International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2011 | January-April | Volume 4 | Issue 1

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Gopakumar R, Manju Gopakumar

V Satish, Trimurty Apartment, Moden Town, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1 - 7]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1073  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Diagnosis involves development of a comprehensive and concise database of pertinent information, sufficient to understand the patient’s problem as well as answer questions arising in the treating clinicians’ mind. It is an accomplished art to develop a communication with the child and elicit relevant information from him. Thus, the signs and symptoms elicited on the basis of patient’s experiences and clinician’s knowledge forms the elementary framework of a good prognosis. This article aims to unveil the “must know” fundamentals of a sound diagnosis for a sound treatment plan.



AI-Jundi SH, Sanaa Al-Haj Ali, Nizar Mhaidat

Effect of Coconut Water Concentration on Survival of Bench-Dried Periodontal Ligament Cells

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:9 - 13]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1074  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Coconut water is a biological and sterile liquid. It contains a variety of electrolytes, sugars and amino acids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of concentration and maturity of coconut water on its ability to preserve human PDL cell viability after exposure to dry time of up to 120 minutes using an in vitro cell culture model. Methods: PDL cells were obtained from sound permanent first molars which were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes dry periods then incubated with 100 and 50% young and mature coconut water for 45 minutes at room temperature (18-26°C). Untreated cells at 0 and 120 minutes, and cells incubated in DMEM served as controls. PDL cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by Tukey test, and the level of significance was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: 100% mature coconut water (MCW) was better than 50% dilutions obtained from mature or young coconuts. However, no significant benefit to the cells was noticed from the addition of the soaking step prior to 30 minutes dry time. Conclusion: Avulsed teeth which are left dry for > 30 minutes may be benefited from soaking in 100% mature coconut water; further studies on simulated avulsion in animal models are needed to verify the above results.



Shailendra Gupta

An in vitro Study of Diffusibility and Degradation of Three Calcium Hydroxide Pastes

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:15 - 23]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1075  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the diffusibility and degradation of three calcium hydroxide pastes. Materials and methods: Three pastes were prepared by mixing calcium hydroxide powder with three different vehicles namely water, propylene glycol and CMCP for the investigation. The three pastes were sealed in porcelain caps and immersed in distilled water for the diffusion study. The change in the pH of the surrounding water indicated the rate and degree of diffusion in the degradation study (1 to 7 days, 14th day, 21st day and 30th day). The pastes were exposed to an atmosphere of carbon dioxide in the degradation study to assess the degree to which they can undergo degradation by carbonation. Mordant Black or Solochrome Black indicator was used for the estimation. Results and conclusion: Calcium hydroxide readily diffuses from all the three pastes. Calcium hydroxide diffuses marginally less from a paste made with propylene glycol as compared to CMCP paste. The comparative stability of Ca(OH)2 was studied and the results showed that consistently significant protection is imparted to Ca(OH)2 by CMCP over widely ranging periods.



Reshma Suvarna, Kavita Rai, Amitha M Hegde

Knowledge and Oral Health Attitudes among Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:25 - 28]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1076  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a devastating complex of diseases resulting from defects of development. It affects more than 1 of every 100 live births. Early preventive dental care should be adjusted to the special needs of these children in their first years of life. Knowledge of parental attitudes and experiences of dental care are therefore important. Aim: This study was done to assess the knowledge and attitudes among parents of children with congenital heart disease towards oral health and dental care. Materials and methods: Parents (n = 105) of children with congenital heart disease of an age ranging from 0 to 16 years were included in the study. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and oral health attitudes. Results: The parents’ knowledge was fair but the oral health attitudes were not very satisfactory. The parents in this study also recognized the importance of oral health for the well-being of rest of the body. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that parents’ and children’s attitudes toward oral health and dental care need to be improved.



Mohita Marwaha

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness and the Effect of Dosage and Frequency of Sugar-free Chewing Gums on Streptococcus mutans Count: An in vivo Microbiological Study

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:29 - 34]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1077  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of sugar-free chewing gums and also to assess the effect of dosage and frequency of intake of sugar-free gums on Streptococcus mutans count. Method: The sample consisted of 30 subjects, divided into two groups AI and AII. Each group consisted of 15 subjects. Group AI chewed two sugar-free chewing gum, twice daily for 20 minutes (Total four gums daily) and group AII chewed two sugar-free chewing gum, four times daily for 20 minutes (Total eight gums daily) and saliva sample was collected and agar plates were inoculated for Streptococcus mutans colony count. The study was carried for a week’s time and saliva samples collected were baseline, day 1 morning and evening, day 4 evening, day 7 morning and evening. Results: After the gum was chewed, it was observed that the colony count started to reduce when compared with baseline in both the groups. The fall in Streptococcus mutans count was statistically highly significant with p < 0.001 in both the groups. When comparing between group AI (dosage 4 gums daily) and group AII (dosage 8 gums daily), the fall in Streptococcus mutans count for both the groups was not statistically significant with p > 0.05. It was concluded that there was reduction in the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans, but was not statistically significant by increasing the dosage and frequency of intake of sugar-free chewing gums. Therefore, we recommend that dosage of sugar-free chewing gums can be restricted to four gums instead of eight gums per day.



Arun Sharma

Behavior Assessment of Children in Dental Settings: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:35 - 39]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1078  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


In children, dental anxiety and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as a source of problems in patient management for many years, which can affect the quality of care. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the behavior of children during their dental visit and to determine the effect of behavior management techniques on children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done by analyzing the records of 328 children to assess their behavior during dental visits. Behavior assessment was done using Frankl’s behavior rating scale. All children were exposed to live modeling and tell-show-do behavior management technique. Statistical analysis: The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 10. The comparison between visits was carried out by applying Friedman test. Results and conclusion: Children showed improvement in their behavior with every subsequent visits. Proper assessment of children’s behavior helps the dentist to execute a required treatment plan in the most appropriate manner. Techniques like live modeling and tell-showdo are very effective in modifying a child’s behavior.



K Sunil Babu, V Thimma Reddy, C Pujita Reddy

ABCD of Safe Dental Practice

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:41 - 42]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1079  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dental practice is the integral component of the oral health. Though the dental practice is in close relation with that of the medical practice, it has its own distinctiveness in relation to safe practice. The safe dental practice should not only assure good oral and general health but also improve social interaction by enhancing physical appearance, esthetics, etc. For the safe dental practice, dentists must excel in patient care and standard of treatment. The interlocking missions of education, research, and patient care are the cornerstones for the safe and healthy dental practice. This paper is designed to bridge the gap between the educational preparation of the dentist and the reality of the working world in a simple way.



Anirudh Agarwal

Segmental Orthodontics for the Correction of Cross Bites

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:43 - 47]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1080  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cross bite is a condition where one or more teeth may be abnormally malposed buccally or lingually or labially with reference to the opposing tooth or teeth. Cross bite correction is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected cross bite may lead to abnormal wear of lower anteriors and cuspal interference, mandibular shift resulting in mandibular asymmetry and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. There are several methods for treating this type of malocclusion. In this article, segmental orthodontics has been highlighted by using 2 × 4 appliance therapy and lingual button with cross elastics. This appliance offers many advantages as it provides complete control of anterior tooth position, is extremely well tolerated, requires no adjustment by the patient and allows accurate and rapid positioning of teeth.



Asha Singh, Varun Goyal, Iqbal Musani

Complete Management of a Mutilated Young Permanent Central Incisor

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:49 - 53]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1081  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


This case report throws light on treatment of immature apices through apexogenesis and an esthetic postobturation restoration of traumatized young permanent central incisor using a relatively newer methodology of anatomic posts, i.e. shaping the post to the root anatomy. The authors would also like to underline the significance of rubber dam isolation for more predictable outcomes. The new method of anatomic post is simple, viable, practical, and less time consuming than thought.



Vivek Kumar Adlakha, Sumir Gandhi, Saroj Chopra

Surgical Repositioning of a Dilacerated Impacted Incisor

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:55 - 58]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1082  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dilaceration is one of the most common complications of trauma to deciduous dentition. The possible causes of dilaceration are trauma and developmental disturbances, while some authors suggest an association with some developmental syndromes. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentition. The present case report describes surgical repositioning of a dilacerated impacted maxillary central incisor in a 9-year-old boy.



Uma Dixit, Arvind Kumar, Raghvendra M Shetty, K Mallikarjun

Orthodontic Management of Midline Diastema in Mixed Dentition

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:59 - 63]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1083  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Midline diastema is a space between the central incisors. Although physiologic transitory maxillary midline diastema is observed in children during eruption of maxillary anterior teeth in most cases, it is self-corrected after eruption of maxillary canines. However, midline diastema unrelated to the eruption of teeth has been observed owing to various etiologic factors. Treatment to align the central incisors depends on the predisposing factors.



Rajeev Sharma, Vela D Desai, Durgesh N Bailoor

Extensive Mucocutaneous Verruca Vulgaris in a Nonimmunocompromised Patient

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:65 - 68]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1084  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Papilloma virus infections of the oral cavity have been long recognized with various clinical expressions characterized as verruca vulgaris, Heck’s disease, multiple papilloma and condyloma acuminata. In this paper, we are highlighting a case of verruca vulgaris involving the oral cavity with extensive skin lesions in a nonimmunocompromised 9-year-old boy. Different treatment modalities are discussed in this article.



Iram Zaidi

Platelet Rich Plasma—A Healing Aid and Perfect Enhancement Factor: Review and Case Report

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:69 - 75]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1085  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It represents a relatively new approach in regenerative procedures and is a developing area in pediatric dentistry. It is an autologous source of growth factors obtained by sequestrating and concentrating platelets by gradient density centrifugation. This novel and potentially promising technique enhances body’s natural wound healing mechanism. This article goes on to describe preparation and clinical benefits of PRP in pediatric dentistry.



Prathibha Anand Nayak, Ullal Anand Nayak, Vishal Khandelwal, Nupur Ninave

Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:77 - 81]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1086  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare heriditary condition characterized by slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva caused by increase in submucosal connective tissue elements. This case report gives an overview of gingival fibromatosis in a 11-year-old female patient who presented with generalized gingival enlargement. Based on the history and clinical examination, the diagnosis was made and the enlarged tissue was surgically removed. The patient was being regularly monitored clinically for improvement in her periodontal condition as well as for any recurrence of gingival overgrowth.



Gingival Cyst of Newborn

[Year:2011] [Month:January-April] [Volume:4] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:83 - 84]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1087  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.


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