International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2023 | May-June | Volume 16 | Issue 3

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Shreya Khodke, Shilpa Naik, Nupur Agarwal

Infant Dietary Pattern and its Association with Early Childhood Caries in Preschool Children: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:421 - 425]

Keywords: Breastfeeding, Dietary habits, Early childhood caries, Oral hygiene practices, Preschool children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2356  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to investigate the associations between feeding and oral hygiene practices during the first year of life and caries prevalence in preschool children. Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 420 children between the age-group of 3–5 years in Navi Mumbai, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A validated questionnaire with 34 questions was used for collecting information regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. The data collected were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Chi-square test. Results: Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant (p < 0.05) among those who were breastfed, fell asleep with a bottle in the mouth, fed with additional sugar in bottled milk, those who had a frequent sweet intake, and where infant's teeth were not cleaned soon after eruption. Conclusion: Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries and intervention during early childhood seems to be the most appropriate action to ensure healthy dental habits throughout life. Clinical significance: A future direction for dentists to target preventive interventions in early childhood and incorporate cariogenicity of frequent infant feeding into sound recommendations for parents and caregivers.



Anitta Cyriac, Shveta Sood, Naresh Sharma, Akshara Singh

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Government Primary School Teachers in Faridabad City Regarding Oral Health

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:426 - 430]

Keywords: Educational personnel, Oral health, School teachers

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2380  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Schoolteachers have a massive capacity for shaping the oral health status of children. Teachers help in behavioral shaping and the total progress of schoolchildren. They are thought to apply a substantial impact on their students. Overall health-promoting school seeks workforce well-being as well as their working conditions and thus employ the tactics of health promotion in the workplace. Aim: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of government primary school teachers in Faridabad city regarding oral health. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 220 government primary school teachers in Faridabad city. The questionnaires were distributed individually to the teachers on the visit to their institution. The data was compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. The study was evaluated in various groups like age, gender, educational qualification, and teaching experience. Oral health education was given to the teachers and mentioned the importance of regular dental check-ups in children. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Results: The findings of this study indicated that oral health knowledge was good but oral health attitudes and practices were moderate among government primary school teachers in Faridabad city. Conclusion: The study determined that there is a need to improve the oral well-being information and habits of the primary school teachers so that they can deliver proper oral health instructions to the students.



Prasanna T Dahake, Sphurti S Joshi, Yogesh J Kale, Mahesh V Dadpe, Shrikant B Kendre

Biocompatibility of Ajwain Oil Combined with Eugenol and Zinc Oxide as a Deciduous Root Canal Obturating Material: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:431 - 436]

Keywords: Biocompatible materials, Connective tissues, Inflammation, Root canal filling materials, Tooth deciduous

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2531  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objectives: The present study was intended to assess the biocompatibility of newly formulated materials such as zinc oxide (ZO) admixed with ajwain oil (A) as well as ajwain eugenol (E) (1:1 ratio) against ZOE through an animal model as root canal obturating materials in deciduous teeth. Materials and methods: The study involved randomly selected 24 albino rats, which were divided into three groups based on test materials. Two polyethylene tubes (PETT) (8 mm long × 1 mm internal diameter) were inserted into connective tissues of the dorsal side on either side of each rat viz empty tube (negative control) and another containing test material (test group). Animals were sacrificed at the end of the 7th and 21st days. PETT with surrounding connective tissues were excised. Histopathological evaluations of the material's biocompatibility were done by determining inflammatory tissue responses. Non-parametric tests such as Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Results: Histopathological examination on the 7th day showed increased polymorphonuclear cells for all test materials compared to the negative control (p = 0.92), suggesting acute inflammation. The inflammation subsided gradually after 21 days (p = 0.48). The lymphocytes increased after 21 days for all the materials indicating chronic inflammation (p = 0.79), as well as fibroblasts (p = 0.34) and capillaries (p = 0.35), indicating healing and repair. Conclusion: The newly formulated obturating materials were found to be biocompatible compared to ZOE.



Prashanth Murthy, Nandlal Bhojraj, Usha Hegde

Changes in Pulp and Roots of Deciduous Teeth during Different Stages of Physiologic Resorption: A Histologic Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:437 - 443]

Keywords: Decalcification, Deciduous teeth, Histological changes, Physiologic resorption, Remaining root length

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2538  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Resorption of primary teeth and eruption of permanent teeth involves a complex series of changes. The cellular and histological changes occurring during the process of resorption vary stagewise. The knowledge of the changes occurring in the pulp of deciduous teeth would provide information about the resorptive process. Aim: To evaluate the histologic changes of the pulp of deciduous teeth related to different stages of physiologic root resorption. Study setting and design: To establish the cause and effect relationship, a contrived histologic study design was planned. Materials and methods: A total of 60 extracted deciduous incisors, canines, and molars were included in the study. The remaining root length (RRL) was determined based on the standardized photographs. The teeth were then grouped into three based on the percentage of RRL. The teeth were subjected to decalcification with 5% nitric acid, following which histological processing was performed. Statistical analysis: The present study being a qualitative study design, descriptively explains the histologic findings, and no statistical tests have been applied. Results: During the initial stages of resorption, there were no histological alterations noted in the pulp, particularly in the cervical 3rd, with the cellular structure relatively maintained. As the resorption progresses, reversal lines were evident, indicating a process of repair occurring simultaneously during the process of resorption. With further advancement, the repair is overtaken by the resorption indicated by the presence of resorptive cells. Neovascularization and an increase in immune cells are also evident in advanced stages. Conclusion: The pulp exhibits progressive changes as the resorption continues from stage I to stage III. The changes vary from a smaller number of immune cells and odontoclasts in stage I to increasing number of the same as resorption progresses.



Palak Janiani, Erulappan MG Subramanian

Assessment and Correlation between Dactyloscopy and Behavior of Children Undergoing Dental Treatment: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:444 - 447]

Keywords: Behavior, Children, Dental, Fingerprint, Frankl behavior rating scale

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2600  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess and correlate dactyloscopy and behavior of children undergoing dental treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 30 children aged 4–8 years who needed at least one restoration without administration of local anesthesia were included. Two examiners recorded the behavior of the child as per Frankl's behavior rating scale and after the treatment, the subjects’ fingerprints were taken using an ink pad and white paper. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versions 23 and a Chi-squared test was carried out (p < 0.05). Results: The loop type fingerprint had the highest frequency, while the archtype had the lowest. The child's behavior differed greatly (p < 0.05) based on dermatoglyphic characteristics, with the loop pattern being seen in cooperative children and the whorl pattern in uncooperative children. Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between fingerprint type and children's dental care. Clinical significance: Dactyloscopy can be used to determine the behavior of children coming for dental treatment and hence help in their management.



Seema Qamar, Rashmi Jayanna, Vipin R Ahuja

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine, and Triple Antibiotic Paste in Different Combination Forms as Intracanal Medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis in Primary Teeth: An In Vivo Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:448 - 452]

Keywords: Antimicrobial efficacy, Calcium hydroxide, Enterococcus faecalis, Intracanal medicament, Triple antibiotic powder

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2599  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) between a mix of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] powder and normal saline, a mix of Ca(OH)2 powder and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate solution, a mix of triple antibiotic powder (TAP) and normal saline, and mix of TAP and 2% CHX gluconate solution. Materials and methods: A total of 60 teeth were included in the study. The first sample (S1) was collected after access opening from the widest canal of the tooth by inserting sterile absorbable paper point no 20 up to the full length of the canal for 1 minute. The second sample (S2) was collected after the chemomechanical preparation and irrigation. After that, subjects were randomly divided into four groups—group I—a mix of Ca(OH)2 and normal saline; group II—a mix of Ca(OH)2 and 2% CHX; group III—a mix of TAP and normal saline; and group IV—a mix of TAP and 2% CHX. Assigned intracanal medicaments were placed in the canals, and the teeth were temporarily sealed with a temporary restorative material. On the 7th day, canals were reopened and irrigated, and a third bacteriological sample (S3) was taken out. Later, canals were filled with suitable obturating material, followed by the placement of the permanent restoration. Results: There was a very highly significant (p < 0.005) difference in E. faecalis count in all the groups on day 7 after placement of intracanal medicament, being highest in group IV followed by group II, group III, and group I. Conclusion: Triple antibiotic powder (TAP) mixed with 2% CHX gluconate solution has superior antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis in primary teeth.



Pravin Kumar, Suresh S Kotumachagi, Anselm J Fabi, Pooja Srivastava, Ajit KP Shanmugam, Rameswari Rajendran

Comparative Evaluation of Maintenance of Cell Viability of an Experimental Transport Media “Ringer's Lactate” with Dextrose Normal Saline ORS Egg White and Infant Milk Formula for Transportation of an Avulsed Tooth

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:453 - 458]

Keywords: Avulsed teeth, Dextrose normal saline, Egg White, Infant milk formula, ORS, Ringer's lactate, Storage medium

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2611  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and objective: The viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on the root surface of the avulsed tooth determines the prognosis of the replanted tooth, which in turn is determined by a suitable transport medium in which the tooth was stored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Ringer's lactate (RL) as a storage medium for an avulsed tooth in maintaining the PDL cell viability with dextrose normal saline (DNS), oral rehydration salt (ORS), egg white (EW), and infant milk formula (IMF). Materials and methods: A total of 85 freshly extracted human teeth were divided into five experimental groups and two control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 8-hour dry time, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 minutes and then immersed in one of five experimental media (RL, DNS, ORS, EW, and IMF) for 45 minutes. The teeth were then treated with collagenase type III and trypsin for 10 minutes. The number of viable PDL cells was counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis showed that IMF, RL, and EW had no statistically significant differences among them in maintaining the viability of the PDL cells but were significantly better than DNS. No statistically significant difference between RL, EW, and ORS in the number of viable PDL cells. Conclusion: Infant milk formula (IMF), RL, and EW showed similar results within the parameters of the study; they can be used as alternative storage media for avulsed teeth. DNS showed poor results, and ORS could serve as short-term storage media if the other solutions are not readily available. Clinical significance: The search for an appropriate storage media with favorable pH and osmolality along with easy availability is the basic thought behind this study.



Raj K Botu, Punithavathy Rachuri, Satyam Martha, Mythraiye Raparla, Swathi Matilda, Seshaiah Yemparla

Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Diode Laser, and Saline in Reducing the Microbial Count in Primary Teeth Root Canals: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:459 - 463]

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Diode laser, Primary teeth root canal disinfection, Saline

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2596  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Different irrigation materials in pediatric endodontics. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX), diode laser, and saline in primary teeth root canals. Settings and design: This manuscript is designed to know the effectiveness of the different root canal irrigants and laser irradiation technology in primary teeth root canals. Materials and methods: A total of 60 primary teeth from 60 children were selected and divided into three groups of 20 each. Group I (CHX), group II (diode laser), and group III (saline). Pulp tissue was extirpated from the root canals of primary teeth, and samples were collected using sterile paper points. After cleaning and shaping, the root canals of the teeth in each group were disinfected using CHX and saline or irradiated with a diode laser. The samples were collected again and sent for microbiological examination. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analyzes were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance. All analyzes were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. Results: The colony-forming unit (CFU) of the predisinfection sample served as a baseline for comparisons throughout the study. The mean microbial counts of all the postdisinfected samples were reduced after disinfection. Intergroup comparisons showed significant results between groups I and III (CHX and saline) and groups II and III (diode laser and saline) (p < 0.01), whereas groups I and II (CHX and diode laser) showed nonsignificant results (p < 0.092). Conclusion: Diode laser irradiation succeeded in reducing root canal infection when compared with 2% CHX. Diode laser irradiation can also be used for disinfecting the root canal in primary teeth.



Purnima H Karande, Vittaldas B Shetty, Vineet Vinay, Ketaki B Bhor, Kadambari A Ambildhok, Amar K Shaw

Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health and Behavior Changes in Children after Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Method of Oral Health Education among Mothers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:10] [Pages No:464 - 473]

Keywords: Dental Caries score, Frequency of toothbrushing, Gingival score, In-between snacking evaluation, Oral health, Plaque score, Randomized controlled trial, Risk of bias, Systematic review and meta-analysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2594  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) compared to traditional health education among mothers in improving children's oral health and behavioral changes. Review methods: The search strategy was framed using relevant MeSH terms and free text terms in PubMed, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for the articles published in the English language between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2020. Only randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, and clinical trials comparing MI with traditional health education were included. Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool was used for the quality assessment of the included studies, and Review Manager 5.3 software was used for computing results. Results: A total of 9 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and 5 for quantitative synthesis from an initial search of 3,708 articles. The cumulative mean difference for dental caries was −1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI)—1.37–0.70] p < 0.00001, for frequency of toothbrushing Pooled odds ratio was 1.69 (95% CI—0.68–4.25) p = 0.26 and for in-between snacking was 0.83 with (95% CI—0.48–1.44) p = 0.51. A significant difference was present in dental caries among children with mothers in the MI group, while no difference was present in in-between snacking and frequency of toothbrushing between both the groups. Conclusion: Motivational interviewing (MI) prove to be significantly effective in reducing newer dental caries for shorter duration; however, long-term effectiveness could not be assessed. Clinical significance: Motivational interviewing (MI) can be considered an effective and feasible method for oral health education to mothers, which will, in turn, improve the oral health of their children. Protocol registration: International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) under registration code. CRD42021224278.



Mebin George Mathew

Comparison of Total Salivary Antioxidant Capacity of Children with and without Severe Early Childhood Caries before and after Complete Dental Rehabilitation

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:474 - 477]

Keywords: Complete dental rehabilitation, Early childhood caries, General anesthesia, Salivary antioxidant capacity

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2597  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most chronic disease affecting children all over the world. Children often complain of pain and need complete rehabilitation, which is often done under general anesthesia due to extensive treatment and behavioral problems that are often encountered. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the total salivary antioxidant capacity of children with severe ECC (S-ECC) before and after complete dental rehabilitation and compare it with caries-free children. Materials and methods: Salivary samples were obtained from 30 children aged 3–5 years and diagnosed with S-ECC, along with 30 age and sex-matched controls. Complete dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia was performed on the children with S-ECC, and follow-up salivary samples were obtained after 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Total salivary antioxidant capacity was measured using a commercially available Oxygen Radical Absorbance Antioxidant Assay measurement kit. At baseline, children with S-ECC had higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to the controls. Results: A significant difference in total salivary antioxidant capacity between both groups was seen at baseline. At 3 months following, the total salivary antioxidant capacity of children treated for S-ECC was slightly higher than controls but had significantly reduced compared to baseline. At 6 months, there was no significant difference between both groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of our study, it can be concluded that the total salivary antioxidant capacity associated with children suffering from S-ECC is reduced after complete rehabilitation.



Comparative Evaluation of Chlorhexidine Polymer Scaffold, 3Mixtatin, and Formocresol for Vital Primary Pulp Therapy: A Randomized 6-month Clinical Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:478 - 482]

Keywords: Periodontal ligament widening, Root canal treatment, Stainless steel crown

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2615  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) polymer scaffold, 3Mixtatin, and formocresol for vital primary pulp therapy—a randomized clinical study. Materials and methods: A total of 120 primary molars were included from children aged between 6 and 8 years in this randomized clinical study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into three groups (group I—CHX polymer scaffold, group II—3Mixtatin, and group III—formocresol. Pulpotomy was performed in a vital cariously exposed primary tooth with healthy periodontium where their retention is more beneficial than extraction. Subjects were followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months for clinical and radiographic evaluations. Results: At 6 months of follow-up, the overall success rate of pulpotomy in groups I, II, and III was 56.41, 71.05, and 60.52% in each group, respectively. Nonsignificant difference (p > 0.05) was seen during intergroup comparison. Conclusion: However, among the three materials used in this study, 3mixtatin comparatively had better results.



Inayaat Virk, Archana Agnihotri, Poonam Sood, Rosy Arora, Neha Bansal

Tobacco Turmoil in Teens and Preparedness of Pediatric Dentists: A Global Survey

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:483 - 488]

Keywords: Adolescents, Cessation, Dentists, Intervention, Pediatric, Smoking, Tobacco

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2579  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Tobacco use amongst adolescents causes significant health problems affecting almost all organs and has a significant effect on normal growth and development. Smoker adolescents are also more prone to oral health problems than nonsmokers. Pediatric dentists can play a significant role in providing tobacco cessation counseling to adolescents. Aim: To assess the knowledge (K), perceptions (PR), training, and practices (PE) of pediatric dentists related to the provision of tobacco cessation interventions. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional online survey with convenience sampling was planned to assess the K, PR, training, and PE of pediatric dentists across the globe in dealing with tobacco menace amongst adolescents. The survey was done through a self-administered questionnaire in the form of an online Google Form. The study population consisted of pediatric dentists attending the International Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (IAPD) virtual conference 2021. Results: A total of 1,564 participants were targeted and 235 answered the survey with a response rate of 15.02%. Attending tobacco cessation intervention (p ≤ 0.001) and training in postgraduation on tobacco cessation (p ≤ 0.002) showed significant association with favorable practice scores. However, in the PR domain age in years (p ≤ 0.043), country of residence (continent, p ≤ 0.001) was found to be significantly associated with attending tobacco cessation intervention (p < 0.001) and training in postgraduation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the study emphasize the need for recommendations for educating pediatric dentists by the inclusion of tobacco cessation interventions in the core curriculum, continuing dental education programs, and promoting professional responsibility to help achieve tobacco-free youth all across the globe.



Sharath Asokan, PR Geethapriya, Obukavitha Dhanabalan, TD Yogesh Kumar

Assessment of Personality Traits among Pediatric Dentists in India: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:489 - 493]

Keywords: Agreeableness, Big Five personality tests, Conscientiousness, Cross-sectional survey, Emotional stability, Extroversion, Openness to experience

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2603  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To identify the most common personality traits among pediatric dentists in India. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Big Five personality test (BFPT). It included 50 questions based on five personality traits—extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. The questionnaire was e-mailed and also sent through WhatsApp messages as a Google Form to all the pediatric dentists in India. Scoring for each trait was done based on the specific formula provided. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Mann–Whitney U test. Results: A total of 390 pediatric dentists responded and filled out the questionnaire. The agreeableness trait was the most commonly exhibited trait, followed by the conscientiousness trait. Emotional stability was the least exhibited trait. Emotional stability was statistically different between male and female pediatric dentists. Conclusion: Agreeableness and emotional stability were the most and least expressed traits, respectively, among the participants. This survey showed that pediatric dentists in India could have a high tolerance and competent behavior. Clinical significance: Dentists may possess unique personality traits that distinguish them from the general population. Within the dental profession, there could be variations in personality traits depending on the specialty they practice.



Sakshi S Jajoo, Shweta M Chaudhary, Krishna Patil

A Systematic Review on Polyester Scaffolds in Dental Three-dimensional Cell Printing: Transferring Art from the Laboratories to the Clinics

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:494 - 498]

Keywords: Dental pulp, Dentistry, Polyester, Scaffolds, Three-dimensional cell printing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2609  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The purpose of this systematic review is to describe developments in three-dimensional (3D) cell printing in the formation of dental pulp tissue using polyester as a scaffold to revitalize the damaged dental pulp tissue. Materials and methods: A literature search for all the data published in PubMed and Google Scholar from January 2000 to April 2022 was conducted. Articles with the keywords 3D cell printing, scaffolds, polyester, dental pulp, and dentistry were used. Inclusion criteria consisted of any publication in electronic or print media directly studying or commenting on the use of polyester scaffolds in 3D cell printing technology in the regeneration of dental pulp. A total of 528 articles were selected, of which 27 duplicates and 286 irrelevant articles were discarded. A total of 215 articles were finally included in the systematic review. Result and conclusion: For dental pulp regeneration, several scaffolds have been discovered to be appealing. Polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA), and their copolymers are nontoxic and biocompatible synthetic polyesters that degrade by hydrolysis and have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for a variety of applications. This review paper is intended to spark new ideas for using a certain scaffold in a specific regenerative approach to produce the desired pulp-dentin complex.



Elena Hofmann, Steffen Koerdt, Max Heiland, Jan-Dirk Raguse, Jan Oliver Voss

Pediatric Maxillofacial Trauma: Insights into Diagnosis and Treatment of Mandibular Fractures in Pediatric Patients

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:11] [Pages No:499 - 509]

Keywords: Fracture management, Mandibular fracture, Pediatric maxillofacial trauma, Pediatric patient

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2401  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in pediatric mandibular fractures with regards to fracture pattern and localization. Patients and methods: This retrospective study included patients under the age of 17 years that presented to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin with mandibular fractures over an 11-year long period (2010–2020). Medical records were analyzed for age, gender, injury mechanism, clinical presentation, imaging modalities, fracture pattern, and fracture management. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, normality testing, and Mann–Whitney U tests. Results: A total of 91 pediatric patients (23 females and 68 males) presented with mandibular fractures. The majority of mandibular fractures occurred in patients aged 13–16 years (67.0%, n = 61). The main causes were activities of daily life (34.1%), followed by assault (25.3%). Malocclusion and pain upon mandibular joint compression were documented in 72.5% and 51.7% of patients, respectively. The most frequently applied radiological diagnostic tool was a panoramic X-ray (49.5%). The main fracture patterns were single (42.9%) and double fractures (48.4%). An age-adapted surgical approach using open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) was the most frequent management (61.5%). A conservative approach was favored in cases of condylar head fractures. Resorbable plates were used in eight cases of ORIF (8.8%). Conclusion: Treatment regimens should be carefully selected based on the unique anatomy of the pediatric patient with regards to centers of growth and dentition phase, to restore stomatognathic function and to maintain adequate skeletal growth and eruption of teeth. Clinical significance: This study illustrates the challenges of mandibular fracture management in the pediatric patient.



Manal P Gupte, Laresh N Mistry, Ashwin Jawdekar

Challenges and Treatment Considerations with Comprehensive Rehabilitation of a Case of Taurodontism in Primary Dentition: A Case Report and Review

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:510 - 514]

Keywords: Case Report, Endodontic Management, Molars, Primary Teeth, Review, Taurodontism

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2491  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Taurodontism is an anomalous developmental condition where the coronal portion of the tooth is enlarged while the radicular portion is compromised. This may have important clinical implications while considering endodontic or exodontic procedures which may affect the technique of the treatment or its prognosis. Case Report: This article describes the case of a 4-year-old female girl with molars exhibiting taurodontism with its clinical management and a review of this unique clinical condition. Conclusion: This case report and review summarizes the diagnosis, classification, clinical management challenges and comprehensive rehabilitation of taurodontism in primary teeth.



Gaurav Gaur, Prateek Agarwal, Garima Goyal, Shirish Sharma

Management of a Large Dentigerous Cyst with Enucleation and Packing Open with BIPP in 9-year-old Child: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:515 - 517]

Keywords: Deciduous teeth, Dentigerous cyst, Enucleation, Impacted

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2581  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dentigerous cyst is also known as follicular cyst. It is an odontogenic cyst of developmental origin. The dentigerous cyst involves impacted, embedded or submerged tooth by expansion of its follicle. The normal follicular space is mostly 3-4 mm but with dentigerous cyst it can be 5 mm or more. These are second most commonly occurring odontogenic cysts and literature shows occurrence of 24% among true cysts of jaw. It is most commonly associated with mandibular 3rd molar followed by maxillary canine and third molar. Radiographically occurring as unilocular radiolucency around an impacted tooth. In our case the cyst was a large dentigerous cyst occurring in 9-year-old child having mixed dentition. Complete enucleation of the cystic lesion and packing open with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) was done. BIPP dressing was changed at regular intervels and more than 60% of bone formation was complete in around 5 months which was evident on the radiograph. Conclusion: Methods employed for elimination include enucleation, decompression marsupialization but the treatment modality also depends upon age, existing dentition, location and size of the lesion.



Meera Sojan, Seema Thakur

An Unusual Case of Mesial Supplementary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:518 - 521]

Keywords: Supernumerary tooth, Teeth, Tooth, Unerupted

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2585  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


By definition, supplemental teeth are supernumerary teeth (ST) resembling adjacent teeth at the end of a tooth series and are well aligned in the arch. A case of the non-syndrome, supplemental type of supernumerary lateral incisor is presented, along with an unusual habit that was noted accidentally in the same child. In the present case, of the two lateral incisors, the mesial supplemental lateral incisor was causing an impaction of 11. In addition, the patient was aesthetically concerned. So, the decision was made to extract the supplemental tooth with altered morphology (mesial one) under local anesthesia even though, as per definition, the distal one is the supplementary tooth. And finally, to align the incisors by orthodontic treatment. Aim: A case of the non-syndrome, supplemental type of supernumerary lateral incisor is presented, along with an unusual habit of that was noted accidentally in the same child. Background: By definition, supplemental teeth are supernumerary teeth (ST) resembling adjacent teeth at the end of a tooth series and are well aligned in the arch. Case description: In the present case, of the two lateral incisors, the mesial supplemental lateral incisor was causing impaction of 11. In addition, the patient was aesthetically concerned. Conclusion: Decision was made to extract the supplemental tooth with altered morphology (mesial one) under local anesthesia even though, as per definition, the distal one is the supplementary tooth. And finally, to align the incisors by orthodontic treatment. Clinical significance: Decision-making regarding removal of tooth is quite baffling as a selective removal of the normal or the supplementary tooth may be required and it should be made after analyzing multiple factors.



P Athira, Navin H Krishnamurthy

Global Developmental Delay in Children with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A Case Series

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:522 - 527]

Keywords: Congenitally missing teeth, Global development delay, Pediatric dentist

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2605  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Global developmental delay (GDD) is a chronic neurological disturbance that includes defects in one or more developmental domains. Although some diagnosed delays are benign, certain presentations are more worrisome. The developmental domains can be motor, cognitive, daily activities, speech or language, and social or personal development. The etiology of GDD can be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. It can be diagnosed early in childhood as the delay or absence of one or more developmental milestones. Hence the role of pediatric dentists and pediatricians becomes more crucial in identifying this condition.



Pankaj Prasad, Mohit Galani, Ruchika R Nawal, Sangeeta Talwar, Gyanendra Kumar

Three-dimensional Assessment of Two-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor with Labiogingival Groove: Endodontic and Periodontal Surgical Management

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:528 - 533]

Keywords: Biodentine, Central incisors, Cone beam computed tomography, Endodontic management, Periapical lesion, Periodontal disease

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2616  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Understanding the diversity of root canal systems and their anatomical/morphological variations helps in achieving improved outcomes of root canal treatment. The outcome of endodontic treatment depends on a thorough knowledge of dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary central incisor with two roots is a rare entity, so a complete clinical and radiological examination is important before initiating the treatment. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) radiography has improved the diagnosis and treatment planning in endodontics. So, the current report describes the endodontic and periodontal surgical management of traumatized discolored maxillary central incisors with two separated roots and root canals identified by two-dimensional (2D) and 3D radiographic examination.



Prosthetic Management with Removable Partial Dentures in Pediatric Dental Care: Case Series

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:534 - 540]

Keywords: Children, Prosthetic management, Removable partial denture, Tooth loss

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2593  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This case series elaborates on the importance, advantages, and clinical applications of removable partial dentures as prosthetic rehabilitation in pediatric dental patients. Background: Tooth loss in children is a measure of dental disease with multiple determinants. There are several potential sequelae as a result of tooth loss. Early treatment and follow-up are the keys to the successful rehabilitation of young patients with missing teeth. It is critical that oral rehabilitation is started early to maintain and correct oral functions. Removable prostheses are the commonly selected treatment options for young patients because of the continuous growth and development of maxillary and mandibular bones. Dental prosthetic appliances in pediatrics must be planned with respect to the special conditions that lead to tooth loss or damage. Case description: The present case series is a compilation of four cases describing the esthetic, functional, and psychological rehabilitation of children with missing teeth, either hereditary/genetic (ectodermal dysplasia) or due to premature tooth loss (trauma). Conclusion: Prosthetic rehabilitation with a removable partial denture in children requires a specific management strategy. A multidisciplinary approach is needed under the constant supervision of pediatric dentists as well as regular check-ups with clinical and radiographical examinations.



Nandini Biradar, Gururam Tej, Chittaranjan Bogishetty, Srehitha Gandham, Pavan Vardhan

Combination Therapy of Antibiotics and Platelet-rich Fibrin for Apical Closure: Case Series

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:541 - 546]

Keywords: Apical closure, Platelet-rich fibrin, Triple antibiotic paste

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2613  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The aim of endodontic treatment in immature teeth is to disinfect and regenerate tissues in the apical region for the closure of the root. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) by differentiating into odontogenic and osteogenic tissues create apical closure. Triple antibiotic pastes (TAP) disinfect the root canal without adversely affecting the SCAP. Differentiation of SCAP is promoted by platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Hence, combining TAP and PRF could have a synergistic effect. Case description: An 11-year-old girl, a 9-year-old boy, and a 13-year-old boy, symptomatic patients with open apex, are treated with TAP, PRF, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical barrier sequentially. There was the formation of a calcific barrier at the end of 12, 6, and 3 months, respectively. Conclusion: Correct diagnosis and protocol of sequential disinfection, regeneration, and finally filling the canal with an apical barrier could yield better results.



Chaitanya P Puranik, Rita Chandki, Rasa Mladenovic, Catherine Flaitz

Bifid Mandibular Canals: A Pediatric Case Series with Clinical Implications

[Year:2023] [Month:May-June] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:547 - 549]

Keywords: Accessory mandibular canal, Bifid mandibular canal, Mandibular canal variations, Panoramic radiography, Retromolar canal, Radiculomegaly

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2590  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this case series is to provide a detailed account of pediatric cases with bifid mandibular canal (BMC) along with clinical implications. Background: The prevalence of BMC on panoramic radiographs has been reported to be 0.03–1.90% in adults. Only one study reported prevalence of BMC in children based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. As CBCT images are not routinely prescribed in children, it is important to understand if panoramic radiographs provide a valuable tool to diagnose BMC in children. Case description: This case series provides a review of three cases of nonsyndromic, bilateral BMC, and associated radiculomegaly affecting mandibular permanent first molars in children during the mixed dentition stage. An overview of clinical implications of BMC in children is also discussed to help clinicians provide appropriate dental care and anticipatory guidance. Conclusion: Bifid mandibular canal (BMC) has never been reported in children during mixed dentition stage based on panoramic radiographs. This is the first case series reporting BMC and associated dental anomalies in children. Clinical significance: This case series will help clinicians in diagnosing BMC during mixed dentition stage and understand its clinical implications. Additionally, this case series will help define future cross-sectional studies evaluating BMC and associated dental anomalies in children.


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