International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2020 | July-August | Volume 13 | Issue 4

Original Article

Sarangapani Radha, Gurusamy Kayalvizhi, Gajula S Prathima, Kirthika Muthusamy, Nagendrababu Jagadesaan

Comparative Evaluation of the Remineralizing Efficacy of Fluoride Varnish and its Combination Varnishes on White Spot Lesions in Children with ECC: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:311 - 317]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1673  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the remineralizing efficacy of fluoride and its combination varnishes on white spot lesion (WSL) in children with early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and methods: Sixty children with active WSL on primary maxillary anterior teeth were randomly selected. At baseline, the WSL activity was evaluated using ICDAS II [lesion activity assessment (LAA)] and its dimensions through photographic method. They were allocated to group I (GI) (5% NaF), group II (GII) [5% NaF with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)], and group III (GIII) [5% NaF with casein phosphopeptides – amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP –ACP)]. First, oral hygiene instructions and diet counseling were given followed by application of fluoride varnishes in their respective groups. The same parameters were recorded at follow-up of 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks intervals. Data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using Friedman Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Overall, the active WSL changed to inactive over a period of 24 weeks in GI was 90%, GII was 95%, and 100% in GIII. There was a significant reduction in dimension of WSL in GI from 4.119 to 2.525 (p = 0.0001). Likewise, there was a significant reduction in dimension of WSL in GII and GIII from 4.586 to 3.258 and 4.696 to 1.2155, respectively (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001). Comparatively, group III (MI varnish) showed statistically significant reduction in the dimension of WSL from baseline to 24 weeks (p = 0.002). But the results were statistically insignificant with change of active lesions to its inactivity (p = 0.349). Conclusion: Fluoride varnish with CPP–ACP was found to be an effective preventive strategy in reversing WSL in children with ECC. Clinical relevance: These combination varnishes could prove to be a promising preventive measure for pediatric dentists in reversing white spot lesions of ECC. Clinical trial registry: NCT03360266.

Original Article

Sapna Konde, Saleem Sumaiyya

“Thaumaturgy”— A Novel Behavior-shaping Technique

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:318 - 321]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1781  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of thaumaturgy in alleviation of anxiety in children aged 2–13 years. Materials and methods: Two hundred and forty children aged 2–13 years, identified as manifesting strong-willed behavior were selected for this study. The children were randomly assigned to be managed by one of the three thaumaturgic distraction techniques. Anxiety was assessed before and after the local anesthetic procedure using the anxiety facial scale. Results: There was a significant decrease in anxiety with the use of thaumaturgic techniques. Thumb and light trick significantly reduced anxiety in children aged 2–7 years, book trick reduced anxiety in children aged 7–11 years, and item tricks in children aged 11–13 years. Conclusion: The use of thaumaturgy plays an important role in shaping the behavior of a child in pediatric dentistry. The age and cognitive development of child dictates the technique to be used. Clinical significance: Thaumaturgy helps to render effective dental treatment in uncooperative children and instill a positive attitude.

Original Article

Kesha Sheth, Sonali Kapoor, Shilpi Daveshwar

Comparison of Cone-beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography to Determine the Proximity of Periapical Lesions to Anatomical Structures in Premaxillary Area prior to Surgical Endodontics: A Clinical Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:322 - 326]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1783  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: In the anterior maxillary region when periapical (PA) surgery is contemplated, knowledge of relation between root apices and lesion, spatial relationship of tooth root to adjacent anatomical structures is essential. The aim of this study was to compare cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and PA radiography to determine the proximity of PA lesions to anatomical structures in the premaxillary area for decision-making before apical surgery. Materials and methods: Twenty subjects were selected. Three endodontists viewed PA radiographs and CBCT images. These observers (1) determined proximity of lesion to anatomical structures and (2) made decisions on treatment based on each imaging modality. Chi-square test was used to check the relationship between the treatment plans given by PA radiographs and CBCT images. Reliability of the observations was evaluated using intraclass correlation (ICC). Results: Significant difference was noted in the treatment plan selected by the observers using the two modalities (p < 0.05). Conclusion: After the lesions were observed with CBCT, there was an increase in the number of teeth involved with the lesion. A change in the observer\'s treatment plan was recorded after viewing the CBCT scans.

Original Article

Zarah AH Dahas, Huda AJ Khormi, V Satish, Prabhadevi Maganur, Alhassan AA Owis, Sanjeev B Khanagar, Wejdan AM Alowi

Correlation of Feeding Practices and Dental Caries among Preschool Children of Jazan, KSA: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:327 - 331]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1784  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: Breastfeeding is integral for the healthy development of infants during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the feeding practices and their effect on dental health among Saudi children in rural Jazan, the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 participants from two villages namely Baish and Abu-Areesh of Jazan Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Mothers whose children were above 2 years of age agreed for a face-to-face interview to discuss about feeding practices followed for their children. Later, these children underwent a complete dental examination. Results: In this study, it was found that a majority of mothers, 203 (61.15%) of them breastfed their children for less than a year, 105 (31.8%) of them breastfed for 2 to 4 years, and the remaining 22 (6.6%) of them breastfed for more than 4 years. Two hundred and forty-nine (75.15%) moms reported that they added sugar to milk while feeding and 259 (78.4%) mothers reported using sugar with pacifiers. Increased incidence of caries was seen with a statistically significant difference in children who were fed during sleep (p = 0.038), when the infant\'s teeth were not brushed after feeding (p = 0.004), and when sugar was added while feeding (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was high in children who were fed during sleep and also in those kids using pacifiers containing sugar. Oral hygiene practices were also inadequate and positively associated with dental caries. These findings are suggestive of developing general and oral health interventions for children and also educating mothers on appropriate feeding practices.

Original Article

Cheranjeevi Jayam

Comparative Evaluation of Dentin Removal and Taper of Root Canal Preparation of Hand K File, ProTaper Rotary File, and Kedo S Rotary File in Primary Molars Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:332 - 336]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1787  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Various rotary endodontic instruments were used and studied for the root canal preparation of the primary teeth. Recently, a new venture evolved in the field of pediatric endodontic, which was Kedo S rotary files. These are the files designed exclusively for root canal preparation of the primary teeth. Aim: The study aimed to comparatively evaluate the dentin removal and taper of root canal preparation of Hand K files, Rotary Prosper files, and Rotary Kedo S files using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and instrumentation time using stopwatch in primary molars. Materials and methods: Sixty-three root canals of maxillary and mandibular primary molars were included in the study. The root canals were randomly assigned to Hand K file (group I), Rotary ProTaper file (group II), and Rotary Kedo S file (group III). Dentin removal and taper of the root canal preparations were evaluated by using CBCT. Results: All the three file systems do not show any statistical significant differences at middle third and apical third but at coronal third, Kedo S removed significantly less amount of dentin as compared to the Hand K file. Taper of the preparations did not show significant differences, even though the rotary files showed good taper in maximum number of root canals. Conclusion: Although not much statistical significant differences were observed in our study, the rotary file system performed slightly better in root canal preparations in primary molars.

Original Article

Hazim Mohamed Rizk, Mohamed Sherif Salah AL-Deen, Asmaa Aly Emam

Pulp Revascularization/Revitalization of Bilateral Upper Necrotic Immature Permanent Central Incisors with Blood Clot vs Platelet-rich Fibrin Scaffolds—A Split-mouth Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:337 - 343]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1788  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives: Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the regeneration of bilateral necrotic upper permanent central incisors with open apex using blood clot (BC) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) scaffolds. Trial design: Split-mouth double-blind parallel arm randomized controlled clinical trial. Materials and methods: Randomization and blinding: The study started with 15 patients with bilateral necrotic upper permanent central incisors with open apex. Computer-generated tables were used to allocate treatments. The two maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to either the control (BC scaffold) or the examined (PRF scaffold) groups. Participants: Thirteen patients aged 8–14 years fulfilled the study requirements. Follow-up was performed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Standardized radiographs were collected each 3 months, and difference in measurements was calculated using Image J software. Primary outcomes measured were sinus/fistula formation, pain complaint, mobility grade, and swelling presence/absence. Radiographic: Root length elongation and increase in root thickness. Secondary outcomes were sensibility test and crown color change. Radiographic: Change in bone density and apical diameter. Radiographs that were standardized used during the follow-up time, and occurred changes were calculated using Image J software. Results: One patient was lost during follow-up; therefore, 24 treated teeth were analyzed, they showed 100% success rate. Platelet-rich fibrin teeth displayed a statistically significant growth in radiographic root length and width, increased periapical bone density, and a reduction in apical diameter when compared with BC. At the end of the follow-up period, all treated teeth were negative to sensibility test. Blood clot displayed greater crown discoloration in comparison to PRF group. Conclusion: For teeth with open apex and necrotic pulp, revascularization using PRF is an appropriate substitute to BC.

Original Article

Vipul Yadav, Vikrant Mohanty, Aditi Verma, Puneet Chahar, Geetanjali Yadav

Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among Dental Undergraduates in Delhi

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:344 - 347]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1789  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Emotional intelligence (EI) is understanding one\'s own feeling and able to handle those feelings without disturbing themselves. Medical schools are stressful and the ability to manage stress is a major factor of success for these students. The current study contributes further insight to body of research in EI as it relates to students\' stress in education, especially among dental undergraduates of Delhi. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, convenient sampling-based survey was conducted among 323 dental undergraduates from all the 3 dental Institutions across Delhi. The Schutte Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress scale instruments were administered to all the students of four professional years. The data analysis was done using SPSS V.17 and various statistical tests were used to determine significant difference. Results: No significant differences were found among gender as well as among professional groups for EI. There was a significant difference (0.008) among gender with respect to perceived stress. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship between EI and PS (r = −0.227) which was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Training in dental education could be quite stressful due to their time-bound work, but regular student performance assessment and associated factors would allow understanding student behavior in handling situations.

Original Article

Kiran Y Chandregowda, Kavyashree B Shankarappa, Amitha H Anandkumar, Akshatha B Sampangi Ramegowda, Dilipkumar K Honnegowda

Assessment of Dental Caries Status and Oral Hygiene Practices among 6–10-year-old Rural and Urban Schoolchildren in South Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:348 - 354]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1791  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Dental caries is the most common disease affecting oral cavity. Despite credible scientific advances and the fact that dental caries is preventable, the disease continues to be a major public health problem. Aim: To assess the dental caries status and oral hygiene practices among 6–10-year-old rural and urban schoolchildren in south Bengaluru. Materials and methods: A total of 452 children from four schools which included one government school from rural and urban area and one private school from rural and urban area in south Bengaluru. Detailed pro forma was used, and information was recorded through an interview system. The examination for dental caries was made according to the dentition status and treatment needs as described by the World Health Organization (1997) using Community Periodontal Index Probe and Plane Mouth Mirror (type III examination), under natural day light in school premises. The examination was done by a single examiner and recorded by the trained personnel. Results: Prevalence of dental caries was more in rural schoolchildren. More than five decayed teeth were documented in higher percentage of children in rural government school, while it was much less in children of other schools. Conclusion: A comprehensive community-focused oral healthcare intervention that includes oral health education in elementary schools and homes is recommended to increase general oral health awareness.

Original Article

Namratha Tharay, SVSG Nirmala, Venkata N Bavikati, Sivakumar Nuvvula

Dermatoglyphics as a Novel Method for Assessing Intelligence Quotient in Children Aged 5–11 Years: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:355 - 360]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1793  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To measure the IQ and record dermatoglyphic patterns of children including intellectually disabled aged between 5 years and 11 years and to correlate them. Materials and methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted in two private schools in the city corporation limits. A total of 300 children aged between 5 years and 11 years were equally allocated into three groups based on IQ using covariate adaptive randomization. IQ of the children was measured using Raven\'s Coloured Progressive Matrices. Bilateral palmar and finger prints were obtained on A4-size papers by ink method using rolling technique. Prints thus obtained were analyzed for dermatoglyphic variables using magnification lens and are read based on Cummins and Midlo classification for fingertip patterns and Bali and Chaube classification for palmar flexion creases. The data were entered and statistically analyzed. For statistical significance, a two-tailed probability value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The current study suggests a relationship between different fingertip patterns of digits of I, II, III, and IV of left and right hand and also digit V of right hand with various levels of IQ. Conclusion: Hence, dermatoglyphics can be considered as a preliminary noninvasive approach for the determination of IQ. Also, it plays an imperative role, especially in distinguishing genetic intellectual disabilities.

Original Article

Amit Rai, Bhawana Jain

Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Four Different Plant Extracts against Cariogenic Bacteria: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:361 - 367]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1796  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Dental caries is an oral disease which is infectious in nature associated with various pathogenic microorganisms and is prevalent across the world. Aim: To evaluate and compare the anticariogenic properties of the different plant extracts against various cariogenic microorganisms. Materials and methods: In phase I, the anticariogenic efficacy of four different herbal extracts, namely Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Terminalia chebula (Harad), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice), was evaluated against two strains of bacteria viz. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. In the second phase of the study, the overall decay depth was compared. Results: In phase I, zone of inhibition was significantly higher in G. glabra (Licorice) followed the descending order by O. sanctum (Tulsi), T. chebula (Harad), and T. cordifolia (Guduchi), respectively. In the second phase, it was found that the decay depth was significantly higher in T. cordifolia (Guduchi) followed the descending order by T. chebula (Harad), O. sanctum (Tulsi), and G. glabra (Licorice), respectively. Conclusion: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) extract had potent antibacterial efficacy against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Clinical significance: Synthetic drugs have many adverse effects, so more attention has been paid to natural remedies because they are safe and effective. Today, the main interest is shifted toward the drugs which is derived from plants, which has led to the screening of many herbal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity and the same can be used clinically as an alternative of synthetic drugs used in dentistry.

Original Article

Aminah S Khan, Monali Bharti

Changes in the Sequence of Eruption of Permanent Teeth; Correlation between Chronological and Dental Age and Effects of Body Mass Index of 5–15-year-old Schoolchildren

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:13] [Pages No:368 - 380]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1797  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To determine the changes in the sequence and age of eruption of permanent teeth in 5–15-year-old schoolchildren, correlating their dental and chronological age. Materials and methods: A total of 1,477 schoolchildren aged between 5 years and 15 years were examined for the eruption timing, body mass index (BMI), and other oral findings. Dental age was calculated for 10% of the total sample using the Willem\'s method from their ortho-pento graphs (OPGs) and correlated with their chronological age. Results: The maxillary teeth erupted earlier than mandibular teeth. Males were found to mature earlier than females. The sequence of eruption observed was: males (maxilla) 1-6-2-4-3-5-7 and (mandible) 1-6-2-3-4-5-7; females (maxilla) 6-1-2-4-3-5-7 and (mandible) 1-6-2-3-4-5-7. The chronological age and the dental age were found to be different in the age range of 9–10 years female; 10–11 years male; and in 13–14 years both male and female. Also when the dental age was correlated with the BMI, the dental age of obese children in 5–6 years and underweight children in 10–11 years were found to be far ahead of their actual chronological age. Conclusion: This study opens an expected door for a large sample size to be tested in various local populations with different ethnicity and race as there can be changing trend in the eruption pattern. Clinical significance: Changing trends in the sequence and age of eruption of the permanent teeth definitely need to be looked into. As this change, if firmly established in future, can help pedodontist in better planning of space management, interceptive as well as full-mouth orthodontic treatment which largely depends on this sequence being true in most of the cases.

Original Article

Alok Patel, Sanket Kunte, Preetam Shah, Buneet Kaur

Comparative Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Zinc-reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement and Glass Ionomer Type IX Cement: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:381 - 389]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1798  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the flexural strength and microhardness of zinc reinforced glass ionomer cement and glass ionomer type IX cement. Materials and methods: The sample size of twenty each of group I (zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement) and group II (glass ionomer type IX cement) were selected. The samples were prepared in the customized steel molds and subjected to test for flexural strength and microhardness. The flexural strength was determined by the three-point bending test. After determining the flexural strength, the fragments were used to determine Vickers Hardness by means of an automatic microhardness indenter. The flexural strength and microhardness was calculated for all samples and subjected to statistical analysis. Two sample t-test with unequal variances were used, as the data are found to be from the same material. The normality was checked by using the usual normal probability plot. For flexural strength, p value was found to be 0.007530. Hence, zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement was superior to glass ionomer type IX cement. For microhardness the p value was found to be 0.0023. So, glass ionomer type IX cement was superior to zinc reinforced glass ionomer cement. Conclusion: The zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement showed enhanced flexural strength when compared to glass ionomer type IX cement, thus increasing the longevity whereas glass ionomer type IX cement had a better microhardness than zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement. Hence, the mechanical properties of various materials should be considered for the long-term clinical success by selecting the appropriate material based on the clinical condition.

Original Article

Mohamadreza Shahamfar, Niloofar Azima, Leila Erfanparast

A Randomized Split Mouth Clinical Trial Comparing Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with a New Fast-setting Calcium Silicate Cement in Direct Pulp Capping of Primary Molars: A Preliminary Report from a Long-term Follow-up

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:390 - 394]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1801  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives: This study was done to compare the success rate of a novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement (protooth) with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in direct pulp capping (DPC) of primary molars. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with an age range of 5–7 years with 90 bilaterally symmetrical primary molars that had deep carious lesions were incorporated into a randomized split mouth clinical trial. Initially, the caries was removed. Afterward, the teeth randomly underwent DPC with either MTA or protooth. Restoration of the teeth was done by amalgam fillings. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed after 6 months. To analyze the data, Chi-square statistical test was used. Values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: After 6 months of follow-up, 88 teeth on 44 patients were available for evaluation. The MTA-treated teeth showed a success rate of 95.5%, while the same outcome for the protooth-treated teeth was 93.2%. The difference did not yield a statistically significant difference (p value > 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed favorable results for the novel calcium silicate cement “protooth” when compared to the outcomes of MTA in the DPC of primary molars. Clinical significance: The constant need for the development of more effective materials in the modern pediatric dentistry makes this novel cement of particular interest for pedodontists. The new cement is biocompatible, hydrophilic, and has fast-setting time and adequate tensile strength with favorable clinical results in the DPC of primary molars which can benefit pedodontists in their clinical practice.

Original Article

Lucky Jindal, Parminder Dua, Ritu Mangla, Kritika Gupta, Divya Vyas, Puneet Gupta

Dental Caries in Relation to Socioeconomic Factors of 6 and 12-year-old Schoolchildren of Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India: An Epidemiological Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:395 - 398]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1805  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives: Determination of prevalence of dental caries in 6 and 12-year-old schoolchildren, dental caries prevalence between government and private schoolchildren, and the influence of socioeconomic factors on dental caries on children of Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and methods: In the government and private schools at Paonta Sahib of Sirmour district, Himachal Pradesh, India, a cross-sectional study was carried out. The study population comprised schoolchildren of 6 and 12 years. A total of 1,004 children of both genders were surveyed for dental caries status. The decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index was used for clinical examination of caries. Prior collection of sociodemographic information was done in addition to information on oral health behavior by personal interview. Results: In the present study, dental caries prevalence was found to be higher in children of 6 years of age (63.6%) than that of 12 years (53.6%) (p = 0.001). The mean DMFT was 2.47 ± 2.75 for 6–year-old children and 1.18 ± 1.33 for 12–year-old children. No significant difference was observed in dental caries prevalence among children of government and private school (p = 0.167). Moreover, dental caries frequency was highest in children belonging to upper-middle (38.14%) class followed by lower-middle (32.32%), upper-lower (25.42%), and upper class (4.12%). The obtained data were analyzed using the chi-square test and one-way ANOVA test. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was high in children of 6 years of age in the study. The dental caries frequency was more in upper-middle-class children. These results suggest that emphasis should be given to scientific monitoring, effective implementation, and evaluation of school-based oral health promotion and preventive programs to increase the dental awareness and oral hygiene practices, in Paonta Sahib, Sirmour district.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Anuraj Singh Kochhar, Ritasha Bhasin, Gulsheen Kaur Kochhar, Himanshu Dadlani, Balvinder Thakkar, Gurkeerat Singh

Dentistry during and after COVID-19 Pandemic: Pediatric Considerations

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:399 - 406]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1782  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This article is a rumination on the outbreak of the dreaded coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which has engulfed both the developed and the developing countries, thereby causing widespread global public health concerns and threats to human lives. Although countries have made varied efforts, the pestilence is escalating due to the high infectivity. It is highly likely that dental professionals in upcoming days will come across COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 carriers, and hence must ensure a tactful handling of such patients to prevent its nosocomial spread. Despite the avalanche of information that has exploded in relation to this rapidly spreading disease, there is a lack of consolidated information to guide dentists regarding clinical management including precautions to take materials to use and postprocedure care, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Available sources of information have been analyzed, while relying on peer-reviewed reports followed by information available from the most respected authoritative sources, such as WHO, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and ADA. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary from the available literature on COVID-19, its insinuation in dentistry, recommendations that have been published, and the actual in-practice implications, so a plan can be formulated and adapted to the circumstances of each dental practice during the pandemic and the times to follow.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Navneet Grewal

Prevalence of Shape-related Developmental Dental Anomalies in India: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:407 - 411]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1785  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study was to review the literature to analyze the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies regarding shape in India. Background: Although there have been several studies investigating the prevalence of individual dental anomalies related to shape, only a few studies considered all subtypes and their distribution among genders, especially in India. Results: An electronic search was made in the PUBMED database to review prevalence-based data on developmental dental anomalies related to shape in India up to December 2018. A diverse range of results regarding prevalence of developmental dental anomalies related to shape were seen in these studies due to vast regional, cultural, and ethnic diversities and various environmental factors affecting the tooth development. Conclusion: There is a necessity to conduct more study on shape-related dental anomalies because there are very limited studies regarding prevalence of concrescence, dilacerations, and accessory root and various associated factors. Clinical significance: Early diagnosis and timely management of these anomalies can prevent complications. The knowledge on identification and prevalence of dental anomalies helps the dental practitioners improve the treatment plan. The prevalence studies can be of utmost importance in the formulation of oral healthcare programs by using their data to analyze the intensity of dental anomalies.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Megha B Jain

Pediatric Dentistry during Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic: A Paradigm Shift in Treatment Options

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:412 - 415]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1809  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the world in an aggressive manner and the healthcare fraternity has been at the forefront in this fight. Dental professionals are at a larger risk to get afflicted owing to the proximity to the oral cavity. Along with other verticals of dentistry, pediatric dentistry too has to adapt quickly keeping in mind the newer protocols so as to limit the increase of the global epidemic and the commencement of cross-infections. The purpose of this article is to present different treatment options for a pediatric dentist so as to achieve positive dental outcomes.

CASE REPORT

Sridhar Kannan, Sweta Saravanan, Ashish Kumar Singh, Abhita Malhotra, Madhuri Bhatia

Treatment of Class II Division 2 Pattern Malocclusion Using Protraction Utility Arch in a Prepubertal Patient: A Clinical Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:416 - 420]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1753  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Class II malocclusions are one of the most commonly encountered problems in orthodontics. A class II division 2 type of malocclusions is one in which there is distocclusion of the molars along with retroclined central incisors. These occur but quite rarely in the practice and not many varieties of treatment modalities have been published in the recent literature. The use of protraction and retraction utility arch has been advocated in the following case along with fixed orthodontic treatment in a prepubertal male child to obtain stable results.

CASE REPORT

Ali A Alsweed, Ziad Al-sughier

Surgical Management of Unerupted Permanent Maxillary Central Incisors Due to Presence of Two Supernumerary Teeth

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:421 - 424]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1780  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The present report aims to present a case of delayed eruption of permanent maxillary central incisors in an 11-year-old male child due to the presence of two supernumerary teeth in anterior maxilla. Case description: In this case, clinical and radiographic assessment revealed the presence of two supernumerary teeth palatal to unerupted maxillary permanent central incisors. These teeth were removed surgically under local anesthesia and were diagnosed as supplemental incisor, and the other appeared like tuberculate with dens invaginatus. Conclusion: The permanent incisors erupted spontaneously within 6 months follow-up after extraction of the two supernumerary teeth without any orthodontic interception.

CASE REPORT

Navin H Krishnamurthy, Nagarathna Chikkanarasaiah, Aishwarya Nanjappa, Nimishabalakrishnan Vathariparambath

Fragile and Brittle Bone Disease or Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:425 - 428]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1792  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this report is to describe the dental management of 11-year-old patient with type III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Background: Osteogenesis imperfecta or brittle bone disease is caused by mutations in the collegen type I gene which is a heterogeneous rare connective tissue disorder. Dentinogenesis imperfecta, hearing impairment, scoliosis, sclera is blue, hyperlaxity of ligaments, and fragile skin are other common features. Individuals having positive family history suggest a straightforward diagnosis of OI but can be difficult in the absence of affected family. Case description: We report a case of 11-year-old boy, with a chief complaint of pain and swelling on the lower left back tooth region which was associated with extraoral draining sinus. His medical history revealed multiple fractures sustained during routine handling. On examination, the child was pale, dyspneic, with rhizomelic dwarfism, and relative macrocephaly with frontal bossing. On the grounds of history taken, clinical examination and respective investigations carried out, we came to a conclusion of osteogenesis imperfect type III. As the child needs a special care, we planned for a conservative treatment approach. Conclusion: The craniofacial abnormalities in OI-III affected person\'s impact on their dentofacial appearance and masticatory function. A detailed dental and craniofacial investigation is necessary in affected persons in order to identify any primary or secondary abnormalities. As soon as the deciduous teeth erupt, patients with OI should be evaluated with adequate dental treatment and oral hygiene instructions in order to reduce the need for extensive treatment. Clinical significance: Although oral manifestations are seldom seen, dentist should be extremely alert while managing this fragile bone disease. Early diagnosis, increased awareness, and effective treatment plan will reduce the effects of this debilitating disease. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, especially when something has no cure.

CASE REPORT

Aashka Sethi, Devi C Shetty, Ankita Tandon, Nida Afroz

Bilateral Nonsyndromic Cystic Lesions Involving Impacted Teeth: Nomenclature and Diagnostic Protocol

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:429 - 432]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1795  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To present a brief overview of etiopathogenesis, nomenclature, and treatment modality for a case of nonsyndromic bilateral cysts in the mandible. Background: Odontogenic cysts, though comprise a distinct group of lesions have on and off posed challenges in etiopathogenesis and nomenclature. The prima facia role of development/inflammation in the buildup of fluid between the reduced enamel epithelium attached at the cementoenamel junction and the enamel in the pathogenesis of dentigerous cysts has long been discussed. Along with this, the spread of inflammatory exudate from an overlying primary tooth could also be the source of an inflammatory dentigerous cyst. Case description: Bilateral swellings in a 12-year-old patient presented with a chief complaint of pain in the lower jaw for 4 months. The radiographic picture exhibited unilocular, well-circumscribed radiolucent areas extending from 34 to 37 on the left side and from 44 to 47 on the right side of the mandible and involving retained mandibular second premolars on both sides. Conclusion: Mere expansion of a follicle due to inflammation from an overlying infected/necrosed/treated primary tooth in which the reduced enamel epithelium does not appear to be attached at the cementoenamel junction should be aptly referred to as an “inflammatory follicular cyst”. Clinical significance: The present article attempts to illuminate the notable differences between dentigerous cysts and inflammatory follicular cysts of jaws which requires an adequate distinction in pediatric cases for diagnostic and management considerations.

CASE REPORT

Gaurav Gupta, DK Gupta, Manohar Bhat, Neelja Gupta, Priyanka Gupta, Saakshe Wadhwa

Traumatic Impaction of Unusual Foreign Body in a 10-year-old Boy's Mouth: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:433 - 436]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1799  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Placing objects in the mouth by children get accidentally implanted in the oral cavity, ingested, or aspirated. The incidence of foreign bodies is usually higher in the zone of head and neck than other regions of the human body. Usually, foreign bodies are symptomatic and signs of inflammation pain and purulent discharge are shown. This paper describes an unusual case of traumatic foreign body (pen cover) accidently moved in the retromolar area causing recurrent facial swelling, purulent discharge, and reduced mouth opening.

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