International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2009 | May-August | Volume 2 | Issue 2

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Mridula Trehan, Abhishek Vashistha, Ankita Chugh, Urvashi Bihani, Mridula Trehan, Anant G Nigam

Pediatric Mandibular Fractures: A Review

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1 - 5]

Keywords: Pediatric trauma, pediatric mandibular fractures, circummandibular wiring

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1022  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The pattern of craniomaxillofacial fractures seen in children and adolescents varies with evolving skeletal anatomy and socioenvironmental factors. The general principles of treating mandibular fractures are the same in children and adults: Anatomic reduction is combined with stabilization adequate to maintain it until bone union has occurred. But recognition of some of the differences between children and their adult counterparts is important in long-term esthetic and functional facial rehabilitation as effect of injury, treatment provided has a great influence on their ensuing growth.


Original Article

Ullal A Nayak

The Relationship of Dental Aesthetic Index with Dental Appearance, Smile and Desire for Orthodontic Correction

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:6 - 12]

Keywords: Dental aesthetic index, dental appearance, desire for orthodontic correction

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1023  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dental aesthetic index (DAI) and self – satisfaction with dental appearance, smile and desire for orthodontic care. Methods: A survey of 103 school children, 51 boys and 52 girls was carried out in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram. The subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire consisting of questions concerning smile, dental appearance and desire for orthodontic treatment. They were also assessed using the dental aesthetic index. Results: Statistically significant correlations were between subjective assessments of dental appearance and DAI (P = 0.042) and need for orthodontic treatment and DAI (P = 0.045). The strongest correlations were found between DAI and comparative evaluations of dental appearance (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study has shown significant correlations between DAI and subjective perceptions of dental appearance.


Original Article

Usha Mohan Das, Deepak Viswanath

Clinical Evaluation of Resin Composite and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer in Class III Restorations of Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Comparative In Vivo Study

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:13 - 19]

Keywords: Resin-modified glass ionomer cement, composite resin

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1024  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Restoration of primary teeth continues to be an important facet of restorative dentistry. In comparison to restorations in permanent dentition, the longevity of those in primary teeth is significantly different for all materials. This makes the assessment of these fillings as a separate group meaningful. As there is lack of supporting clinical data with regard to the restoration of primary incisors, it would be judicious to consider why this is so and determine if studies can be designed to gain new information. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of composite resins and resin-modified glass ionomer cement restorations of primary incisors, over a period of one year. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 patients (3½-5 ½ years of age) with at least one pair of similar sized lesions in the middle1/3 of the same proximal surface of contralateral primary maxillary incisors. Composite resin and resinmodified glass ionomer cement restorations were placed in primary maxillary incisors using split-mouth design. The restorations were evaluated at different intervals of 3,6,9, months and 1 year using Ryge's criteria. Data obtained was analyzed using Mann-Whitney test Results: The results revealed no statistical significance in the difference of clinical characteristics between the two restorative materials. Interpretation and conclusion: (1) Resin-modified glass ionomer cement and composite resin restorative materials showed acceptable clinical performance after 1 year in primary teeth. (2) Resin-modified glass ionomer cement and composite resin restorative materials functioned well as class III restorative materials in primary teeth.


Original Article

Amitha M Hegde, Rajmohan Shetty, Aletta Reema Sequeira

The Acidogenicity of Various Chocolates Available in Indian Market: A Comparative Study

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:20 - 24]

Keywords: Unfilled chocolates, filled chocolates, pH, plaque

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1025  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


It is widely accepted that all foods containing “fermentable carbohydrates” have the potential to contribute to caries formation. Fermentable carbohydrates are present in most starches and all sugars, including those that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods. The relative cariogenicity of chocolates is dependent on their composition, texture, solubility, retentiveness and ability to stimulate salivary flow. The composition of the chocolates has profound impact on its cariogenic potential. There are a wide range of chocolates available in the market and very few studies have compared the chocolates available in the Indian market. This study was an in vivo study done on 30 dental volunteers where the cariogenicity between filled and unfilled chocolates were compared by evaluating the pH of plaque at different time intervals taken at baseline and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes using a pH meter. In unfilled group, milk chocolate had maximum pH drop at 20 minutes (5.895) and diet chocolate had minimum pH drop at 10 minutes (6.143). In filled group, fruit and nut had maximum pH drop at 20 minutes (5.713) and caramel had minimum pH drop at 15 minutes (5.817). The results between unfilled and filled chocolate were found to be statistically significant between 15-30 minutes (p < 0.0005) and suggestive that filled chocolates were more cariogenic than unfilled chocolates.



A Tuli, U Rehani, A Aggrawal

Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:25 - 31]

Keywords: Dental fluorosis, Dean's criteria index, DMFT index

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1026  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean's criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in the age group between 12-13 years followed by the age group between 13-14 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased upto grade 2 and then decreased from grade 3 to grade 5.



V Satish, Mohd Parvez

Cleidocranial Dysplasia: Case Report of Three Siblings

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:32 - 39]

Keywords: Cleidocranial dysplasia, dermatoglyphics, chin cup therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1027  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: A family case report of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) with varied manifestations from father to three siblings is presented. CCD (MIM # 119600) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by CBAF1 gene (OMIM 600211) with a wide range of variability. In all the cases generalized dysplasia in bone, prolonged retention of primary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth were evident. Interestingly, there were no supernumerary teeth present. There was mandibular prognathism which was intercepted by occipital chin cup therapy. Aims and objective: To present the clinical manifestations, diagnostic imaging and treatment modalities along with dermatoglyphics in CCD patients. Conclusion: Cleidocranial dysplasia is an uncommon disorder however its clinical and radiological features are characteristic. In addition the CCD patients may be distinguished by specific dermatoglyphic markers. It carries with it several implications in terms of complications like skeletal malocclusion, dental caries, etc. Medical treatment is mainly directed at orthopedic and dental correction. A team approach to the management of dental abnormalities on a long-term basis with the overall goal to provide an esthetic facial appearance and functioning occlusion by late adolescence or early adulthood should be focused.



AR Prabhakar, GR Ravi, OS Raju, J Kurthukoti Ameet, AB Shubha

Neonatal Tooth in Fraternal Twins: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:40 - 44]

Keywords: Neonatal teeth, fetal teeth, fraternal twins

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1028  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Eruption of teeth at or immediately after birth is a relatively rare phenomenon. This condition has been the subject of curiosity and study since the time of beginning of beliefs and assumptions. The present case report accentuates the occurrence of neonatal teeth in twins; fraternal twins in particular which is rarest of its kind.



MK Jindal, Vivek Kumar Sharma, Ibyne Ahmed, Ashish Agrawal

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Maxilla and Mandible in 6 Years Old Child: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:45 - 49]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1029  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of idiopathic disorders characterized by the proliferation of specialized bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells (LCs) and mature eosinophils. Its etiology is unknown but it could be due to antigenic stimulus of an infectious, genetic abnormality, deregulated immune response, or even clonal origin. Clinical presentation may be localized and systemic, invading skin, lungs and bone in adult, and bone marrow and lymph node in children. Obtaining a biopsy that yields cells that are morphologically and immunohistochemically compatible with Langerhans cells, can make a definitive diagnosis of LCH. Poor prognosis factor include advanced age, disease extent and systemic organ abnormality. Conventional treatment of LCH is with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and steroid injections, alone or in combination. Spontaneous regression of localized disease has also been reported.



Usha Mohan Das, Deepak Viswanath

A Compound Composite Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Permanent Incisor: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:50 - 55]

Keywords: Compound odontoma, odontogenic tumor, unerupted incisor

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1030  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and are generally asymptomatic. Frequently they interfere with the eruption of the teeth. This is the case report of a compound composite odontoma in an 11 years old girl, which resulted in failure of eruption of the permanent maxillary right central incisor while the contralateral tooth had erupted. A calcified mass was seen in the radiograph and was provisionally diagnosed as odontoma following which the odontoma was enucleated. Routine follow-up was done for 1½ years and no recurrence was seen.



Chandna Preetika, Vivek Kumar Adlakha, Manisha Prabhakar, Sanjeev Julka

Orofacial Cat Bite: A Case Report

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:56 - 59]

Keywords: Cat bite, orofacial trauma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1031  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The article describes an unusual case of a 7 years old male child presenting with orofacial cat bite injury that occurred in infancy. This resulted in loss of deciduous and permanent tooth buds and consequently hampered alveolar growth. The patient was given a removable partial denture to restore function and aesthetics. The article highlights the importance of complete history, diagnosis and management of such injuries in children.



IK Pandit, Vineeta Nikhil

Accidental Swallowing of a Hypodermic Needle

[Year:2009] [Month:May-August] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:60 - 62]

Keywords: Accidental, needle, swallowing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1032  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


This unusual case report describes the accidental swallowing of a hypodermic needle by a patient during a conservative procedure, which though safely discharged in the stool after 24 hours but emphasizes the use of two major preventive measures namely, rubber dam and oral packing during all endodontic and conservative procedures to prevent the occurrence of such unfortunate incidence.


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