations and complications is still far from adequate. Here, we report the case of hypothyroidism associated with SWS with oral and facial manifestations in an 11-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Saroj G, Gangwar A, Dhillon JK. Hypothyroidism and Sturge-Weber Syndrome associated with Bilateral Port-wine Nevus. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1): 82-85.

CASE REPORT

Jyotika Grover, Prerna Panthri

Space Maintenance with an Innovative “Tube and Loop” Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance)

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:86 - 89]

Keywords: Band and loop, Premature loss, Tube and loop

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1340  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limitations both for operators and for patients. Presented in this article is an innovative “Tube and Loop” SM (Nikhil appliance) which offers several advantages over the conventional band and loop SM. It is not only easy and quick to fabricate but can also be completed in a single sitting and cumbersome steps like impression making and laboratory procedures namely soldering are eliminated. How to cite this article: Srivastava N, Grover J, Panthri P. Space Maintenance with an Innovative “Tube and Loop” Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):86-89.

CASE REPORT

Pawanjit Singh Walia, Ajit Kumar Rohilla, Shweta Choudhary, Ravneet Kaur

Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:9] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:90 - 98]

Keywords: Dilaceration, Maxillary central incisor, Multidisciplinary management, Trauma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1341  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98.

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