International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2014 | May-August | Volume 7 | Issue 2

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The Era of Endodontic Research…………Root-end Filling Materials

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcpd-7-2-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Pain Elimination during Injection with Newer Electronic Devices: A Comparative Evaluation in Children

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:71 - 76]

Keywords: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, Comfort control syringe, Conventional syringe, Anxiety

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1240  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study was taken up to clinically evaluate and compare effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) and comfort control syringe (CCS) in various pediatric dental procedures as an alternative to the conventional method of local anesthesia (LA) administration. Materials and methods: Ninety healthy children having at least one deciduous molar tooth indicated for extraction in either maxillary right or left quadrant in age group of 6 to 10 years were randomly divided into three equal groups having 30 subjects each. Group I: LA administration using conventional syringe, group II: LA administration using TENS along with the conventional syringe, group III: LA administration using CCS. After LA by the three techniques, pain, anxiety and heart rate were measured. Statistical analysis: The observations, thus, obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), student t-test and paired t-test. Results: The mean pain score was maximum in group I followed by group II, while group III revealed the minimum pain, where LA was administered using CCS. Mean anxiety score was maximum in group I followed by group II, while group III revealed the minimum score. Mean heart rate was maximum in group I followed in descending order by groups II and III. Conclusion: The study supports the belief that CCS could be a viable alternative in comparison to the other two methods of LA delivery in children.



Apa Juntavee, Jomjai Peerapattana, Ariya Ratanathongkam, Nartsajee Nualkaew, Supaporn Chatchiwiwattana, Panta Treesuwan

The Antibacterial Effects of Apacaries Gel on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro Study

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:77 - 81]

Keywords: Antibacterials, Streptococcus mutans, Apacaries gel

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1241  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: New approaches for chemomechanical caries removal require effective materials with antibacterial properties for removal of infected dentin. Apacaries gel is a newly developed material comprised polyphenol from mangosteen extracts and papain mixed in gel preparation. Aim: This study evaluated the antibacterial effects of Apacaries gel on Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Materials and methods: Mangosteen pericarp powder was extracted. The amount of phenolic compounds was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The time-kill kinetics were investigated. Mangosteen extract and papain were mixed with gel base to develop Apacaries gel. The inhibition zone of the Apacaries gel was determined using agar well diffusion methods. Results: The mangosteen pericarp extract, which contains α-mangostin, was active against S. mutans strain ATCC25175. The time-kill kinetics curve showed that applying 1 mg/ml of mangosteen extract can reduce S. mutans by 50% within approximately 5 seconds; after this reduction, the bacterial count rapidly dropped to 0 within 60 seconds. Using mangosteen extract and papain mixture gel preparation resulted in a larger inhibition zone than using the mangosteen extract gel or papain gel separately. Conclusion: Apacaries gel can effectively inhibit S. mutans strain ATCC25175. Apacaries is capable of S. mutans inhibition better than both mangosteen extract or papain separately. The Antibacterial Effects of Apacaries Gel on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):77-81.



Narender Hasija, Madhu Bala, Virender Goyal

Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:82 - 85]

Keywords: Bolton, Tooth size, Anterior ratio, Overall ratio

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1242  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. Materials and methods: After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable.



Vinay K Srivastava

To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:86 - 92]

Keywords: Premalignant lesions, Noxious oral addiction habits, Anti-noxious oral habit policy, Social class

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1243  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Premalignant oral lesions are usually associated with noxious oral addiction habits. These habits are common in both, high as well as low socioeconomic status but education status of parent and patients significantly affects the development of noxious oral addictions. A total of 872 patients (cases and controls) were included in the study. Social class was determined as per modified Prasad's classification (1970) with price index correction of 2004. Prevalence of lichen planus, to be only 0.4 and 2.6% present in groups III and IV of cases, and submucous fibrosis (SMF) — stromal one lanocytic foci — was 2.4% in male (group III) whereas it was not found in female cases (group IV). Teenagers having higher frequency and longer duration of noxious habits were more prone for development of premalignant lesions. 0.6% of leukoplakia, 0.3% erythroplakia, 0.7% lichen planus and 0.7% submucous fibrosis were present in 872 observed patients of control and cases.



Attiguppe Ramasetty Prabhakar, Chandrashekar Yavagal, Rama Krishna Vallu

Twisted vs Protaper Files in Contemporary Pediatric Endodontics

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:93 - 96]

Keywords: Rotary instruments, NiTi, Cutting efficiency, Twisted files, Protaper files

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1244  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: To compare the cutting efficiency of twisted files with protaper files in primary teeth. Study design: It is an experimental, in vitro study comparing two groups. Results: The obtained results from the experiment were statistically analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test. Twisted files showed better cutting efficiency when compared to protaper files. Conclusion: Since twisted files show a better cutting efficiency, they can be efficiently incorporated into the contemporary pediatric endodontic armamentarium.



Vikas Setia, Inder Kumar Pandit

Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:97 - 104]

Keywords: Space maintainers, Prefabricated bands, Ribbond, Super splint, Survival rate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1245  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months.



Vikas Jharwal, Mridula Trehan, Nidhi Rathore, Pooja Rathee, Deepesh Agarwal, Nikunj Mathur

Informed Consent for Braces

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:105 - 108]

Keywords: Consent, Informed consent, Ethics, Medicolegal perspective

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1246  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The influence of law on the orthodontic profession has greatly increased in the last few decades. Dental law has emerged today as a full-fledged specialty dealing with a variety of areas, like professional negligence, doctor-patient contracts, consumer protection laws, ethics, general and special health legislations and practice regulatory mechanisms. This article highlights the concept of informed consent which is based on the premise that each individual has a right to make decisions concerning his health, disease and treatment.



Nidhi Sehrawat, Mohita Marwaha, Kalpana Bansal

Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:10] [Pages No:109 - 118]

Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Dental considerations, Management

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1247  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist's skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient.



Suneet Khandelwal, Dheeraj Gupta, Lalit Likhyani

A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:119 - 124]

Keywords: Dentin dysplasia, Opalescent dentin, Pulpless teeth, Radicular dentin dysplasia, Rootless teeth, Thistle tube teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1248  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dentin dysplasia, a rare hereditary disorder of dentin formation, is characterized by normal enamel but atypical dentin formation along with abnormal pulpal morphology. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It has been divided into two clinical entities: type I (radicular) and type II (coronal). Early diagnosis and initiation of effective regular dental treatments may help the patients with this condition to delay or prevent the loss of the entire dentition and help them in cope up with edentulous state in early ages. The condition undoubtedly has a negative impact on the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual. Numerous factors have to be considered during the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with dentin dysplasia. Treatment protocol varies according to clinical case. Although literature reports suggest general guidelines for treatment planning, the present case report describes a full mouth rehabilitation of an 8-year-old female patient with dentin dysplasia.



Marco Paschoal, Juliana Souza, Lourdes Santos-Pinto, Cyneu Pansani

Alternative Approach to the Management of Postoperative Pain after Pediatric Surgical Procedures

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:125 - 129]

Keywords: Low-level laser therapy, Pediatric dentistry, Post-operative pain

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1249  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This paper reports two clinical cases in which the application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) enhanced the postoperative symptoms after pediatric surgical procedures. Background: The uses of novel technologies allow more comfort to the patients and ensure a rapid procedure, and LLLT application has shown a positive effect in the prevention of discomfort after invasive procedures. Case description: Low-level laser therapy protocol was applied after surgical removal of supernumerary tooth and frenectomy resulting in less swallow and pain with no need of medication intake. Conclusion: The laser application was well accepted by both children and parents and showed a clinical efficiency in the follow-up examinations beyond the satisfactory quality of wound healing. Clinical significance: The LLLT approach is an excellent adjuvant therapy resource for delivery an optimal postoperative after surgical procedures in children.



Mohammadi Begum Khan, Arjun Karra

Early Treatment of Class III Malocclusion: A Boon or a Burden?

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:130 - 136]

Keywords: Rapid maxillary expansion, Early treatment, Class III malocclusion, Two-phase treatment, Interceptive orthodontics, Skeletal class III malocclusion, Facemask therapy, Mixed dentition stage, Growth modulation, Vertical growth pattern

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1250  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


This article presents a case of class III malocclusion, a female patient aged 8 years treated in early stage of its recognition, i.e. treated in early mixed dentition stage, utilizing orthopedic appliance for its correction, utilizing both rapid maxillary expansion and face mask approach. After the skeletal base correction as part of phase of phase I therapy, a retentive plate was given and patient was asked to report every 6 months for review and monitoring of her growth pattern and phase II treatment planning after the eruption of all permanent teeth.



Neha Mangla, Vineet Inder Singh Khinda, Shiminder Kallar, Gurlal Singh Brar

Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:137 - 139]

Keywords: Macrodontia, Mandibular second premolar, Molarization

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1251  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, macrodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar.



Priscila Stona, Elizabete da Silva Viana, Leandro dos Santos Pires, João Batista Blessmann Weber, Paulo Floriani Kramer

Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:140 - 143]

Keywords: Herpes simplex, Laser therapy, Pediatric dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1252  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Recurrent labial herpes simplex is a pathology of viral origin that is frequently observed in children. The signs and symptoms are uncomfortable and, in many cases, the efficacy of treatment is unproven. However, several studies have demonstrated good results from the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), primarily due to acceleration of the healing process and pain relief, which make it a promising resource for use with this pathology. This paper describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old patient affected by this pathology and the therapeutic resolution proposed.



Parth Shah, Vijay Biradar

Capillary Hemangioma in Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report

[Year:2014] [Month:May-August] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:144 - 147]

Keywords: Hemangioma, Capillary hemangioma, Benign tumor, Vascular lesions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1253  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hemangiomas are relatively common benign proliferative lesion of vascular tissue origin. They are often present at birth and may become more apparent throughout life. They are seen on facial skin, tongue, lips, buccal mucosa and palate as well as muscles. Hemangiomas occur more common in females than males. This case report presents a case of capillary hemangioma in maxillary anterior region in a 10-year-old boy.


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