International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2012 | September-December | Volume 5 | Issue 3

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EDITORIAL

Usha Mohan Das

Amalgam…Food for Thought?

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcpd-5-3-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

589

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anup Nagaraj, Sonia Pareek

Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:167 - 172]

Keywords: Infant feeding, Knowledge, Mothers, Oral health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1160  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives: The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women and mothers about feeding habits and infant oral health. Materials and methods: A total of 230 study subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included pregnant women and group B were mothers of child up to 1 year of age. Each group comprised of 170 subjects. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of total 23 questions on infant feeding practices, nocturnal bottle feeding, correct age of eruption of first teeth and first dental visit. Two separate questionnaires were framed for both the groups. Results: There was a lack of knowledge among both the groups about infant feeding and weaning. Nocturnal bottle feeding was more prevalent. Conclusion: The present study reflects a need for maternal counseling on infant oral health. How to cite this article: Nagaraj A, Pareek S. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):167-172.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vineet Dhar, Ruchi Arora, Amish Diwanji

Cephalometric Norms for Mewari Children using Steiner's Analysis

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:173 - 177]

Keywords: Lateral cephalometric radiograph, Steiner analysis, Mewari children, Cephalometric norms

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1161  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

A thorough background in craniofacial growth and development is necessary for every dentist. An important concept in the study of growth and development is variability. Cephalometrics is an important part of morphological diagnostic procedures to assess craniofacial growth and development. The aim of this study was to obtain cephalometric norms for Mewari children of Rajasthan by Steiner analysis and compare with Caucasian norms. The method involved clinical examination, collection and analysis of 100 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Mewari children (50 males and 50 females, between 11 and 13 years of age). All cephalometric landmarks were located and determined and subsequently tracing was done according to Steiner analysis. The mean value and standard deviation of each measurement were calculated. Statistical comparison was done using Student t-test. The result of this study showed that the Mewari children had retrusion of mandible relative to cranial base, proclined maxillary and mandibular teeth, with greater convexity of face. They also showed anteriorly placed occlusal plane to cranium and Less prominent chin. In conclusion, these ethnic differences should be considered during orthodontic treatment. How to cite this article: Rathore AS, Dhar V, Arora R, Diwanji A. Cephalometric Norms for Mewari Children using Steiner's Analysis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):173-177.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rajesh Arora, Ravi Kapur, Nikhil Sibal, Sumit Juneja

Evaluation of Microleakage in Class II Cavities using Packable Composite Restorations with and without use of Liners

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:178 - 184]

Keywords: Microleakage, Packable composites

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1162  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The advent of the esthetic era and advances in adhesive technology saw the emergence of resin composite materials. But the problem of polymerization shrinkage remained. This was due to the contraction of the resin during curing inducing internal and interfacial stresses at the tooth restoration interface, leading to gap formation and subsequent micro-leakage. A number of techniques and modifications in the material have been proposed to minimize polymerization shrinkage and microleakage. In this study, the hypothesis that the placement of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) or flowable composite, as liner, beneath the packable composite, on the gingival surface of the tooth [coronal or apical to cementoenamel junction (CEJ)], could reduce the microleakage in class II composite restorations, was tested. Sixty recently extracted noncarious human mandibular molars were used. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (20 specimens each): Group I (Filtek P60 with RMGIC liner), group II (Filtek P60 with Filtek Z350 liner) and Group III (Filtek P60 without liner). The teeth of each group were further subdivided into two subgroups (equal number of cavities). Subgroup A gingival seat 1 mm occlusal to CEJ on mesial side. Subgroup B gingival seat 1 mm apical to CEJ on distal side. It was concluded that in class II composite restorations gingival microleakage is more at the dentinal surface than on enamel. The use of a flowable composite and RMGIC, as liners, beneath the packable composite, in class II composite restorations, significantly reduces the microleakage when margins are in dentin, but the reverse is true, when the margins are in enamel. How to cite this article: Arora R, Kapur R, Sibal N, Juneja S. Evaluation of Microleakage in Class II Cavities using Packable Composite Restorations with and without use of Liners. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):178-184.

894

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sumit Bembi, Nitika Narula Bembi, Amit Sood, Amarjeet Gambhir

To Evaluate the Effect of Different Adhesive Materials on the Microleakage of Bonded Amalgam Restorations: An in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:185 - 189]

Keywords: Amalgam, Microleakage, Dentin adhesives, Copal varnish

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1163  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This study evaluated the ability of different adhesive materials in reducing the microleakage in class V amalgam restorations. Standardized class V cavities were prepared on the facial surface of 56 noncarious human premolars, they were then randomly divided into control and experimental groups based on adhesives used. Group I was the control group with Copal Varnish, group II had Panavia F 2.0, Group III contained Vitrebond Plus and group IV had RelyX ARC as adhesives. Amalgam was hand condensed into each preparation after application of adhesive material. Specimens were thermocycled, stained and sectioned. Microleakage was graded using a stereomicroscope. Less leakage was observed in all experimental groups compared to control group (p < 0.01) on nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Mann-Whitney test observed leakage was more extensive at the gingival margins (p < 0.01) in all restorations than at occlusal margins. Group III showed no leakage which was significantly different from other groups (p < 0.05). Hence, this study concluded that application of intermediate adhesive material before condensation of amalgam can act as an effective barrier for microleakage. How to cite this article: Bembi S, Bembi NN, Sood A, Gambhir A. To Evaluate the Effect of Different Adhesive Materials on the Microleakage of Bonded Amalgam Restorations: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):185-189.

649

REVIEW ARTICLE

Abhay Kumar Jain, Jaspal Singh

Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:190 - 196]

Keywords: Hypomineralization, First permanent molars, Post-eruption breakdown

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1164  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. One to four molars, and often also the incisors, could be affected. Since first recognized, the condition has been puzzling and interpreted as a distinct phenomenon unlike other enamel disturbances. Early diagnosis is essential since, rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its diagnosis and clinical management in young children. How to cite this article: Garg N, Jain AK, Saha S, Singh J. Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):190-196.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Seema Deshmukh

Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:197 - 202]

Keywords: Ectodermal dysplasia, Anodontia, Hypodontia, Hypohidrosis, Hypotrichosis, EDA gene, EDAR gene

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1165  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. It is a genetic disorder affecting the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands. Depending on the particular syndrome ectodermal dysplasia can also affect the skin, the lens or retina of the eye, parts of the inner ear, the development of fingers and toes, the nerves and other parts of the body. Each syndrome usually involves a different combination of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The history and lessons learned from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) may serve as an example for unraveling of the cause and pathogenesis of other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes by demonstrating that phenotypically identical syndromes can be caused by mutations in different genes (EDA, EDAR, EDARADD), that mutations in the same gene can lead to different phenotypes and that mutations in the genes further downstream in the same signaling pathway (NEMO) may modify the phenotype quite profoundly. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the etiology, genetic review, clinical manifestations and treatment options of this hereditary disorder. How to cite this article: Deshmukh S, Prashanth S. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):197-202.

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CASE REPORT

Saba Khan, Laxmikanth Chatra, Prashanth Shenai, KM Veena

Apert Syndrome: A Case Report

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:203 - 206]

Keywords: Apert's, Symmetric, Syndactyly, Craniosynostosis, Acrocephalosyndactylia, Midface hypoplasia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1166  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, midfacial malformation and symmetrical syndactyly. We present a 10-month-old infant having all the features of classical Apert syndrome. How to cite this article: Khan S, Chatra L, Shenai P, Veena KM. Apert Syndrome: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):203-206.

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CASE REPORT

Akhilesh Sharma, Amitha M Hegde

Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:207 - 208]

Keywords: Luxation, Tongue blade, Repositioning teeth, Trauma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1167  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Luxational injuries to the permanent anterior teeth in children are a cause of concern. Palatal luxation of maxillary left central incisor with bleeding of gingival sulcus and fracture of maxillary right central incisor involving enamel and dentine in a 9-year-old girl is presented. The dental occlusion was deranged due to the luxation. Management consisted of repositioning of the luxated tooth using tongue blade under local anesthesia and composite build up of the fractured incisor. Tooth was stable in position with intact occlusion and no loss of vitality of pulp with a follow-up of 2 years. Tongue blade can be used as an alternative to forceful manual repositioning of teeth in selected cases. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Hegde AM. Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):207-208.

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CASE REPORT

Luciane Q Closs, Maximiano Tovo, Caroline Dias, Daniele P Corradi, Ivana A Vargas

Aarskog-Scott Syndrome: A Review and Case Report

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:209 - 212]

Keywords: Aarskog syndrome, Case report, Orthodontics

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1168  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This paper reports the treatment and 12-year follow-up of a patient 7 years old who had been diagnosed with Aarskog-Scott syndrome. The patient had a history of premature multiple tooth loss, vertical dimension loss and severe dentoalveolar discrepancy. Orthopedic and orthodontic rehabilitation treatments were performed to improve the patient's esthetic, functional and psychological condition. How to cite this article: Closs LQ, Tovo M, Dias C, Corradi DP, Vargas IA. Aarskog-Scott Syndrome: A Review and Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):209-212.

832

CASE REPORT

Naveen Reddy Banda, Ullal Anand Nayak, Kambalimath Halaswamy Vishwanath, Divya S Sharma, Vishal Khandelwal

Management of Traumatic Bone Cyst in a 3-Year-Old Child: A Rare Case Report

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:213 - 216]

Keywords: Traumatic bone cyst, Trauma, Acrylic splint

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1169  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The following case report describes a case of traumatic bone cyst (TBC) with classical clinical features occurring as a rare combination in a very young female patient with a traumatic etiology and its management using acrylic splint postsurgery. How to cite this article: Banda NR, Nayak UA, Vishwanath KH, Sharma DS, Khandelwal V. Management of Traumatic Bone Cyst in a 3-Year-Old Child: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):213-216.

655

CASE REPORT

P Latha Subramanya

Radicular Cyst associated with Deciduous Incisor: A Rare Case Report

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:217 - 219]

Keywords: Radicular cyst, Primary tooth, Deciduous

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1170  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Radicular cysts are considered rare in the primary dentition, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3% of the total number of radicular cysts in both primary and permanent dentitions. The aim of this case report is to present the clinical, radiographic and histological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with primary central incisor. Extraction and enucleation of the cyst was carried out under local anesthesia after elevation of the mucoperiosteal flap, which led to uneventful healing. How to cite this article: Subramanya PL. Radicular Cyst associated with Deciduous Incisor: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):217-219.

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CASE REPORT

Prasanna Kumar Rao, KM Veena, H Jagadishchandra, Shishir Ram Shetty

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:220 - 222]

Keywords: Hand, foot and mouth disease, Coxsackievirus infection, Enterovirus, Vesicular stomatitis with exanthema

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1171  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of hand foot and mouth disease from Mangalore, South India. How to cite this article: Rao PK, Veena KM, Jagadishchandra H, Bhat SS, Shetty SR. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):220-222.

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CASE REPORT

Rakesh N Bahadure, Nilima Thosar, Eesha S Jain

Unusual Case of Calculus in Floor of Mouth: A Case Report

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:223 - 225]

Keywords: Supragingival calculus, Surgical removal, Biochemical analysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1172  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Calculus consists of mineralized bacterial plaque that forms on the surfaces of natural teeth. It is supragingival or subgingival depending upon its relation with gingival margin. The two most common locations for supragingival calculus are the buccal surfaces of maxillary molars and lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth. It is very important to rule out the predisposing factor for calculus formation. In the present case of an 11-year-old female child, 1.2 × 1.5 cm large indurated mass suggestive of calculus in the left side of floor of mouth was observed. After surgical removal, along with indurated mass, an embedded root fragment was seen. Biochemical analysis of the specimen detected the calcium and phosphate ions approximately equals to the level in calculus. Thus, we diagnosed it as a calculus. Oral hygiene instructions and regular follow-up was advised. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Thosar N, Jain ES. Unusual Case of Calculus in Floor of Mouth: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):223-225.

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CASE REPORT

Seema Gupta

Impacted Supernumerary Teeth—Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:226 - 230]

Keywords: Supernumerary, Surgical intervention, Early and delayed intervention

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1173  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case report is to share knowledge about management of such cases, which might assist the clinician in decision-making in cases of impacted supernumerary teeth. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Marwah N. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth—Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):226-230.

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CASE REPORT

Chitrita G Mukherjee, Uday Mukherjee

Maxillofacial Trauma in Children

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:231 - 236]

Keywords: Maxillofacial trauma, Children, Facial skeleton, Fracture, Management

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1174  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Pediatric trauma involving the bones of the face is associated with severe injury and disability. Although much is known about the epidemiology of facial fractures in adults, little is known about injury patterns and outcomes in children. The most common facial fractures were mandible, nasal and maxillary/zygoma. The most common mechanisms of injury are motor vehicle collisions, violence and falls. These fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury varies with age. Cranial and central facial injuries are more common among toddlers and infants, and mandible injuries are more common among adolescents. Although bony craniofacial trauma is relatively uncommon among the pediatric population, it remains a substantial source of mortality, morbidity and hospital admissions. Continued efforts toward injury prevention are warranted. An overview of various types of fractures and their management modalities is discussed, with case reports. How to cite this article: Mukherjee CG, Mukherjee U. Maxillofacial Trauma in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):231-236.

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

Anubhav Shivpuri, Abhay Shivpuri

Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem

[Year:2012] [Month:September-December] [Volume:5] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:237 - 241]

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1175  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The consequences of obesity in adulthood are well known. Obesity has a direct influence on mortality and acts as a risk factor for various diseases and health problems. It is associated with nonfatal but debilitating illnesses, such as respiratory difficulties, musculoskeletal disorders, skin problems and infertility. The association with fatal chronic diseases includes cardiovascular diseases, conditions related to insulin resistance and noninsulin-dependent diabetes. There has been a marked increase in the number of obese children coming for treatment to dentists, thus it is the moral responsibility of the dentists to educate both the patient and the parents of the problems of obesity and its control. A dentist may actually be the first person to inform the patient about this problem thus, a basic knowledge about it is important. How to cite this article: Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A, Sharma S. Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):237-241.

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