International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2013 | January-April | Volume 6 | Issue 1

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Basavaprabhu Akkareddy, Pushpa Iranna Koppal, Mohan Ravishankar Sakri, Dharam M Hinduja, Raviraj Annayya Gangolli, Basanagouda C Patil

Iron Deficiency in Young Children: A Risk Marker for Early Childhood Caries

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1176  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: 1. Evaluate the coexistence of iron deficiency and early childhood caries. 2. Evaluate whether iron deficiency can be considered as a risk marker for early childhood caries. 3. Estimate the incidence of iron deficiency in children with early childhood caries. 4. To evaluate and compare the iron status of children with and without severe early childhood caries. Materials and methods: Sixty children of age 2 to 6 years in whom blood investigations are advised by pediatricians are selected for the study and are divided into early childhood caries (ECC) and control groups according to the def index. After obtaining the informed consent from parent, blood investigations are carried out in these children for the estimation of iron status. Results: All the values depicting the iron status are found to be decreased in the clinical trial group (ECC group) and they are statistically significant. Conclusion: Iron deficiency is observed definitely in children having ECC.



Kapil Dua, Sherryl Mary Mathew, Abi Mathew Thomas

Evaluation of the Microleakage of Chlorhexidine-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement: An in vivo Study

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:7 - 11]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1177  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Recent advances including the incorporation of antibacterial substances, such as chlorhexidine, into restorative materials such as glass ionomer cement (GIC), might alter the physical properties of the material, which might affect the marginal seal of the restorations. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the marginal sealing ability of GC Fuji IX modified with 1% chlorhexidine diacetate and conventional GC Fuji IX. Materials and methods: Sixty healthy molars were selected from the oral cavities of 30 children. The teeth were divided into two groups: Group I, teeth restored with 1% chlorhexidine diacetate modified GC Fuji IX and group II, teeth restored with GC Fuji IX. The restored teeth were extracted following 4 weeks and immersed in 2% basic fuchsin solution for 24 hours. They were then sectioned and scored under a light microscope of 10 × 10 magnification for dye penetration. Results: On statistical analysis difference between Chlorhexidine-Modified GIC group and GIC group with regard to grade of microleakage was found to be statistically nonsignificant (p = 0.543). Conclusion: Since, addition of 1% chlorhexidine diacetate to GC Fuji IX showed comparable results with regard to microleakage, it can be considered a valuable alternative especially in atraumatic restorative treatment and for general clinical utility in restorative dentistry.



Sunil Raj, Kiran Aradhya, V Nagakishore

Evaluation of Dental Fear in Children during Dental Visit using Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:12 - 15]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1178  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Fear of dental treatment in children has been recognized as a source of serious health problems and it may persist into adolescence, which may lead to a disruptive behavior, during dental treatment. In order to prevent this psychometric method namely the dental subscale of the children's fear survey schedule (CFSS-DS) is a well-known psychometric scale that was developed by Cuthbert and Melamed in 1982 for assessing dental fear in children. The present study was to evaluate dental fear in children during first dental visit using CFSS-DS between three different age group 4 and 6 years, 7 and 9 years, 10 and 14 years children to select fearful and nonfearful children from a larger reference population and to estimate the dental fear children. Total 600 children show CFSS-DS of 27.17 ± 5.3385, 307 were girls (51.17%) and they showed CFSS-DS of 27.50 ± 5.060 and 293 were boys (48.83%) and they show CFSS-DS 26.84 ± 5.617. This shows that there were no significant difference in fear between boys and girls. In 4 to 6 years show total CFSS-DS 28.78 ± 5.742, 7 to 9 years show that mean and standard deviation of CFSS-DS 27.81 ± 4.783, 10 to 14 years show that mean and standard deviation of CFSS-DS 25.93 ± 5.586. Fear scores were highest for ‘injections’, ‘choking’, ‘noise of dentist drilling’, ‘dentist drilling which was not significant between boy's and girl's but item, ‘having somebody look at you’ showed that significant differences in fear scores between boys and girls in present study. The present study concluded that dental fear decreased as age increased. Total fear scores also exhibited no strong overall sex difference or age by sex interaction.



Tapan Singh, Ronauk Singh, Jatinder Pal Singh

Classification of Interdental Space for Different Quadrants on the Basis of Standardization through Threshold Data and Its Comparison with BMI and Socioeconomic Status

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:16 - 21]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1179  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: A better knowledge about the Interdental space is important since it provides insights on the prevalence of malocclusion. To date, there is conflicting evidence on the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Socioeconomic status (SES) on interdental space. A recent review concluded that a greater understanding is required of the interdental space. Therefore, there is a need for a more comprehensive and rigorous assessments of the interdental space and impacts of BMI and SES. Aim: BMI and SES can be associated with the interdental spacing in deciduous dentition. Design: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 448 children of age group of 3 to 5 years out of which 392 were meeting our criteria. Research assessment questionnaire on demographic data was completed by the parents. Study model cast of 392 children free from malocclusion were analyzed. Results: A statistically significant association between interdental spacing and BMI category was observed. Comparison of BMI with above threshold interdental space revealed that after an optimum weight there is no effect on interdental space. A significant association between SES and interdental spacing was observed for all the four locations (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Evolved normative value can be taken as a standard and the occlusion and interdental spaces are not two completely separate entities and they are interdependent.



K Sundeep Hegde, Sham S Bhat, Ajay Rao

Effect of Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Counts: An in vivo Study

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:22 - 25]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1180  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Propolis, a natural antibiotic, is a resinous substance that honey bees (Apis mellifera) produce. The main chemical classes present in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial action of propolis on the concentration of Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of children. Materials and methods: Thirty children performed the rinses, with no other changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at two time points: Before using the product, 1 hour after the rinse. Results: Paired t-test was used for analysis of the results. A reduction in the concentration of Streptococcus mutans was observed in samples collected after use of the extract. There was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans count when compared to samples obtained in baseline. Significant reductions were seen at the end of 1 hour. The result was statistically significant. There were no side effects in soft and hard tissues of mouth. Conclusion and clinical implication: The propolis possesses in vivo antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as a measure to prevent dental caries.



AR Prabhakar

A Comparative Study of Color Stability and Fluoride Release from Glass Ionomer Cements Combined with Chlorhexidine

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:26 - 29]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1181  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Restoring carious teeth is one of the major treatment needs of young children. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) systems had become the most important dental restorative and luting materials for use in preschoolers, children and teenagers. Several attempts in developing GIC with antibacterial effects by addition of bactericides, such as chlorhexidine, have been reported. Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the color and fluoride ion release of conventional and resin-modified GICs in combination with 1.25 and 2.5% chlorhexidine diacetate. Materials and methods: The control groups consisted of conventional GIC and resin-modified GIC. The experimental groups consisted of conventional and resin-modified GIC groups, consisting of 1.25 and 2.5% chlorhexidine. A total of six groups were included with each group being allotted 20 specimens for the evaluation of color stability and 10 specimens each were allotted for the evaluation of fluoride release. Color and fluoride release were recorded using spectrophotometer and fluoride selective electrode respectively at 24 hours 7 days and 1 month. Results: Resin-modified GIC groups showed less color stability and better fluoride release at the end of the study compared to conventional GIC groups. Conclusion: There was no significant change in color and fluoride release between 1.25 and 2.5% conventional GIC and also between 1.25 and 2.5% resin-modified GIC combined with chlorhexidine diacetate at the end of the study. Conventional GIC showed better color stability and less fluoride release compared to resin-modified GIC.



Chaitanya Pavuluri

Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:30 - 32]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1182  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy.



G Ravi Kumar, Syed Basheer Ahmed, K Sree Lakshmi

Crouzon's Syndrome: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:33 - 37]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1183  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Crouzon's syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with multiple mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR2) gene, which accounts for 4.8% of all cases of craniosynostosis. It is characterized by premature closure of cranial sutures, cranial deformities, midface hypoplasia, relative mandibular prognathism, hypertelorism, proptosis, strabismus and short upper lip, crowding of teeth, pseudocleft or sometimes cleft palate and other associated abnormalities. The CS can vary in severity from mild presentation to severe forms involving multiple cranial sutures. We report a case of CS in 11-year-old boy.



Rachita Singh Dhull

Foreign Body in Root Canals of Two Adjacent Deciduous Molars: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:38 - 39]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1184  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Children often tend to have the habit of inserting foreign objects in the oral cavity unknowingly for relief of dental pain. Sometimes, children do not reveal to their parents due to fear. These foreign objects may act as a potent source of infection and painful condition. The discovery of foreign bodies in the teeth is a special situation, which is often diagnosed accidentally. Detailed case history, clinical and radiographic examinations are necessary to come to a conclusion about the nature, size, location of the foreign body and the difficulty involved in its retrieval. Here is a case report, where foreign object was accidentally lodged in the carious deciduous molars by a child.



Namrata Singh, V Ramesh, Kshitiz Rohilla, PD Balamurali

Oral Melanoacanthoma of a Rare Intraoral Site: Case Report and Review of Literature

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:40 - 43]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1185  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Oral melanoacanthoma is rare pigmented mucosal lesion that presents most commonly on the buccal mucosa, characterized by sudden appearance and rapid radial growth, thus clinically mimicking malignant melanoma. It was originally described as a mixed tumor of melanocytes and keratinocytes, but appears to be a reactive process; formed in areas prone to trauma, and regressing after the removal of trauma or incomplete excision. The clinical appearance of oral melanoacanthoma is nondiagnostic, and biopsy is mandatory to rule out malignancy. We report a case of melanoacanthoma of a rarer oral mucosal site in a 12-year-old Asian male. A brief review of the current literature is also presented.



Internal and External Root Resorption Management: A Report of Two Cases

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:44 - 47]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1186  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The response of the dentoalveolar apparatus to infection is characterized by inflammation which may result in tooth resorption. Depending upon the type of resorption and etiology, different treatment regimens have been proposed. The following two cases demonstrate internal and external inflammatory root resorption arrest by conventional nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with calcium hydroxide-iodoform dressing, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and flowable gutta-percha system. The patient has been regularly recalled every 6 months and radiographically the apical lesion showed signs of healing and arrest of root resorption after 1 year and 6 months.



Narendra Shriram Sharma

Management of a growing Skeletal Class II Patient: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:48 - 54]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1187  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Sagittal and transverse discrepancies often coexist in skeletal class II malocclusions. Orthopedic growth modification can work well in such cases, provided that the remaining pubertal growth is adequate and that the clinician can provide timely treatment to coincide with the peak growth period. The transverse discrepancy is generally corrected first, establishing a proper base for the sagittal correction to follow. For example, in a skeletal class II case with a narrow maxillary arch and retrusive mandible, maxillary expansion is performed initially to facilitate functional mandibular advancement. The present article illustrates an exception to this rule, in a case where sagittal correction was undertaken before transverse correction to make optimal use of the patient's pubertal growth spurt in first phase followed by a second phase of fixed appliance therapy during adolescence to achieve optimal results.



N Sivakumar, Md Akhil Quadar

Agenesis of Multiple Primary Teeth and Its Rehabilitation: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:55 - 57]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1188  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Agenesis of multiple primary teeth is rare. A 6-year-old girl visited our department, in the absence of any other systemic abnormalities, on clinical and radiographic evaluation, it was revealed that she had only 6 primary teeth in her mouth. Maxillary and mandibular removable partial dentures were fabricated for prosthodontic rehabilitation. At the 6 months follow-up nutrition of the patient as well as self-confident appearance was improved.



Sangamesh Halawar, Sunaina Shetty, Sujata Rath, Anushka Deoghare

Complex Odontome associated with Maxillary Impacted Permanent Central Incisor: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:58 - 61]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1189  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Odontomas, the most often seen ones among odontogenic tumors, are usually asymptomatic and discovered in routine radiographic examinations. Frequently it may interfere with the eruption of teeth. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss the case of a 12-year old child with a complex odontome, obstructing the eruption of left maxillary permanent central incisor. Radio opaque calcified masses were revealed in the radiograph and the masses were surgically removed to facilitate the eruption of the tooth.



Bina M Anand, Mayur Anand, KK Shashibhusan

Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Pediatric Patient with an Ocular Defect

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:62 - 65]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1190  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The eye is a vital organ for vision and an important component of facial expression. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect physically and psychologically. Especially, in case of a child where it affects the parent too and the approach toward these special children needs to be very special indeed. The construction of an ocular prosthesis for a child is the same as for an adult. A growing child will require periodic enlargement of the prosthesis in order to accompany the expansion of the anophthalmic cavity and it is the only way to esthetically rebuild the anophthalmic socket. Although implant eye prosthesis has superior outcome, due to economic factors it may not be advisable in all patients. Therefore, an acrylic custom-made ocular prosthesis replacement as soon as possible is a good alternative to promote physical and psychological healing for the patient and to improve social acceptance. A case of a custom fabricated ocular acrylic prosthesis using the advantages of digital photography is presented here, which had acceptable fit, retention and improved esthetics with a certain degree of motility in coordination with the contralateral normal eye.



Rajeev Sharma, Vela D Desai, Smita R Priyadarshinni

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An Illusion of Hope

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:66 - 70]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1191  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare atypical cellular disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells leading to myriad clinical presentations and variable outcomes. It usually occurs in children and young adults. It can be present with local and systemic manifestation involving skin, bone, mucosal tissues and internal organs. Aims and objectives: The stomatologist plays an important role in management of the disease by keeping in mind the various oral manifestations of the disease. Case report: Of a child with disseminated LCH with multiorgan involvement who presented with failure to thrive, osteolytic bony lesions and extensive cutaneous eruptions. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and awareness is necessary to treat the patients.



Bhavesh D Trivedi

Complete and Removable Partial Prosthesis for a Child with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:71 - 74]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1192  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Young children with hypodontia caused by hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) not only have difficulties in mastication and speech but can also sense that their appearance is different from others. Enabling children with HED to look like their peers through the use of well-fitting and functioning complete and removable partial dentures with age appropriate teeth will greatly assist in their transitioning in to their school years and add to their psychological well-being. Although denture construction requires multiple patient appointments and good co-operation, dentist also should educate and encourage parents and patient to tackle the difficulties that may come across during denture construction. In this present case the child, a 4-year-old, required a complete denture in the lower arch and removable partial denture in upper arch to achieve functionality and enhanced esthetics.


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