International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2011 | September-December | Volume 4 | Issue 3

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EDITORIAL

Usha Mohan Das

Of Gizmos and Gadgetry: The Means vs the End!

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcpd-4-3-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Maganur C Prabhadevi

Odontome: A Brief Overview

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:9] [Pages No:177 - 185]

Keywords: Odontomes, Complex and compound odontomes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors. They are included under the benign calcified odontogenic tumors. Odontomas are basically classified into two types, complex and compound odontomes. Various theories or etiological factors are been quoted for the occurrence of odontomes. Generally, they are asymptomatic. Occasionally, signs and symptoms relating to their presence do occur. The sole management depends upon the early diagnosis, histopathological examination and excision of these tissues. This article briefs regarding its classification, etiological factors, occurrence, differences between complex and compound odontomes, diagnosis and management.

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Original Article

Ritu Jindal, Rajwinder Kaur

Can We Tune Our Pediatric Patients?

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:186 - 189]

Keywords: Dental anxiety, Music

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

For the pedodontic team, a child's dental anxiety poses major management problems. Previously, wide variety of aversive techniques have been used with varying success rates to manage anxious child patients. The present trend advocates the use of nonaversive techniques like distraction in the management of anxious pediatric patients. So the aim of this study is to compare the effect of audio distraction with the normal set up operatory. Thirty patients of age between 4 and 8 years were included in the study. Each patient had gone through four dental visits. Anxiety was measured using Venham's picture test. The values obtained were tabulated and statistical analysis and concluded that audio distraction did decrease the level of anxiety in anxious pediatric dental patients to a significant level during the restorative procedure visit (3rd) and invasive procedure visit (4th).

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Original Article

Nidhi Gupta

Comparative Evaluation of 0.2 percent Chlorhexidine and Magnetized Water as a Mouth Rinse on Streptococcus mutans in Children

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:190 - 194]

Keywords: S. mutans, Magnetized water, Chlorhexidine mouthrinse (0.2%)

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Chlorhexidine (0.2%) is a ‘Gold Standard’ which is commercially available and effective mouth rinse which inhibits supragingival plaque formation and also reduction in the population of S. mutans after rinsing daily. Lately, it has been proved that the force of magnetism has a great influence on the living organism. Magnetized water has its effect on human body when taken regularly for a considerable period but its use in dentistry is still lacking. Aim: This study was done to evaluate antibacterial efficacy and effect of dosage, frequency and duration of commercially available 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and conventionally prepared magnetized water on colony count of S. mutans. Materials and methods: A total of 50 subjects were selected between the age group of 5 to 12 years. A baseline sample was collected before starting with rinses. Then the subjects were divided in four major groups. Group I was chlorhexidine, group II was subdivided into group IIA and group IIB which were magnetized water groups (24 hours of magnetization) rinsing for 1 minute and 3 minutes respectively and group III was magnetized water (72 hours of magnetization) group rinsing for 3 minutes. The samples were collected and sent to microbiological laboratory for S. mutans count. Results: The obtained values of all the groups were subjected to statistical analysis. Conclusion: The reduction of S. mutans count of group III was almost in par with group I.

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Original Article

Sajjad Hasim Mithiborwala, Vishwas Chaugule, Autar Munshi, Vishwas Patil

Comparative Evaluation of the Adhesive Properties of Two Generations of Dentin Bonding Agents by Checking the Microleakage in the Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:195 - 202]

Keywords: Dye penetration, Interexaminer variability, Interfacial morphology, Microleakage, Total-etch system, Self-etch system

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Early childhood caries is now affecting the children in dangerous proportions. There is a widespread loss of the tooth material irrespective of the type of the carious lesion. Restoration of such lesions with a strong permanent bond between the dental tissues and the restorative dental materials would be a highly desirable requisite of any restorative material. Ultramorphological characterizations show that the interfacial morphology and the chemical characterization of the bonding systems appear to be strongly associated with each other and, therefore, observing and understanding the interfacial phenomenon and its quality would be of great importance in the selection of a dental adhesive for its use in pediatric restorative dentistry.

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Original Article

Anjan Giriraju, Nagesh Lakshmi Narayan

Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teachers toward Tooth Avulsion and Dental First Aid in Davangere City: A Cross-sectional Survey

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:203 - 206]

Keywords: Tooth avulsion, Dental first aid, Primary school teachers, Awareness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim of the study: Traumatic dental injuries including avulsed tooth is a tragic and ignored problem among school children. As children spend much of their time in schools, school teachers form the group who commonly supervise the physical activity of the children, so awareness about avulsed tooth emergency management among school teachers is an important concept for long-term success and to prevent its future consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding tooth avulsion and dental first aid among primary school teachers in Davangere city. Methods: The study was performed by administering a self-designed questionnaire on a sample of 300 primary school teachers. Results: Sixty-eight percent of the school teachers (government, semi-aided and aided schools) admitted the possibility of an avulsed tooth to be replanted and thirty-two percent had no idea on tooth replantation and only twenty-three percent of the teachers knew the procedures taken in cases of avulsed teeth. Seventy-seven percent of all teachers did not feel the possibility of tooth replantation. Conclusion: There is poor knowledge in the management of avulsed teeth among the school teachers of Davangere city. They do not feel capable of replanting an avulsed tooth. As one of the child supervisors, all the school teachers should have the basic knowledge to recognize oral emergencies and regarding conservation of avulsed teeth to prevent its consequences in the child's future.

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Original Article

Sonia Chawla, Manoj Goyal, Karan Marya, Aakarsh Jhamb, Hind Pal Bhatia

Impacted Canines: Our Clinical Experience

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:207 - 212]

Keywords: Impacted maxillary canine, Impacted mandibular canine, Surgical exposure, Orthodontic repositioning

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: To discuss the management of impacted canines and the various approaches used for the same. Materials and methods: The data of 33 cases, with 43 impacted canine teeth, seen and operated over a period of 3-year in Santosh Dental College and Hospital has been compiled. The diagnostic methods and treatment modalities undertaken are described and discussed. Results: Canine impactions were more common in the maxilla as compared with mandible in our study, which was statistically significant. Impacted canine position was mostly palatal in maxilla and labial in mandible. Chi-square test yielded a p-value of 0.002 which shows that there is an association between arch and position. The treatment options used were surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning, cyst enucleation with extraction of impacted canine and surgical removal of impacted canine. Conclusion: Surgical exposure and orthodontic repositioning was successfully applied as first-line treatment for correcting ectopic positioned canine. In cases where exposure and subsequent orthodontic treatment was not indicated, the impacted canine was surgically removed to prevent future problems and surgical procedure was designed according to position of impacted canine.

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Original Article

Kamal Bajaj, Pooja Rathee, Pradeep Jain, Vasim Raja Panwar

Comparison of the Reliability of Anatomic Landmarks based on PA Cephalometric Radiographs and 3D CT Scans in Patients with Facial Asymmetry

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:11] [Pages No:213 - 223]

Keywords: Frontal cephalometry, Lateral cephalometry, 3D CT scan

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Conventional cephalometry is an inexpensive and well-established method for evaluating patients with dentofacial deformities. However, patients with major deformities and in particular asymmetric cases are difficult to evaluate by conventional cephalometry. Reliable and accurate evaluation in the orbital and midfacial region in craniofacial syndrome patients is difficult due to inherent geometric magnification, distortion and the superpositioning of the craniofacial structures on cephalograms. Both two- and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) have been proposed to alleviate some of these difficulties. Aims and objectives: The aim of our study is to compare the reliability of anatomic cephalometric points obtained from the two modalities: Conventional posteroanterior cephalograms and 3D CT of patients with facial asymmetry, by comparison of intra- and interobserver variation of points recorded from frontal X-ray to those recorded from 3D CT. Materials and methods: The sample included nine patients (5 males and 4 females) with an age range of 14 to 21 years and a mean age of 17.11 years, whose treatment plan called for correction of facial asymmetry. All CT scans were measured twice by two investigators with 2 weeks separation for determination of intraobserver and interobserver variability. Similarly, all measurement points on the frontal cephalograms were traced twice with 2 weeks separation. The tracings were superimposed and the average distance between replicate points readings were used as a measure of intra- and interobserver reliability. Intra-and interobserver variations are calculated for each method and the data were imported directly into the statistical program, SPSS 10.0.1 for windows. Results: Intraobserver variations of points defined on 3D CT were small compared with frontal cephalograms. The intraobserver variations ranged from 0 (A1, B1) to 0.6 mm with the variations less than 0.5 mm for most of the points. Interobserver variations of points between first and second tracings defined on PA Ceph and 3D CT were less than 1.5 mm for all the points. A direct comparison of frontal cephalometry and 3D CT using intraobserver variation for the first observer showed that 3D CT was more reliable than frontal cephalometry for 11 points. Direct comparison of frontal cephalometry and 3D CT for the second observer showed a similar tendency with 14 points significantly more reliable for 3D CT. Comparison of frontal cephalometry and 3D CT using interobserver variation for the tracings showed that 3D CT was more reliable than frontal cephalometry. Summary and conclusion: The study has shown that 3D CT is consistently more accurate and reliable than conventional frontal cephalometry. Unfortunately, the cost of a computerized tomography examination is considerable; this means that, at this stage, its use by surgeons and orthodontists is a last resort.

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

Deepak Raisingani

Apexum: A Minimum Invasive Procedure

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:224 - 227]

Keywords: Apexum, Healing, Minimally invasive, Periapical lesions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1113  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The new Apexum procedure (Apexum Ltd, Or-Yehuda, Israel) is based on a minimally invasive removal of periapical chronically inflamed tissues through a root canal access. Apexum procedure (a novel method that allows for the removal or debulking of periapical tissues without using scalpels, periosteal elevators, or sutures) results in significant less postoperative discomfort or pain than conventional root canal treatment or than reported for conventional apical surgery. The removal or debulking of the periapical inflamed tissues, using the Apexum procedure, seems to enhance healing kinetics with no adverse events.

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CASE REPORT

Paul Chalakkal, Abi Mathew Thomas, Francis Akkara, Kristlee Sabrin Fernandes

Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:228 - 231]

Keywords: Delayed replantation, Avulsion, Fluoride

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods: A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result: An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion: Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

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CASE REPORT

Raghunath Reddy MH

Osteopetrosis (Marble Bone Disease): A Rare Disease in Children

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:232 - 234]

Keywords: Osteopetrosis, Marble bone disease, Osteopetrosis tarda, Albers-Schonberg disease

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Osteopetrosis is a group of diseases that affects the growth and remodeling of bone and characterized by over growth and sclerosis of bone, with thickening of the bony cortices, abnormal dental development and narrowing of the marrow cavities throughout the skeleton. It is an uncommon disease of unknown cause. A 5-year-old boy was suffering from infantile (severe form) osteopetrosis with cardiac enlargement, severe anemia, hepatosplenomagaly and radiographs showed generalized increase in bone density (chalky white), narrowing of skull base is reported here.

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CASE REPORT

Sowmya B Shetty, Raghavendra Pidamale

Treacher Collins Syndrome: A Case Report and a Brief Review on Diagnostic Aids

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:235 - 239]

Keywords: Treacher Collins syndrome, Mandibulofacial dysostosis, Treacle, Clinical features, Treatment

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1116  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Treacher Collins syndrome (Mandibulofacial dysostosis) is characterized by deafness, hypoplasia of facial bones (mandible, maxilla and cheek bone), antimongoloid slant of palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower lid and bilateral anomalies of the auricle. Hypoplasia of the facial bones may be the first indicator of the disorder. We present a case report of Treacher Collins syndrome with their extraoral findings, intraoral findings and their treatment plan. We have also included the various etiological factors, clinical diagnostic aids, and multidisciplinary team approach.

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CASE REPORT

Swetha Acharya, Amsavardani Tayaar, Sahana Adirajaiah, Gopalkrishnan Kulandswamy

Oral Teratoma with a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Component: A Case Report

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:240 - 243]

Keywords: Oral teratoma, Small round cell tumor, Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Childhood

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1117  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Teratomas are tumors of germ cell derivation consist of tissues derived from all the three germ cell layers. They comprise the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCT) in childhood. EGCTs of head and neck region account for only 5% of all benign and malignant germ cell tumors and for 6% of all teratomas. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising from germ cell tumor is a distinct entity. It develops from the malignant transformation of teratomas along ectodermal lines. This paper presents a rare case of oral teratoma in a 6-year-old male who reported with pain and swelling in the right upper back teeth region of jaw. Under light microscopy, mature and immature structures representatives of trilineage derivatives were appreciated. Sheets of small round cells showing vague rosette and membranous positivity to CD-99 directed us to consider the above diagnosis.

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CASE REPORT

Anuradha Pathak, Puneet Goenka

Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Anterior Open Bite: A Rare Case Report

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:245 - 247]

Keywords: Amelogenesis imperfecta, Open bite, Composite laminate veneers, Stainless steel crowns

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1118  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This clinical report describes the treatment plan for a young patient affected by amelogenesis imperfecta with anterior open bite. The objectives of the treatment were to eliminate tooth sensitivity while enhancing esthetics and restoring masticatory function. Treatment included resin composite laminate veneers on maxillary anterior teeth and stainless steel crowns for posterior teeth.

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CASE REPORT

SS Ahmed, Wakil Ahmed, Afshan Bey

Myiasis of Maxilla: Report of a Case

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:248 - 249]

Keywords: Myiasis, Musca nebulo, Ivermectin

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1119  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Oral myiasis is a disease caused by larvae of housefly and associated with poor oral hygiene, mouth breathing and incompetent lips. The disease is characterized by presence of maggots in affected parts of the body and is usually seen in tropical countries, although cases have been reported from other parts of the world. There are various methods for treating this disease. In this case report, a combination of treatment modalities has been favored.

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CASE REPORT

Ravi M Subrahmanya, Jatin Ahuja

Interceptive Orthodontics and Growth Modification Therapy with Fixed Functional Appliance: A Case Report

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:250 - 254]

Keywords: Space regaining, Growth modification, Fixed functional appliance

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1120  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

A 12-year-old female patient presented with proclined upper anteriors on a class II skeletal base, a retrognathic mandible and high maxillary-mandibular plane angle. Lower first molars were mesially tipped and lower second premolars were impacted. Treatment plan included uprighting and distalising the lower molars followed by growth modulation with Jasper Jumper to correct the mandibular retrognathism. Final finishing and detailing of occlusion was carried out through 0.022” MBT prescription preadjusted edgewise appliance therapy.

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CASE REPORT

Naveen Manuja, Rajni Nagpal, Mousumi Singh

Management of Delayed Eruption of Permanent Maxillary Incisor associated with the Presence of Supernumerary Teeth: A Case Report

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:255 - 259]

Keywords: Delayed eruption, Maxillary left central incisor, Supernumerary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1121  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

A supernumerary tooth is one that is additional to the normal series and can be found in almost any region of the dental arch. Clinically, supernumerary teeth are able to cause different local disorders. It is important for the dentist to be aware of the clinical complications of supernumerary teeth, the most common being the delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Early diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent the need for more complex surgical and orthodontic treatment. This case report highlights the problem of delayed eruption of permanent maxillary left central incisor in a 9-year-old boy due to two supernumerary teeth, one tuberculate type and other impacted inverted mesiodens.

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CASE REPORT

RK Tewari, SK Mishra, Amit Kumar Garg, MK Jindal, Harish Juneja

Single Step Endodontic Management of Immature Apices using MTA

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:260 - 263]

Keywords: Mineral trioxide aggregate, Immature apices, Single step endodontic management

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1122  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To examine the clinical and radiographic appearance of teeth with immature apices that were treated by single step procedure using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Summary: Creation of a physiological hard tissue barrier with calcium hydroxide in a nonvital tooth although quite predictable has certain limitations, such as the very long duration of the treatment spread over multiple visits and increased risk of root fracture. Plugging the root canal end with MTA has been advocated as an alternative treatment modality for open apices. The technique has been proven to be successful in many recently reported cases. The cases reported here present the successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with open apices and periapical lesions using MTA. In this case report, MTA has been used to create a hard tissue barrier after disinfection of the root canal.

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CASE REPORT

Vijeev Vasudevan, Usha Mohan Das, V Manjunath, Radhika Manoj Bavle, M Sudhakar, Nanda Kumar, Srinath

Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla: A Report of Unusual Pediatric Case

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:264 - 268]

Keywords: Maxillary sinus, Multilocular, Odontogenic myxoma, Odontogenic tumor

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1123  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally benign neoplasm of high aggressive behavior found exclusively in the jaws. OM commonly occurs in the second and third decade, its quite rare to find in maxilla that to invading the maxillary sinus completely. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. This article presents a case of OM of maxilla in a 13-year-old boy, which was previously diagnosed as fibrosseous lesion with the help of CT.

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CASE REPORT

Vinay K Srivastava

Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Case Report

[Year:2011] [Month:September-December] [Volume:4] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:269 - 270]

Keywords: Midface hypoplasia, Double lip, Partial anodontia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1124  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin. The incidence of ectodermal dysplasia is rare (1 in 100,000 birth). This case report discusses the features, classification and prosthetic treatment plan (upper partial denture and lower complete denture for upper partial and lower complete edentulous arches respectively). This treatment plan would be able to provide psychological and functional boost to the sufferer.

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