International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2009 | September-December | Volume 2 | Issue 3

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Usha Mohan Das

Bonding Agents in Pit and Fissure Sealants: A Review

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

Keywords: Bonding agents, pit and fissure sealants, sealant evaluation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1011  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dental adhesive systems used for bonding dental resins to enamel and dentin have evolved through several “generations,” with changes in chemistry, mechanism, number of bottles, application technique, and clinical effectiveness. The trend in the latest generation of dental bonding systems is to reduce the number of components and clinical placement steps. The introduction of i bond, a single-bottle dental adhesive system, is the latest of the new generation materials, and combines etchant, adhesive, and desensitizer in one component. This paper describes different dentin bonding agents, its evolution, mechanism of action and different commercially available dentin bonding agents and their role in the retention of pit and fissure sealant.



AR Prabhakar, Akanksha Gulati

Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:7 - 13]

Keywords: Saliva diagnosis, caries, caries activity tests

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1012  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry.


Original Article

Varun Goyal, Asha Singh, Chetan Bhat

Evaluation and Comparison of Biological Cleaning Efficacy of Two Endofiles and Irrigants as Judged by Microbial Quantification in Primary Teeth – An In Vivo Study

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:15 - 22]

Keywords: Post and core, apexogenesis, reinforced tooth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1013  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The endodontic triad comprises of cleaning and shaping, disinfection and obturation. Success of root canal therapy is majorly achieved by proper cleaning and shaping. However, elimination of bacterial contaminants as well as necrotic debris of the canals requires the adjunctive use of irrigants. To achieve a satisfactory biological and mechanical preparation proper selection of endodontic instruments and irrigants is necessary. In this study we are comparing and evaluating cleaning efficacy of endofiles (K-files and handprotapers) and root canal irrigants (sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine) by microbial quantification. Root canal samples were collected in autoclavable bottles containing transport media (nutrient broth) and samples were cultured in tryptose soya agar at incubation temperature of 37°C for 24-48 hours and colonies were counted with digital colony counter. The significance of this study is to help the clinician select proper instrument and irrigant which minimize the failure rate of root canal treatment for the benefit of patients.


Original Article

Abhay Agarwal, Usha Rehani, Vivek Adlakha, Mayur Kaushik

Comparative Analysis of the Amount of Plaque Formation and Associated Gingival Inflammation in Deciduous, Mixed and Permanent Dentition

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:23 - 26]

Keywords: Gingivitis, plaque, deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1014  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Periodontal diseases in children and adolescents comprise mainly of gingivitis. Gingivitis is an inflammation involving the gingival tissues next to the teeth. Marginal gingivitis is the most common form of periodontal disease and starts in early childhood. However, severe gingivitis is relatively uncommon in children, although a large population has a mild, reversible type of gingivitis. The major etiologic factors associated with gingivitis and more significantly periodontal diseases are uncalcified and calcified bacterial plaque. The gingival tissues in children are different from those in adults. Due to these differences in the structure between the gingival tissues of the child and the adult, even the clinical features and disease manifestations differ according to the age of an individual. It has been observed in earlier studies that children with a deciduous dentition seem to respond to plaque formation with less gingivitis than adults with a permanent dentition. Thus, in this study, the occurrence of gingivitis in response to plaque was studied and compared in the deciduous, mixed and permanent dentitions.



MK Jindal, Sandhya Maheshwari, Radhika Verma, Mohd Toseef Khan

Comparative Study of Dentinogenesis Imperfecta in Different Families of the Same Topographical Region

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:27 - 34]

Keywords: Dentin hypoplasia, shell teeth, dentinogenesis imperfecta, autosomal dominant, mesodermal defect

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1015  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dental hard tissue is subject to variety of disorders. Dentinogenesis Imperfecta is one such disorder attributed to heredity. It is known to be an autosomal dominant trait. Teeth with such ‘imperfect’ dentin are liable to be weak and discolored. The disease has variable penetration and therefore can be expressed as a range of phenotypic manifestations from mild discoloration and chipping to frank attrition and multiple pulp canal exposures. Here we present a comparative study of a series of cases from different families of one topographical region with widely different presentation and histories that are characteristic of this disease.



AR Prabhakar, Sugandhan , KB Roopa, Akanksha Gulati

Esthetic Management of an Anterior Avulsed Tooth: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:35 - 38]

Keywords: Avulsion, anterior tooth, esthetic, semi-permanent

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1016  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Avulsion and luxation account for up to 16% of all traumatic injuries in the permanent dentition and 7.2% of injuries in the primary dentition. A range of treatment options are available that can help conserve the tooth after a traumatic episode. There are, however, occasions where loss of the traumatized tooth is inevitable with special regard to avulsion injuries. replantation of teeth having doubtful long-term prognosis. Following the traumatic loss of an anterior tooth it is important that an immediate replacement is provided in order to avoid esthetic, masticatory and phonetic difficulties and to maintain the edentulous space to avoid arch length discrepancy. The loss of an anterior tooth in a child or young adolescent may present a difficult prosthetic problem.3 This problem can be managed in several ways. This article reports utilization of the avulsed tooth as part of fixed semi-permanent bridge.



Vela D Desai, Shweta Hegde, Durgesh N Bailoor, Neelkant Patil

Scurvy Extinct? Think Again!

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:39 - 42]

Keywords: Diet, scurvy, vitamin C deficiency, gingival hemorrhage, gingival enlargement

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1017  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Scurvy is still seen sporadically in the developed world. Scurvy, a dietary disease due to the deficient intake of vitamin C, is uncommon in the pediatric population. Scurvy occurs as a result of decreased vitamin C consumption or absorption. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy visiting our department with bleeding gums, musculoskeletal pain, and weakness. Four days after starting oral vitamin C supplementation, there was significant improvement in the patient's gingival appearance and general health. The clinical presentation and laboratory investigation (Hemoglobin %, total blood picture), together with the dramatic therapeutic response to ascorbic acid administration, confirmed the diagnosis of scurvy. Scurvy can be missed unless oral and general physicians maintain a high index of suspicion. Therefore it is time to wonder if scurvy is extinct yet.



Nikhil Marwah, Puneet Goenka, Anant Gopal Nigam

Combined Surgical and Nonsurgical Endodontic Therapy in the Treatment of Dens Invaginatus Type 3: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:43 - 48]

Keywords: Dens invaginatus, endodontic therapy, surgery, incisors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1018  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


An accurate understanding of the morphology of the root canal system is a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. Invaginated teeth have a complex root canal configuration that cannot be instrumented effectively. Correct diagnosis and treatment planning are fundamental to treatment of dens invaginatus. Periapical surgery is indicated in cases where a nonsurgical approach fails. A case of dens invaginatus type 3 in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periapical lesion and its successful treatment by these combined methods is reported.



Purshottam Jasuja

Cherubism: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:49 - 52]

Keywords: Cherubism, multilocular radiolucencies, self limiting, autosomal dominant, fibro-osseous disorder, osteoclastic lesions, multinucleated giant cells

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1019  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cherubism, a pediatric disease, is a self limiting non-neoplastic autosomal dominant fibro-osseous disorder of jaws. It is a self limiting disease and rarely apparent before the age of two years. It occurs in children and predominantly in boys. It is characterized by clinical bilateral swelling of cheeks due to bony enlargement of jaws that give the patient a typical ‘cherubic’ look. Regression occurs during puberty when the disease stabilizes after the growth period leaving some facial deformity and malocclusion. Cherubism may occur in solitary cases or in many members of the family, often in multiple generations. Radiographically, lesion appears as bilateral multilocular radiolucent areas. Since it was first described by Jones in 1933, many cases have been documented. Here a case of 8 years old cherubic child, with his clinical appearance as well as radiological evaluation and discussion about clinical outcome are presented. The patient was diagnosed but not treated.



Vishwas Chaugule, Chetan Bhat, Vishwas Patil, Sajjad H Mithiborwala

Reattachment of a Vertical Complicated Subgingival Crown Root Fracture in a 10-Year Old Child: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:53 - 60]

Keywords: Biologic restoration, complicated subgingival, crown-root fracture, fragment reattachment

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1020  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Functional, esthetic and biologic restoration of a fractured incisor often presents a daunting clinical challenge. The outcome of conventional composites, prosthodontic restorations in a young patients result in an uncertain longevity of the same. Reattachment of the fractured fragment of a tooth helps in maintaining both morphology and esthetics in a growing child until the permanent long lasting solution is sought after the complete development of the dentition and the jaws. Since fractured fragment exhibited no caries, not even negligible loss of tooth structure and was adapting well to the remaining tooth structure when tried in, the reattachment of fractured fragment was considered as a viable treatment option. This treatment option for complicated subgingival crown-root fracture depicts the involvement of periodontal surgical exposure, endodontic management and ultimately the fragment reattachment.



Marcio A da Fonseca, S Thikkurissy

Maxillary Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy

[Year:2009] [Month:September-December] [Volume:2] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:61 - 64]

Keywords: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, maxilla, pediatric dentistry, pediatric oral pathology

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1021  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare benign neoplasm of neural crest origin most commonly found in the anterior region of the maxilla. The tumor almost always develops during the first year of life, although in some cases it can be present at birth. MNTI's present as a rapidly growing, painless expansile, partly pigmented mass. They are usually unencapsulated, with a tendency to occur as a single lesion. Local excision is the treatment of choice and is usually curative. Main sites for recurrences are the maxilla (57%) and the skull/brain (28.6%). Malignant transformation has been noted in approximately 6.5% of all cases and in 2% of maxillary tumors. The case of a 3-month old boy who presented with a loose primary maxillary left central incisor is discussed. The diagnostic and clinico-pathological features as well as tumor management and importance of a timely diagnosis are reviewed.


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