International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2010 | January-April | Volume 3 | Issue 1

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AI-Jundi SH, Hazza’a AM

Dental Development in Patients with Hypophosphatemic Rickets

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1 - 4]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1046  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background : Hypophosphatemic Rickets (HR) is a disease that affects mineralized structures including bone and dentine, studies on dental development in these patients are scarce with equivocal results. Aim : To assess dental development of a group of children with (HR) and to compare that to healthy matched controls, and to assess relationship between delayed medical treatment and dental development. Materials and methods : This is a controlled cross-sectional study carried out on a sample of 21 children with HR and healthy age and sex matched controls, diseased children were diagnosed at different ages. Dental age was assessed using Demirjian et al method. The difference between ages of study and control groups was assessed using t-test, Pearson correlation was used to test relationship between age of commencement of treatment and dental development delay. Results : Most HR subjects demonstrated dental delay ranging from 0.2 to 2.5 years which was significant (p-value = 0.028). The difference between dental age of the study and control groups was statistically significant using paired t-test. There was no correlation between age of commencement of treatment and amount of dental delay. Conclusion : Dental development was significantly delayed in a group of HR patients compared to matched healthy controls. Delay in commencement of treatment may lead to a permanent deficit in dental development.



AR Prabhakar, Iqbal Musani

Biomechanical Stress Analysis of Mandibular First Permanent Molar; Restored with Amalgam and Composite Resin: A Computerized Finite Element Study

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:5 - 14]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1047  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Normal mastication with its varying magnitude and direction generates considerable reactionary stresses in teeth and their supporting tissues. The structure of the human tooth and its supporting tissues is a complex assemblage of materials of varied mechanical properties. The finite element method (FEM), a modern technique of numerical stress analysis, has the great advantage of being applicable to solids of irregular geometry and heterogeneous material properties and therefore ideally suited to the examination of structural behavior of teeth. The mandibular first permanent molar is one of the earliest permanent teeth to erupt in the oral cavity and hence most prone to caries. The purpose of the present study was to construct a two-dimensional FE model of the mandibular first permanent molar and its supporting structures, using a FE software called NISA II–Display III, EMRC, USA to study the following: • To compare stress distributions patterns when a modeled Class I Cavity was restored with dental amalgam and composite resin. • To compare the stress distributions pattern when the load was applied to different to locations, i.e.: At the mesial cusp tip, and at the center of the occlusal surface. Both amalgam and composite resin showed similar stress distribution pattern, however, the magnitudes of stresses generated in the tooth restored with composite resin were higher. Thus, amalgam is a better restorative material in distributing stresses.



KS Ravi, NM Roshan, ND Shashikiran

Analysis of Reporting Pattern in Children Aged 7 to 14 Years with Traumatic Injuries to Permanent Teeth

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:15 - 19]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1048  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim : To analyze the pattern of traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth reporting to the dental department with regards to age, gender, cause, proportion of different types of injury and time of reporting. Materials and Methods : Children aged 7 to 14 years with trauma or related sequelae were included. The data was collected retrospectively on the basis of case history, clinical findings, radiographs and vitality tests. Ellis’ classification was used to record injuries to anterior teeth. Results : Boys had more injuries with the highest injuries at 12 years. Various causes of trauma included Falls, RTA, hits by object/person and bicycle related. The most common injury reported were cases of Ellis’ class IV (50.7%) and the maxillary central incisors being the teeth most frequently involved (75%). The time lapsed after injury was more than 1 year in 42.8% cases and 62% cases reported with complications. Conclusion : Our findings suggest that a large number of cases reported in the age group 10 to 13 years with Class IV Ellis’ fracture largely when symptoms appear. Reporting was delayed by more than a year in several cases, the barriers for which need to be analyzed, to develop strategies regarding prevention of traumatic injuries and their consequences.



Prakash Chandra, Dhanu , Dhananjaya

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of MTAD, 3% NaOCl and Propolis Against E Faecalis

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:21 - 25]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1049  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim : The present study sought to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% NaOCl, Biopure MTAD (Tulsa Dentsply, Tulsa, OK) and Brazilian ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methodology : The study utilized 55 extracted human permanent teeth with single root canal. The samples were decoronated, instrumented and sterilized. The teeth were infected with E faecalis for 48 hours. The teeth were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the irrigants used and kept in contact with the respective irrigant for 5 minutes. All the samples were incubated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth for 96 hours. Disinfection of the samples was determined based on presence or absence of turbidity in the BHI broth 96 hours later. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results : All the samples treated with MTAD showed complete absence of turbidity, while all the 15 teeth treated with propolis showed presence of turbidity, 8 out of 15 teeth treated with NaOCl showed presence of turbidity. Statistical analysis of the data using chi-square test showed significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The study concluded that MTAD was more effective than 3% NaOCl and propolis against E. faecalis.



Reshma Nayak, US Krishna Nayak, Gautam Hegde

Assessment of Growth Using Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Its Correlation with Modified MP3 Stages

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:27 - 33]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1050  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and objectives : Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Methods : A total of 160 periapical radiographs (80 males and 80 females), of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian’s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results : The correlation between the developmental stages of MP3 and the mandibular right canine in male and female groups, is of high statistical significance (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine and chronological age in male and females was found to be not significant. Conclusions : The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages and MP3 stages was found to be significant. The developmental stages of the mandibular canine could be used very reliably as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.



Manju Gopakumar, Amitha M Hegde

Parental Attitude towards the Provision of Nonsurgical Oral Health Care to Children with Oral Clefts: An Epidemiological Survey

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:35 - 37]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1051  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim : To evaluate the attitudes of parents of 3 to 8 years old children with cleft lip and palate towards the provision of pediatric dental health care and assess the experience of dentistry in general dental practice. Materials and methods : A questionnaire was distributed to parents of 100 children in the age group of 3 to 8 years old with cleft lip and palate who visited the cleft lip and palate center in KS Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. Results : Out of the hundred patients, 66% of the patients registered directly at the cleft center for their deformity. Only 20% of these children visited a local dental practitioner for their dental health care. 42% had neither undergone any dental treatment nor received any dietary or oral hygiene advices. Regarding the provision of the dental treatment, 74% wanted a pediatric dentist to provide dental check-up and treatment at the cleft center, whereas, 24% preferred a dental practitioner close to their home and 2% does not want treatment anywhere. Conclusion : The survey indicates that there is parental support for the pediatric dental assessment at the cleft center with subsequent arrangement of dental treatment with their local dental practitioners. The majority wanted a pediatric dentist to provide the dental check-up and treatment at the cleft center.



Usha Mohan Das, Beena JP

Importance of Oral Hygiene Habits in Mentally Disabled Children

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:39 - 42]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1052  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background : The main factor related to gingival/periodontal problems in disabled individuals is the inadequacy of the plaque removal from the teeth. Motor coordination problems and muscular limitation in neuromuscularly disabled individuals along with the difficulty in understanding the importance of oral hygiene in mentally disabled individuals have resulted in the progression of inflammatory diseases. Case report : This report describes a case of cerebral palsy child who developed gingival hyperplasia due to poor oral hygiene practices which remarkably improved by proper motivation and adaptation of oral hygiene measures. Conclusion : It is important that the caretakers especially mother is informed about the importance of maintaining proper oral hygiene and the harmful effects of not doing so. It forms our duty to guide them towards maintaining good oral hygiene and thereby help in improving overall health of these children.



Rahul Hegde, Prashant M Battepati

Clinical Applications of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: Report of Four Cases

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:43 - 50]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1053  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The greatest threats to developing teeth are dental caries and traumatic injuries. The primary goal of all restorative treatment is to maintain pulp vitality so that normal root development or apexogenesis can occur. If pulpal exposure occurs, then a pulpotomy procedure aims to preserve pulp vitality to allow for normal root development. Historically, calcium hydroxide has been the material of choice for pulpotomy procedures. Recently, an alternative material called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has demonstrated the ability to induce hard-tissue formation in pulpal tissue. This article describes the clinical and radiographic outcome of a series of cases involving the use of MTA in pulpotomy, apexogenesis and apexification procedures and root perforations repair.



Diana N Mehta

Dental Considerations in the Management of Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:51 - 56]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1054  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia, is one of the rarest congenital, genetically inherited platelet disorder. It has an incidence of about 1:1,000,000, but is more common in populations with increased consanguinity. Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia is characterized by deficiency or dysfunction of glycoprotein (GP) IIb and IIIa, which are the receptors of fibrinogen. Both sexes are equally affected. Typical mucocutaneous bleeding occurs at birth or early infancy. Obtaining appropriate dental history of excessive bleeding after dental extraction, unexplained spontaneous mucocutaneous bleeding, gingival bleeding during teething or shedding of deciduous teeth and petechiae, ecchymoses or purpura on mucous membranes can play an important part in diagnosis. Hence, the pediatric dentist plays a very crucial role for prompt diagnosis and management of Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia. Presenting here is a known case of Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia, of a 6-year-old girl who required to undergo dental extraction and its successful management using an “acrylic-splint” along with the placement of “Calgigraf-Ag Foam”.



MK Jindal, Radhika Verma, Sandhya Maheshwari

Familial Cleidocranial Dysplasia

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:57 - 61]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1055  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cleidocranial dysplasia or mutational dysostosis or cleidocranial dysostosis is a generalized skeletodental dysplastic disorder, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. The expression of this disorder can vary widely in severity, even within the same family. This is a relatively rare disease and has no standard effective treatment option as of yet. Here we present a case report of affected mother and son with classical manifestations of the disease.



Sandhya Jain, Tripty Rahangdale, Alok Kumar, Deshraj Jain

Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: Prosthetic and Endodontic Management

[Year:2010] [Month:January-April] [Volume:3] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:63 - 67]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1056  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Individuals affected by ectodermal dysplasia syndromes have abnormalities of the glands, tooth buds, hair follicles, and nail development. Oral finding in ectodermal dysplasia patient are significant and can include multiple abnormalities of the dentition such as anodontia, hypodontia or malformed and widely spaced peg like teeth, loss of occlusal vertical dimension, protuberant lips and lack of normal alveolar ridge development. This clinical report describes a combined surgical, pedodontic, and prosthodontic approach for the treatment of a patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.


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