International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2021 | May-June | Volume 14 | Issue 3

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Daneswari Velagala, G Madhavi, P Pranathi

Assessing the Pain Reaction of Children and Evaluation of Efficacy of Buccal Infiltration with Articaine and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block with Lignocaine for Pulp Therapy in Primary Mandibular Second Molars

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:335 - 339]

Keywords: Articaine, Buccal infiltration, Inferior alveolar nerve block, Lignocaine, Primary second molars

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1976  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Pain-free operating is of obvious benefit to the patient, it also helps the operator as treatment can be performed in a calm, unhurried fashion. Articaine hydrochloride has steadily grown in popularity, and studies have shown that articaine hydrochloride performs better than lidocaine due to an enhanced anesthetic efficacy. Aim and objective: To assess the efficacy of buccal infiltration with articaine in achieving anesthesia for pulp therapy in primary mandibular second molars as compared with inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) with lignocaine. Materials and methods: Thirty patients (4–8 years) with an indication of pulp therapy in at least two primary mandibular second molars were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive nerve block with lignocaine on the first appointment and buccal infiltration with articaine on the second appointment spaced 1 week apart. A single researcher injected local anesthetic for all the patients. Two researchers standing at a distance of 1.5 m recorded the pain scores and sound, eye, motor (SEM) scores. After the completion of the procedure, the patient was asked to record facial image (FI) score and Heft-Parker visual analog score (HP-VAS). Results: The pain-related behavior scores were higher for IANB when compared with infiltration. Facial image and HP-VAS scores were higher for the lignocaine IANB group when compared with the articaine infiltration. Conclusion: With the increasing use of new delivery systems such as single tooth analgesia, a buccal infiltration with articaine provides an effective alternative, with minimal discomfort which would allow clinicians to avoid the use of IANB in children.



Balaram Naik

Comparison of Microleakage under Amalgam Restoration: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:340 - 341]

Keywords: Dental varnish, Secondary caries, Silver diamine fluoride

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1953  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim of the study: To compare the microleakage in teeth restored using silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and dental varnish under amalgam restoration. Materials and methods: Twenty premolar teeth were used in the study. Class I cavity was prepared and restored using silver amalgam. In group I, the dental varnish was used under restoration, and in group II, the SDF was used. All samples were tested for microleakage using methylene blue assay and evaluated under stereomicroscope. Results: Group I samples showed minimal microleakage when compared with group II with a p value <0.002. Conclusion: Silver diamine fluoride would not be an alternative to dental varnish.



Guttikonda Venkateshwara Rao, Vem Preethi, Velagala Daneswari, Venugopal Reddy, Venumbaka Sivakalyan, Rajesh Garge

A Comparative Study of Salivary Flow Rate, pH, Buffer Capacity, Total Antioxidant Capacity, and Ferritin Levels in Children with Beta Thalassemia Major and Healthy Children

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:342 - 348]

Keywords: Beta thalassemia major, Buffering capacity, Ferritin levels, pH, Salivary flow rate, Total antioxidant capacity

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1955  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Thalassemia is a genetically diverse group of disease which occurs due to an imbalance in the production of the alpha and beta chains with ensuring chronic hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload. Aim and objective: The main aim of the study is to compare the salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, total antioxidant capacity, and ferritin levels in children with beta thalassemia major and healthy children. Materials and methods: The present study includes 40 children consisting of 20 beta thalassemia major and 20 healthy children. Unstimulated saliva was collected by the spitting method. The salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, total antioxidant capacity, and ferritin levels were evaluated. Results: Salivary ferritin levels were found to be higher in children with beta thalassemia major. Conclusion: Iron overload is also known as hemochromatosis which is one of the complications of thalassemia.



Tulika Shruti, Harikiran A Govindraju, Jyotsna Sriranga

Incorporation of Storytelling as a Method of Oral Health Education among 3–6-year-old Preschool Children

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:349 - 352]

Keywords: Experimental study, Game-based oral health education, Oral healthcare, Oral health knowledge, Pediatric oral health, Preschool children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1946  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To find the effectiveness of storytelling as a method of oral health education among 3–6-year-old preschool children. Design: A non-randomized experimental pre–post study design. Setting: Preschools located in urban Bengaluru. Subjects: Two hundred, 3–6 years, preschool children. Intervention: An age-appropriate story with oral health messages was delivered using hand puppets during the storytelling session in preschool. Measures: A self-administered 11-item picture-based, closed-ended questionnaire assessed children's knowledge and attitude at baseline and post-intervention. A 1-week audit sheet to monitor the brushing, eating, and mouth rinsing pattern was administered for the parents to measure the change in behavior post-intervention. Analysis: Change in KAP mean scores was assessed using the “Wilcoxon Sign Rank test” at p < 0.05. “Cohen's d” was used to calculate the “Effect size”. Results: Significant improvement was observed in mean KAP score (pre 7.52 ± 1.95 post 8.60 ± 1.55, p = 0.0001) with effect size 0.2. There was a significant increase in the knowledge and attitude and practice score, knowledge (pre 2.97 ± 1.02, post 3.63 ± 0.78, p = 0.0001, effect size: 0.3), attitude (2.27 ± 0.81, 2.77 ± 0.60, p = 0.000, effect size: 0.3), and practice (2.04 ± 1.07, 2.28 ± 0.60, p = 0.0001, effect size: 0.1). Conclusion: The storytelling method was effective in improving the oral health-related KAP of children aged 3–6 years. Significance: This study attempts to inculcate good oral hygiene practices at a very early stage by targeting 3–6-year-old preschool children. Storytelling being humankind's oldest form of teaching and motivating change, can not only address the prevailing oral disease burden but also the oral health inequality by reaching out to every community.



Priya Subramaniam, Simerleen K Ghai

Efficacy of an Innovative Device in Reducing Discomfort during Local Anesthesia Administration in Children: A Clinical Study

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:353 - 356]

Keywords: Local anesthesia, SEM scale, Vibrating device

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1948  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To assess the efficacy of an innovative vibrating device and compare it with the conventional method in reducing discomfort during the administration of local anesthesia. Materials and methods: Forty children in the age-group of 4–8 years requiring local anesthesia for routine dental procedures were allocated to either a control or experimental group, with 20 children in each group. The preoperative assessment of behavior was carried out using the Frankl Behavior Rating Scale. Both groups received local anesthesia using the intraoral conventional approach. However, in the experimental group, a vibrating device was simultaneously placed over the cheek during local anesthesia administration. The SEM (sounds, eyes, motor) scale was used to assess the level of comfort or pain during the administration of local anesthesia. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and the level of significance was considered at 5%. Results: The mean SEM score in the control group was 6.65 ± 21.95 which was significantly higher than 3.80 ± 1.15 in the experimental group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The vibrating device was useful and effective in reducing pain and discomfort during intraoral local anesthesia administration.



Mohamed A Asal, Abeer M Abdellatif, Hossam E Hammouda

Clinical and Microbiological Assessment of Carisolv and Polymer Bur for Selective Caries Removal in Primary Molars

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:357 - 363]

Keywords: Carisolv, Chemomechanical caries removal, Minimally invasive dentistry, Polymer burs, Selective caries removal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1956  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To assess the efficacy of the new Carisolv system and Polymer bur (SmartbursII®) for selective caries removal in primary molars clinically and microbiologically, compared with the conventional mechanical method. Materials and methods: Sixty children with class I active carious lesions were selected. The children were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 20) according to the caries removal method. Under rubber dam isolation, dentin samples were taken before and after caries removal for microbial culture. Time spent in each technique was recorded. The clinical efficacy of caries removal was verified using caries detector dye. Patient satisfaction toward the treatment was evaluated using a facial image scale. Results: The median of caries detector dye scores was significantly lower in the conventional group compared to others (p value < 0.05). The mean time for caries removal was the longest with Carisolv (p value < 0.05). The median of facial image scale scores was significantly higher in the conventional group compared with others (p value < 0.05). The mean total viable bacterial count after caries removal was significantly higher in polymer bur group compared with others (p value < 0.05). While, there was no significant difference between Carisolv and conventional groups (p value > 0.05). Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of caries removal was highest with the mechanical method. Carisolv took the longest time for caries removal. Patient satisfaction was higher with Carisolv and polymer bur than the mechanical method. The antimicrobial efficacy of Carisolv and the mechanical method was higher than the polymer bur. Clinical significance: Carisolv is a viable alternative to the mechanical method in the management of dental caries, especially in children. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of caries removal by SmartbursII®.



Nikhil G Patel, Swara Shah, Akash Ardeshana, Pratik B Kariya, Harshangi N Patel

Comparison of Plaque Removal Efficacy with Powered and Manual Toothbrushes in 10–14-year-old Visually and Auditory Impaired Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:364 - 368]

Keywords: Manual toothbrush, Plaque index, Powered toothbrush, Sensory impaired children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1949  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To compare dental plaque removal efficacy with a manual and powered toothbrush in 10–14 years old visually and auditory impaired children. Material and methods: The proposed study was a randomized controlled study. The ethical approval was obtained from the institutional ethical board. The written informed consent for the study was taken from the parents. The 60 participants were categorized into group I: visually impaired (30) and group II: speech and hearing impaired (30) which were again divided into I1 (manual toothbrush) and I2 (powered toothbrush); II1 (manual toothbrush) and II2 (powered toothbrush), respectively. The baseline score was recorded using Turesky–Gilmor–Glickman Modification of The Quigley–Hein plaque Index. The oral prophylaxis was performed and then randomization of the toothbrush group was done with concealed allocation method. The plaque-removal efficacy was evaluated at the end of the 15 days in the visually and hearing-impaired children. Results: The mean score of dental plaque at baseline was 1.44 for the manual toothbrush group and 1.65 for the powered toothbrush group in visually impaired children, respectively. In blind children with a manual toothbrush, the mean score difference was 0.14 while the powered toothbrush showed the mean score difference of 0.30 which is significant. The mean score of dental plaque at baseline was 1.74 for the manual toothbrush group and 1.80 for the powered toothbrush group in auditory impaired children. In auditory impaired children with manual toothbrushes, the mean score difference was 0.15 while the powered toothbrush showed the mean score of 0.32 which was significant. Conclusion: Dental plaque reduction was significantly better with the powered toothbrush as compared to a manual toothbrush in visually and auditory impaired children.



Saumya Singh, Bhavna G Saraf, KR Indushekhar

Estimation of the Intercanine Width, Intermolar Width, Arch Length, and Arch Perimeter and Its Comparison in 12–17-year-old Children of Faridabad

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:369 - 375]

Keywords: Maxillary central incisor, Maxillary first molar, Primary dentition

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1957  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Dental arch morphology is an important consideration in the orthodontic treatment of dentofacial deformities. The size and shape of the arches have considerable implications in treatment planning, affecting space available, dental esthetics, and stability of dentition. The data provided by this study will be of considerable importance and relevance for practicing orthodontists and pedodontists in the region of Faridabad Aim and objective: This study aims to determine and compare the intercanine width, intermolar width, arch length, and arch perimeter in the early adolescent group (12–14 years) and middle adolescent group (15–17 years) of Faridabad. Materials and methods: Maxillary and mandibular impressions were made, study casts were prepared then the measurement of the individual intercanine widths, intermolar widths, arch length of maxillary and mandibular casts with the digital caliper, and arch perimeter with the help of brass wire was taken, obtained values were calculated, hence the results were evaluated. Statistical analysis: Data were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. It was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Graphs were prepared using Microsoft Excel. Data were normally distributed as tested using the Shapiro-Wilk W test (p value was <0.05). Inferential statistics were performed using independent Student's t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In the present study, all the parameters measured were increased in males in both the age-groups, i.e., the early adolescent group (12–14 years) and the mid adolescent group (15–17 years), and a significant increase was seen in the intercanine and intermolar widths in males.



Anupama Gaur, Meenakshi Sharma, Rajesh Sharma

Quantifying Dietary Diversity by Using Food Group Scores among Schoolchildren of Jaipur: A Seasonal Longitudinal Study

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:376 - 382]

Keywords: Food group scores, Nutritional counseling, Schoolchildren, Seasonal variation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1975  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Need of the study: Most dentists are concerned that their patients are consuming a record number of sugar-filled sodas, sweetened fruit drinks, and other stuff that affect their oral environment. Children are invariably the victims of these foodstuffs. These items generally have very little nutritional value, albeit their commercial value. Thus, dietary habits and the choice of food among children and teens are important factors that determine how quickly they may develop oral diseases. Thus, to design good intervention programs and preventive strategies, information on food habits and dietary intake of the target population is very important. Aim and objective: To determine dietary diversity using food group score (FGS) among 12–15 years schoolchildren of urban and rural areas of Jaipur. Materials and methods: Jaipur district is divided into 13 Tehsils. Based on a simple random number table, Bhanpur (Rural) and Central Jaipur (Urban) were selected for the present study. Food group scores were calculated from the 5-day diet diary of the study subjects. Results: Scores were found to be higher in winters as compared to the summer season and this difference is observed to be highly statistically significant. Scores were found to be higher in urban schoolchildren as compared to rural and the difference was highly statistically significant among urban schoolchildren in winters. Scores were found to be higher among private schoolchildren as compared to government and this difference was highly statistically significant among schoolchildren belonging to urban areas. Conclusion: There is a need for nutritional counseling and basic oral health care in the study area irrespective of the season. The dietary diversity of children is determined by social, psychological, and economic factors. Thus, counseling should be given accordingly in conjunction with a team of health professionals including physicians, dieticians, and dentists under the supervision of parents, guardians, and schoolteachers and management.



Sampanna Kalita, Nidhi Agarwal

Comparative Evaluation of Cleaning Capacity and Efficiency of Kedo-S Pediatric Rotary Files, Rotary ProTaper, and Hand K Files in Primary Molar Pulpectomy

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:383 - 387]

Keywords: Biomechanical preparation, Kedo-S rotary files, Pediatric rotary files, ProTaper rotary file, Pulpectomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1958  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To assess and compare the cleaning efficacy and instrumentation time of K files, ProTaper, and Kedo-S rotary files in primary molars. Materials and methods: India ink was injected into 120 root canals of selected primary molars. The root canals were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on instrumentation technique: group I—K files, group II—ProTaper, and group III—Kedo-S. After instrumentation with respective method, the canals were cleared and observed under a stereomicroscope, the instrumentation time for each root canal was also measured with a stopwatch. Statistical analysis was done with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni. Result: Kedo-S rotary files performed significantly better cleaning of the canals in the coronal and middle third than ProTaper and K files (p = 0.0001). In the apical third, the difference between the two rotary systems was not significant. The time taken for instrumentation was lowest with Kedo-S followed by ProTaper and K files. Conclusion: Kedo-S pediatric rotary system showed significantly better cleaning than ProTaper rotary system and K files in cleaning primary molar root canals. Clinical relevance: The anatomy and morphology of primary teeth demand a specialized file system that will overcome the shortcomings of conventional biomechanical preparation. Kedo-S files, being exclusive pediatric rotary files, might prove to be a boon in primary canal preparation.



Senthil Dhakshinamoorthy, Trophimus G Jayakaran, Charishma S Bommareddy

Comparison of Modified Triple Antibiotic Paste in Two Concentrations for Lesion Sterilization and Tissue Repair in Primary Molars: An In Vivo Interventional Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:388 - 392]

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, Concentration, Irreversible pulpitis, Lesion sterilization and tissue repair, Metronidazole, Primary teeth, Randomized clinical trial

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1951  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: “Lesion sterilization and tissue repair” (LSTR) is a non-instrumentation endodontic treatment modality that has recently gained popularity with promising results in several clinical trials. However, there is a dearth of evidence regarding the concentration of modified triple antibiotic paste (MTAP) to be used for the procedure. Aim and objective: To compare the clinical and radiographic efficacy of 1 mg/mL and 1 g/mL concentrations of MTAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and clindamycin) used in LSTR of primary molars. Materials and methods: Sixty-four infected primary molars in children between 4 years and 10 years of age were randomly allocated to two groups. Lesion sterilization and tissue repair at 1 mg/mL concentration of MTAP (group I) and 1 g/mL concentration of MTAP (group II) was performed. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated using Coll and Sadrian's criteria at 10 days, 1 month, and 3 months and the results were tabulated. Statistical analysis: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis with IBM.SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version. To test the significance in categorical data, a Chi-square test was used. The probability value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: At the end of 3 months review, clinical success rates of group I and group II were 84.4 and 90.6%, respectively, and radiographic evaluation showed group I–78.1% and group II–90.6%. Conclusion: Both 1 mg/mL and 1 g/mL concentrations of MTAP used in LSTR of primary molars had similar success rates with no statistically significant difference. Clinical significance: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair when found to be equally effective in less concentration may aid in achieving adequate infection control with the least detrimental effect on the remaining vital pulp and periradicular structures. In addition, this circumvents the systemic administration of potent antibiotics thus combating antibiotic resistance.



Deepak B Mata, Attiguppe Ramasetty Prabhakar, Yarmunja Mahabala Karuna, Suryan Sugandhan, Nisma Zahoor, Amitha Mahendrapa Shagale

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Triclosan-incorporated Root Canal Filling Materials for Primary Teeth against Enterococcus faecalis

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:393 - 397]

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Endoflas FS, Enterococcus fecalis, Triclosan, Zinc oxide eugenol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1960  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To compare the antibacterial activity of root canal filling materials namely zinc oxide eugenol and Endoflas FS with or without the incorporation of Triclosan. Materials and methods: The study consisted of four groups, with 15 samples in each group: group I (zinc oxide eugenol paste), group Ia (zinc oxide eugenol paste + 2.5% Triclosan), group II (Endoflas FS), and group IIa (Endoflas FS + 2.5% Triclosan). A double layer agar well diffusion test was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The zones of microbial inhibition were measured at the end of 24 hours, 6th day, and 29th day. Results: On intergroup comparison, the difference in the antibacterial activity was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). Among the various groups evaluated, group IIa showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis followed by group II, group Ia, and the least activity being shown by group I throughout the experimental periods. On intragroup comparison at different time intervals, a maximum zone of inhibition was seen at 24 hours with a p value < 0.05 in all the tested groups. Conclusion: Incorporation of 2.5% triclosan into zinc oxide eugenol and Endoflas FS enhanced the antimicrobial activity of both the root canal filling materials with lasting antimicrobial activity even at the end of the 29th day. Clinical significance: The antimicrobial efficacy of a root canal filling material is an ideal requirement, which will help in combating the residual microflora present in the root canal system following chemomechanical preparation. The addition of an antimicrobial agent such as triclosan to the root canal filling materials, enhances their antimicrobial efficacy significantly and thus, rendering the pulpectomy-treated tooth with a better prognosis.



Monica Gogia

From Lockdown to Slow Release: Pediatric Dental Services during COVID-19 Pandemic—Emergency Preparedness and Impact on Future

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:398 - 402]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019, Emergency management, Lockdown, Pediatric dental emergency services

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1962  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to global pandemic raising significant challenges to the healthcare professionals due to its high transmission rate via droplet spread or direct contact. Pediatric dentists play an important role in the healthcare system by managing dental emergencies in children while taking special measures to practice universal infection control in this COVID-19 pandemic. However, data are limited pertaining to the prevalence, etiology, and treatment provided to children at pediatric dental emergency services during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Aim and objective: To assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period on Pediatric Dental Emergency Services. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted using data of patients aged 0–14 years who visited the Pediatric Dental Emergency Services, during the COVID-19 lockdown period from March 23, 2020, to August 31, 2020. Information regarding age, gender, time of presentation, chief complaint, and treatment were collected and analyzed. Results: This study revealed that dental emergencies in the pediatric dental services were predominantly related to dental pain (54.49%) followed by an abscess (12.35%), traumatic dental injuries (8.42%), and swelling (8.42%). A 5-year-old was the most prevalent age-group who reported dental emergencies. Conclusion: Dental pain was the most common chief complaint of patients reporting during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the recent state of affairs obligates the need to strike a balance between the safety of the healthcare professionals and providing optimum dental care to the patients requiring emergency intervention. While dental emergencies are unforeseeable, increasing community awareness about proper at-home care routines and utilizing regular dental preventive measures can potentially reduce the number of emergency visits.



Joyson Moses, M Vijayakumar, P Shankar

Prevalence of Dental Caries among Different Socioeconomic Status and their Treatment Needs among 5–15-year-old School-going Children in Maduravoyal Area, Chennai

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:9] [Pages No:403 - 411]

Keywords: Dental caries, Incidence, Maduravoyal, Pediatric dentistry, Prevalence, Treatment needs

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1963  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dental cariology is a discipline with history as long as that of human civilization. It has seen numerous growth and decline phases from the epidemiological perspective. Nevertheless, despite huge amounts of funds being allotted by various international agencies to estimate the prevalence and assess the treatment needs, there always exists a gap between collected data and actual scenarios due to the in-availability of feasible approaches to include all people as samples and assess the statistics, especially the rural population of developing countries. To solve this issue, investigators from various geographic denominations should come forward to present the situation in their dominion. This paper is a report on the prevalence of dental caries in school-going children aged 5–15 years, belonging to various socioeconomic strata. These results have testified to the positive correlation between increased westernization and the prevalence of dental caries. It is also seen that lower economic strata have more predilection for a healthier diet and resultant low prevalence in dental caries. Thus, this study has thrown valuable light on epidemiological aspects of dental caries in Maduravoyal, Chennai-based rural population, which can be used for various planning activities.



Gajula Shivashankarappa Prathima, Mudiarasu Narmatha, Arumugam Selvabalaji, Govindasamy Ezhumalai

Effects of Xylitol and CPP-ACP Chewing Gum on Salivary Properties of Children with Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:412 - 415]

Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, Chewing gum, Molar-incisor hypomineralization, Remineralization, Saliva, Xylitol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1779  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare the efficacy of chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol on salivary characteristics in 8–10 years old children with molar incisor hypomineralization. Materials and methods: A randomized controlled trial using CPP-ACP chewing gums (group I) and xylitol chewing gums (group II) was conducted among 32 children affected with mild molarincisor hypomineralization (MIH). Salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity were measured using saliva check kit (GC America). Data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20. Descriptive statistics–mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval. Inferential statistics–independent t tests were used. Results: A significant increase in mean salivary pH, flow rate and buffering action was observed from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum in both the study groups (p 0.05). Conclusion: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gums improve salivary characteristics in MIH-affected children. Clinical significance: Xylitol and CPP-ACP chewing gums are recommended in MIH children with early demarcated opacities as it improves the salivary properties in those children and prevents further complications.



Vasu Vaid, Shivam Gupta

Forensic Odontological Parameters as Biometric Tool: A Review

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:416 - 419]

Keywords: Ameloglyphics, Biometrics, Cheiloscopy, Dental biometrics, Forensic odontology, Radiographs, Smile, Tongue prints

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1967  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Human identification by virtue of dental identification is on the increase in the past few years and has served as a major adjunct in the identification process. The science associated with the dealing of evidences from dental, oral, and paraoral structures—Forensic Odontology, is a boon in itself. It has been seen that the role of forensic odontology has increased as most of the times teeth and other orally associated structures remain the only means of identification in the worst of scenarios where the conventional biometrics such as fingerprint, iris scan, palm print, etc., may be lost and are therefore not reliable enough to resolve the purpose of identification. There are various important aspects in forensic odontology which are associated with the study of tooth prints, i.e., ameloglyphics, radiographs, the study of palatal rugae patterns, i.e., rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, i.e., the study of lip patterns, tongue prints which can serve as an important biometric tool to aid in the human identification process. Dental biometrics helps to determine several parameters that serve in the interest of forensics such as type of specimen, population affinity, sex, age, stature, race, and various other individualization factors. So, comparative dental identifications with the help of a biometric recognition system will play a major role in identifying deceased individuals in disasters, crimes, or any other mass tragedies.



Abhishek Vamshi, David Tyro

Can 4% Articaine Buccal Infiltration Replace Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) with 2% Xylocaine for Pulp Therapy in Primary Mandibular Molars? A Systematic Review

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:420 - 425]

Keywords: Articaine, Buccal, Children, Inferior alveolar nerve block, Infiltration, Lignocaine, Pulp therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1974  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This systematic review aims to compare the efficacy of 4% articaine buccal supraperiosteal/infiltration to that of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) with 2% xylocaine in providing pulpal anesthesia for carrying out pulp therapy of deciduous mandibular molars in children. Materials and methods: PubMed, Cochrane Registry, and Ovid SP were searched in the timeframe between years 1991 and 2020 with appropriate MeSH terms. Full texts were selected only after a preliminary screening of relevant titles and abstracts. Results: Five studies were involved for the final qualitative analysis. The parameter sought for was “Pain during pulp therapy after injection with buccal supraperiosteal/infiltration (4% articaine) or IANB (2% lignocaine) in primary mandibular molars. Three studies evaluated objective pain (operator reported) during pulp therapy, reported significantly lower pain scores with articaine buccal infiltration (BI). Among the two studies that evaluated subjective pain, one study reported a significantly lower pain score with the articaine BI group. The other study reported no difference statistically between both groups. Conclusion: Under the bounds of this systematic review, BI with 4% articaine might be equivalent to IANB with 2% lignocaine for providing pulpal anesthesia required for pulp therapy procedures in primary mandibular molars; however, the quality of evidence is low, more number of well-controlled studies with adequate sized sample should be conducted out to verify the same.



Lubna Al-Muzian, Deema Farsi, Shilpa Hiremath

Global Scenario of Teledentistry during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Insight

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:426 - 429]

Keywords: Corona, Diagnosis, Emergency

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1952  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


With the advent of the coronavirus pandemic, dentistry has faced a halt as it involves face-to-face interaction with patients which had to be suspended for quite some time. Teledentistry (TD) can offer an innovative solution to resume dental practice during this pandemic. This paper gives an insight into the practice of TD being used in various countries to aid in the management of dental problems arising during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. It also reviews the utilization of TD for academic institutions to facilitate educating dental students across the globe.



Ajay Mehta

Diagnostic Challenge Involving Diffuse Mandibular Swelling in Mixed Dentition: Use of Cone-beam Radiography

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:430 - 433]

Keywords: Garre's osteomyelitis, Mandibular osteomyelitis, Osteomyelitis, Proliferative periostitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1947  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This case report aims to discuss a case of chronic osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis (COPP) in which cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) played a key role in the diagnosis and identification of the disease. Background: Osteomyelitis is frequently seen in the maxillofacial region, with the mandible being more affected as compared to the maxilla. Chronic osteomyelitis with proliferative periostitis is often seen in children and young adults, which occurs due to the spread of infection from a bacterial focus. Case description: A 12-year-old boy presented with a swelling on the right side of the mandible. Extraorally, the swelling appeared diffuse, non-tender, hard on palpation, and was associated with right submandibular lymphadenopathy. Intraorally, a hard bony protrusion was found on the buccal aspect of the edentulous space of the first premolar region obliterating the vestibular depth. It was provisionally diagnosed to be a case of chronic alveolar abscess with respect to deciduous molar, with a suspicion of some underlying bony pathology. Blood investigations showed a raised value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and alkaline phosphatase. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations showed bony laminations parallel to each other and the underlying cortical bone in the axial and sagittal images and these were present both buccally and lingually. The CBCT descriptions led to the diagnosis of Garre's osteomyelitis in this case which was later confirmed by histopathological examination. Conclusion: The detailed imaging as well as the three-dimensional reconstruction of the images has helped to reach out to a differential diagnosis in this case. Clinical significance: This case report emphasizes the importance of newer techniques such as CBCT in reaching out at a diagnostic conclusion in challenging clinical cases.



Shweta Kajjari, A Gowtham, Priya Meharwade

Infected Radicular Cyst of Deciduous Second Molar Mimicking Dentigerous Cyst of Second Premolar in a Young Child: A Rare Entity

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:434 - 437]

Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, Enucleation, Obturator, Radicular cyst

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1954  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Radicular cysts are the most common cystic lesions in the oral cavity. Radicular cysts have a rare occurrence in the primary dentition. Radicular cysts arising from deciduous teeth are reported to occur in the age range of 3–19 years with a male predominance. The etiological factor is long-standing dental caries and dental trauma. The present case report describes the inflammatory radicular cyst involving the deciduous mandibular second molar. Surgical management includes enucleation of the cyst along with mandibular second premolar in a 5-year-old female patient. The surgical cavity was closed by an obturator appliance to maintain the patency. Eventful healing was seen after 3 months of follow-up.



Haseeb Ahammed, Seema Thakur, Jayam Cheranjeevi

Complex Odontoma at an Unusual Site in a Child: A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:438 - 440]

Keywords: Complex odontoma, Radiograph, Surgical removal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1950  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Odontomas are known as the most common odontogenic tumor and usually present without clinical symptoms. It can be divided into compound odontoma and complex odontoma. Compound odontomas are calcified tissue and they bear similarity to the teeth, whereas complex odontomas do not show similarity to the tooth. Diagnosis of the odontomas is usually accidental on radiographic examination. Complex odontomas are commonly seen in the posterior mandible. Apart from the few case reports regarding the complex odontoma of the anterior mandibular region, reported occurrence in this site is rare. Here, authors described a case of a child who presented with a chief complaint of swelling in the anterior mandibular canine region. After clinical examination and required investigations, provisionally, it was diagnosed as complex odontoma. It was surgically removed and histopathological examination confirmed the provisional diagnosis.



Minal M Kshirsagar, Arun S Dodamani, Girija A Dodamani, Vrushali R Khobragade, Yogesh Garg, Rahul N Deokar

Teledentistry: A New Horizon in COVID-19 Pandemic for Oral Health

[Year:2021] [Month:May-June] [Volume:14] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:441 - 442]

Keywords: Dentistry, Pandemics, Teleconsultation, Telehealth, Telemedicine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1970  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Currently, all of us are experiencing emotions, thoughts, and situations we have never experienced before. It is not that there were no pandemics earlier. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, health issues are growing. It has shaken the entire world and created global panic. In a way, it is affecting oral health also. Taking care of oral health is as important as looking after physical health. There is a need for a range of treatments to anticipate oral health issues. Strategies to combat these oral health issues should use options like teledentistry to develop effective methods of support.


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