International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2020 | March-April | Volume 13 | Issue 2

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Original Article

Deepa Austin, Hosadurga L JayaKumar, Krishnaswamy M Chandra, Vanishree Kemparaj, Priyanka Prahladka

Cross-sectional Study on White Spot Lesions and its Association with Dental Caries Experience among School Children

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:107 - 112]

Keywords: Cross-sectional comparative study, Gingival bleeding index, Nyvad's caries diagnostic criteria, White spot lesions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1716  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the association of white spot lesions (WSLs) with existing dental caries experience and other clinical parameters among children aged 7–12 years. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study on 407 children using Nyvad's caries diagnostic criteria was performed on the permanent first incisors and molars. Accordingly, they were grouped as cases (presence of caries) and controls (sound). The data pertaining to sociodemographic variables and clinical variables of oral hygiene index (OHI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS-dmfs), eruption degree of first permanent molars, and number of WSLs were subjected to bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression to identify the predictor variables for the caries lesion activity. Results: Relatively higher DMFS-dmfs scores, the number of WSLs, GBI, and OHI were recorded among the cases. In multiple logistic regression analysis, WSL ≥ 1 (OR = 18.78; CI 9.74–36.21, p = 0.0001), DMFS-dmfs + WSL ≥ 20 (OR = 30.75; CI 1.8–525.28, p = 0.0001), GBI > 0.5 (OR = 8.46; CI 4.05–17.66, p = 0.0001); OHI > 1.2 (OR = 2.83; CI 1.11–7.23, p = 0.03) were found to be significant predictors for the cases. Conclusion: It is important to be cognizant of the initiation of caries in children through the initial stages so that efforts can be pooled in towards prevention rather than extensive curative measures. Clinical significance: In routine clinical examinations, WSLs are seldom detected. An insight into these lesions can help the dentists’ to strategize the preventive measures enabling a reduction in total dental caries experience, burden of disease, and improved quality of life.


Original Article

Sidhi Passi

Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Postgraduate Students of Panjab University, Chandigarh: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:113 - 118]

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Oral health, Questionnaire, Students

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1717  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most commonly occurring dental problems. Proper knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) of oral health of young adults will help in prevention of these diseases. Aim: To comparatively evaluate the oral health KAPs related to oral health of postgraduate students of Panjab University, Chandigarh, with respect to gender and different departments. Setting and design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire that assessed KAPs of postgraduate students, aged 17–25 years. Materials and methods: This survey was undertaken on 600 postgraduate students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. The sample was divided into 3 groups: group I—arts students (n = 200), group II—science students (n = 200), and group III—commerce students (n = 200). Data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis used: Chi-squared test was used for comparison between different groups. ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis compared the data between different departments, and Mann–Whitney U test between males and females. Results: The students of arts had significantly lesser knowledge of oral health compared with other departments. About 65% arts students believed that sweets/soft drinks/chips were causing tooth decay compared with 83% science and 80% commerce students (p value < 0.001). About 52.5% arts students had knowledge that blood on the toothbrush was indicative of gum disease followed by 67% science and 76% commerce students (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there was no significant difference in gender with respect to KAPs of oral health but a significant difference was observed among different departments with arts students showing significantly lesser knowledge.


Original Article

Sameep Singh, Binita Srivastava, Khyati Gupta, Rashi Singh

Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Efficacy of Five Root Canal Sealers against Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans: A Microbiological Study

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:119 - 123]

Keywords: Agar-well diffusion, Candida albicans, Endomethasone, Metapex, MTA Fillapex, Root canal sealers, Tube dilution test, Zinc oxide eugenol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1718  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antifungal efficacy of MTA Fillapex, Metapex, zinc oxide eugenol cement, Endomethasone, and Endoflas against Candida albicans. Materials and methods: Root canal exudates of 30 patients were tested against MTA Fillapex (Angelus), Metapex (BioMed), zinc oxide eugenol (Deepak Enterprise), Endomethasone (Septodont), Endoflas FS (Sanlor Laboratories), MTA (Angelus) (positive control), and glycerine (negative control). Children with failed endodontic cases were included in the study. Tube dilution and agar diffusion methods were used to check the antifungal efficacy of the root canal sealers. In tube dilution method, 24-well culture plates containing freshly mixed material along with Candida albicans were used. Wells containing MTA (Angelus) along with Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida albicans served as positive control while glycerine along with Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida albicans served as negative control. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Growth of the fungi was monitored after 24 hours by the presence of the turbidity. The samples were recultured to test the experimental material using agar well diffusion method, and the Petri plates were incubated for 24 hours and 72 hours. Zone of inhibition was measured after respective time period. Paired t test was used for the data analysis. Results: It was seen in tube dilution method Endomethasone showed least turbidity while maximum was shown by Metapex; similar results were seen in case of agar well diffusion method in which largest zone of inhibition was shown by Endomethasone while smallest was by Metapex. Conclusion: It was concluded that Endomethasone showed maximum efficacy against Candida albicans as compared to Metapex.


Original Article

Puneet Chahar, Shivam Kapoor

Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of Hindi Version of Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performance Index

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:124 - 129]

Keywords: Child OIDP, Oral health, Oral health-related quality of life, Psychometric analysis, Sociodental indicator

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1720  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Oral diseases may have an impact on quality of life (QoL) and the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). As compared to clinical measures which are unable to provide a complete picture, OHRQoL indices quantify the oral health impact on overall health. Worldwide indices have been developed to measure the OHRQoL in children but none can be applicable in Indian context. Aim: The aim of the study was cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric analysis of Hindi version of child oral impacts on daily performance (C-OIDP) index. Materials and methods: Translation and back translation were done for index using prescribed guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. A pilot study was conducted in 32 children and required modifications were done. The final Hindi version was tested for reliability and validity on a convenience sample of 64 children aged 11–14 years selected from public schools in Delhi. The psychometric properties of the Hindi version were tested for face, content, construct validity along with internal consistency, and test–retest reliability. Results: The mean age of the final sample (n = 64) was 13.02 ± 0.93 years with boys (51.6%) and girls (48.4%). The mean C-OIDP score was 8.8 ± 7.8. Significant association was obtained when C-OIDP was compared with self-perceived oral health. Interitem correlation ranged from −0.008 to 0.45. Kappa for categories of child OIDP ranged from 0.711 to 1.00 and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. Conclusion: The Hindi version of C-OIDP is a valid and reliable tool to measure OHRQoL in Hindi-speaking children in India.


Original Article

Manisha Behl, Vikram Khanna, Kirti Chaudhry

Evaluation of Three Different Bleaching Agents in Permanent and Primary Teeth: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:130 - 135]

Keywords: Carbamide peroxide, Deciduous teeth, Experimental study, Permanent teeth, Tooth bleaching

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1721  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different bleaching agents in permanent and primary teeth. Materials and methods: The study was done on 60 freshly extracted single-rooted teeth (30 permanent and 30 primary incisors) with intact coronal portion. The teeth were artificially stained with whole blood as the staining medium in a high-speed centrifuge. The discolorations were determined by the use of 3D Master Vita shade guide. The conventional endodontic treatment procedures were completed in all the test samples. The test samples were divided into group I (permanent teeth) and group II (primary teeth). The test samples were further divided into three subgroups according to the experimental materials used for bleaching [group IA—10% carbamide peroxide (CP), group IIB—9.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP), and group IIIC—10% sodium perborate (SP)]. The samples were evaluated at 7 days and 14 days after the completion of intracoronal bleaching procedure. Results: The CP group showed lowest shade values, and SP group showed the highest shade values after 14 days in both permanent and primary teeth. The CP showed the significant difference in the shade at 7 days and 14 days in permanent teeth. No statistically significant difference was observed between the three experimental at the 7 days and 14 days in the primary teeth. Conclusion: The CP is effective in permanent teeth after 7 days and 14 days of intracoronal bleaching. The three experimental materials are equally effective in the primary teeth bleaching after 7 days and 14 days.


Original Article

Vijayakumar Anu, Bellamkonda Pavani, Dornadula Pavani, Beatrice JX Liana, Firdose A Lubna, Yalagala V Saikrishna

Distribution of School Children Based on the Type of Terminal Plane in Primary Dentition: A Study among 3- to 5-year-old Children in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:136 - 137]

Keywords: Dental occlusion, Distal step, Mesial step, Primary dentition, Primary malocclusion, Terminal plane

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1722  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of primary malocclusion among school children under 5 years of age in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and methods: A total of 814 school children under 5 years were selected from 5 government and 5 private schools in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India, and their occlusion was recorded based on the terminal planes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were carried out. Results: The most common occlusion seen in the present study was flush terminal plane (54.05%). Of them, 43.73% had mesial step and 2.08% had distal step. There was no significant difference between males and females. Conclusion: The signs of future malocclusion are found to be high. Hence, early preventive and interceptive measures are necessary to reduce the prevalence of future developing malocclusion and further adverse effects.


Original Article

Divya Subramanyam, Sujatha Somasundaram

Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Aloe vera vs Formocresol as a Pulpotomy Medicament in Primary Molars: A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:138 - 143]

Keywords: Formocresol, Primary teeth, Pulp therapy, Pulpotomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1724  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this clinical trial is to compare the clinical and radiographic success of Aloe vera and formocresol (FC) as a pulpotomy medicament in primary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 72 asymptomatic or symptomatic vital primary molars were selected and were assigned to two groups: group II: Buckley's FC, group II: Aloe vera gel. The clinical and radiographic success were evaluated using Zurn and Seale criteria. The data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: At three and 6 months follow-up, the clinical success rate of Aloe vera and FC was equally effective. Aloe vera showed a higher radiographic success rate compared to FC (p > 0.05). At 6 months follow-up, FC showed a higher radiographic success rate compared to Aloe vera (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic success of both groups were equally effective at the end of 6 months follow-up. Aloe vera can be considered as an alternative pulpotomy medicament to FC. But, further long-term follow-up studies and histological studies are required.


Original Article

Giulia Baccaglione, Elisa Rota

Second Class Functional Treatment: Andreasen Activator vs Twin Block

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:144 - 149]

Keywords: Andreasen activator, Cephalometrics, II class, Malocclusion, Mandible, Prospective longitudinal clinical study, Twin block

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1725  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this research is to analyze and compare the dental and skeletal changes induced by two functional devices, Andreasen Activator and Clark's twin block, on the sagittal and vertical plane, by means of cephalometric analysis, of the lateral cephalograms prescribed at the beginning and at the end of the treatment for a second skeletal class, first division with normal or deep bite. Materials and methods: Twenty patients, 8 females and 12 males, fulfilling criteria for inclusion, were divided randomly into two groups: group I was treated with Andreasen activator, the second group with Clark's twin block. The duration of the therapy was about 18 months plus less 2 months. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs were analyzed using angular (SNA, SNB, ANB, SnaSnp–GoGn angles), linear (Sna–Snp, Co–Gn, Co–Go, Go–Gn) skeletal parameters and dental one (U1–SnaSnp angle, L1–GoGn angle, Overjet and Overbite). To evaluate the posttreatment changes in the single groups and between them, paired and unpaired t-test was used. Results: In both of the two groups analyzed, all the sagittal and vertical, angular and linear, skeletal measurements appear to be increased in a statistically significant way, except SNA angle and the distance Sna–Snp. Regarding the dental parameters, in the group treated with Andreasen activator, only Overjet and Overbite showed statistically significant differences. On the other hand, twin block induced statistical changes about Overjet, Overbite and also U1/SnaSnp, but not about L1/GoGn. The advancement of the mandible determines a greater prominence of the chin and lower lip, an increment of the labial mental angle and a reduction of the convexity of the profile. Also, the decrease of the overjet and, consequently, of the dental exposure improve the esthetic appearance of the patient's face. Conclusion: Both functional treatments showed a lower jaw advanced on the sagittal plane and increased in size. In the upper jaw no significant changes were observed. It was also evident a dental compensation both on sagittal and vertical planes. Clinical significance: The functional devices studied, Andreasen activator and twin block, seem to obtain more skeletal than dental results when the patients were treated at the peak of pubertal growth.


Original Article

Shikha Dogra, Sakshi Joshi, Vimanyu Kataria, Jyotika Saini, Monika Nagpal, Payal Narula

Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Color Change in Tooth Enamel Defects Using Resin Infiltrate: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:150 - 154]

Keywords: DMG-Icon, Mild fluorosis, Resin infiltration, Spectrophotometer, Tooth discoloration, White spot lesions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1727  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To analyze the comparative change in pretreatment and posttreatment La*b* values of color in initial nonpitted white spot lesions of fluorosed teeth after resin infiltration with DMG-Icon spectrophotometrically with VITA easy shade. Materials and methods: A total of 30 maxillary and mandibular permanent anterior teeth with mild, nonpitted white spot lesions (atleast one) of fluorosis [till grade IV of Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) index] in patients between 6 years and 14 years of age were included in the present study. Shade of selected tooth and its white spot lesion area was recorded using VITA 3D shade guide, both pre and postoperatively, i.e., after application of DMG Icon. This was followed by recording the change in corresponding La*b* values of tooth shade and white spot lesion spectrophotometrically using VITA Easy Shade. Results obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: ΔE value of color change was found to be less than 3.7 in most of samples after resin infiltration and esthetically color change to naked eye was statistically significant (p value < 0.00001) postoperatively. Conclusion: Resin infiltration with DMG Icon can improve the color of non-cavitated white spot lesions. The esthetic effect of this treatment was evident immediately after treatment. Moreover, no cavitation occurred after etching, even when the surface layer had been eroded completely. Clinical significance: Achievement of esthetic results without loss of tooth structure and postoperative sensitivity.


Original Article

Sanjay Miglani

Burden of Dental Caries in India: Current Scenario and Future Strategies

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:155 - 159]

Keywords: Dental caries, Disease burden, Oral health, Preventive strategies, Research strategies

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1733  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay or cavity, is among the most widespread oral diseases globally. It is one of the prime causative agents of oral discomfort and reason for patients to visit dental clinics or hospitals. If detected timely, the tooth can be restored and if left untreated it can eventually lead to tooth loss or other serious sequelae. Objective: This article draws attention to why dental caries is a global oral health concern and problems faced in India in managing this pandemic disease. It also attempts to suggest a few preventive strategies and future research directions needed to control this national oral health concern. Materials and methods: A narrative overview of the current literature is presented and a few suggestions on preventive and research strategies are highlighted. Results: Oral health that is an essential component of overall well-being is often neglected in India. Basic region-wise data in the form of well-controlled surveys regarding the prevalence of dental caries across India are also not available. This is needed to frame robust preventive strategies, policies, and manpower allocation, suitable for different subgroups of the population. Conclusion: State-level data should be collected to know the prevalence of this disease, identify the high-risk areas and customize region-wise preventive and treatment strategies. India has the maximum number of dental schools, efforts at individual levels are needed since everything cannot be left for the government to work upon.


Original Article

Siraj D Khan, Hasna R Al-Shubrmi, Dalal H Al-Shammary, Hanan M Al-Fahhad, Amnah F Al-Shammary, Tayf N Al-Shammari, Abdullah F Al-Shammari

Head and Neck Congenital Anomalies in Neonate Hospitals in Hail, Saudi Arabia

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:160 - 162]

Keywords: Anomaly, Head and neck, Prevalence

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1734  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: There is secrecy in the literature published about congenital anomalies of head and neck. Dentists may encounter with many head and neck anomalies during their practice. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of head and neck anomalies among all congenital anomalies and to identify risk factors associated with head and neck anomalies. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on neonate data available in the records of neonate hospitals in Hail; records from 1432 to 1438 in Hijri Islamic calendar (equivalent to 2010–2016) were employed. All neonates from birth to 28 days after, who were born or admitted to these hospitals, were included in this study. Results: The prevalence of head and neck anomalies among all congenital anomalies was 5.5%. The highest incidence rate was found in year 1435 (Islamic Hijri Year), in which the incidence rate was 7.1%. Cross tabulation between demographic characteristics and head and neck anomalies revealed that sex of the neonates was significantly associated with head and neck anomalies. The birth weight of the surveyed neonates and consanguinity marriage of the parents had no significant association with head and neck anomalies. Conclusion: The occurrence of head and neck anomalies showed a wide variation in different years, and the prevalence among other anomalies is associated significantly with sex of newborn.


Original Article

Karishma Ravinthar

Applicability of Different Mixed Dentition Analyses among Children Aged 11–13 Years in Chennai Population

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:163 - 166]

Keywords: Mixed dentition, Moyer's analysis, Tanaka–Johnson analysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1736  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Mixed dentition is the stage where both primary and permanent teeth are present and hence is the time for developing occlusion. Mixed dentition analysis forms an essential part of an orthodontic assessment. Moyer's method which is commonly used for this analysis is based on data derived from a Caucasian population. Tanaka–Johnston developed prediction tables comparable with that of Moyer's from teeth measurement study models. Aim: To test the reliability of Moyer's and Tanaka–Johnston's mixed dentition space analyses among children in Chennai. Materials and methods: The mesiodistal measurements of the mandibular incisors, maxillary canines, and premolars were taken by measuring the greatest distance between the contact points on the proximal surfaces using a dental digital caliper set on dental casts of 1,000 children. Predicted values were obtained using Moyer's probability analysis at the 75th percentile and Tanaka–Johnston method. The statistical analysis for both sexes was done using Student's t test and unpaired t test. Results: On application of the statistical analysis after the collection of data, it was found that the mean value in males was higher than the actual values in maxillary right and left sides when compared with the mandibular right and left sides while employing Moyer's method. The standard deviation (SD) was higher in the actual values when compared with the predicted values. Statistically significant values were obtained for the maxillary left side and the mandibular left side, but there was no statistical difference in the maxillary and mandibular right sides. Among females, it was found that the actual values had a higher mean value in the maxillary arch when compared with the mandibular arch than the values obtained when Moyer's formula was applied. Conclusion: Both Moyer's and Tanaka–Johnson's mixed analyses when applied to children in Chennai tended to show that predicted values were higher than actual values with no significant differences observed among the regression equations.


Original Article

Shilpa Ahuja, Kumari Surabhi, Kapil Gandhi, Rishabh Kapoor, Ritika Malhotra, Dipanshu Kumar

Comparative Evaluation of Success of Biodentine and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Formocresol as Pulpotomy Medicaments in Primary Molars: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:167 - 173]

Keywords: Biodentine, Deciduous molars, Formocresol, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Pulpotomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1740  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study was designed to evaluate and compare the success of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in comparison to formocresol as pulpotomy medicaments over 9 months of the follow-up period. Materials and methods: The sample of 60 deciduous molars of patients aged 4–7 years were incorporated in the study. The molars were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Following coronal pulp removal and achieving hemostasis, the radicular pulp was covered with either Biodentine or MTA (experimental groups). In the control group, a cotton pellet soaked with diluted formocresol (one-fifth dilution of Buckley's formocresol) was placed over the radicular pulp for 1 minute. All pulpotomized molars were later restored with stainless steel crowns (SSCs). Results: The achieved clinical success over 9 months of the follow-up period was 100, 95, and 70% with Biodentine, MTA, and formocresol, respectively. The achieved radiographic success over 9 months of the follow-up period was 95, 60, and 25% with Biodentine, MTA, and formocresol, respectively. Conclusion: Favorable biological, physical, mechanical, and good manipulation properties of Biodentine show that this material can be used efficiently as a pulpotomy medicament in the clinical practice.



Sonal Dhingra, Shourya Tandon, Charu M Marya

Sugar Clock: A Primordial Approach to Prevent Dental Caries

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:174 - 175]

Keywords: Decay, Dental caries, Diet, Prevention, Sugar

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1739  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and background: “Prevention is better than cure”; this statement is equally important when it concerns dental caries. Diet is directly linked to causing dental caries. Hence, it becomes of utmost importance that the amount, frequency, and time of sugar intake shall be known so that we can prevent dental caries.



Ali Al-Ehaideb, Sachin Naik, Satish Vishwananthaiah

Primordial-level Preventive Measures for Dental Care Providers against Life-threatening Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19)

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:176 - 179]

Keywords: Corona virus, Dental care providers, Preventive measures, Primordial prevention

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1735  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The outbreak of this corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan city in China and now it has become a global issue. The total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 recorded globally has surpassed 100,000. The mode of transmission of COVID-19 is usually from person to person and it could also be through direct transmission such as cough, sneeze, and inhalation of droplets. Dental care providers are at higher risk since they are more prone to cross contamination with the patient's saliva and aerosols that are released during the dental procedures. They can also be transmitted through other routes such as direct contact with blood, oral fluids, and from contaminated instruments. This paper intends to provide primordial-level preventive measures for dental care providers against this life-threatening COVID-19.



Luana AS Gomes, Amanda A Oliveira, Ana TS de Campos Neves, Andreza M Aranha, Luiz ER Volpato

Technology Incorporation in Primary Teeth Endodontics: Case Reports

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:180 - 185]

Keywords: Deciduous, Pulpectomy, Pulp capping and pulpectomy agents, Tooth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1719  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Radical pulp therapy is an important and a relatively frequent procedure in pediatric dental offices. Aim: This study presents two clinical cases of pulpectomies in deciduous teeth using electronic apex locator and rotary instrumentation. Case descriptions: In Case 1, pulpectomy was performed in a deciduous incisor with diagnosis of pulp necrosis in a 3-year-old patient using an electronic apical locator and manual instrumentation. In Case 2, it was performed in a primary molar with diagnosis of irreversible acute pulpitis in a 9-year-old patient with the use of electronic apical locator and rotational instrumentation. The used technologies contributed to favorable final result of the endodontic treatments in deciduous teeth in both cases. Conclusion: The incorporation of technology to the endodontic treatment of primary teeth favored the gain of time and conicity of the root canal preparation. However, studies still need to be performed to consolidate the technique. Clinical significance: Endodontic treatment of primary teeth still generates much discussion about the materials and techniques employed. The use of electronic apical locator and rotational instrumentation is successful treatment alternatives for teeth with pulp necrosis, with the advantage of limiting clinical time and presenting a favorable outcome.



Rajesh Ragulakollu

Single-visit Feeding Obturator Fabrication in Infants with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Case Series and Narrative Review of Literature

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:186 - 191]

Keywords: Keyword: Cleft lip and palate, Feeding plate, Infant, Obturator, Single visit

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1723  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one of the most common craniofacial anomaly affecting newborns. In the early years of life to survive baby requires nutrition from the mother. Lip seal of infant is affected because of cleft palate and thereby feeding is greatly compromised. As there is communication between nasal cavity and oral cavity there are more chances of aspiration of milk into the lungs. The main role of pedodontist is to fabricate a palatal obturator which facilitates feeding. In this article we have discussed fabrication of feeding obturator in single visit in infants with cleft palate.



Apoorva Jawa, Jyothsna V Setty, Lingappa V Vijayshankar, Ila Srinivasan

Pyknodysostosis: Report of a Rare Case and its Dental Management

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:192 - 195]

Keywords: Pyknodysostosis, Rare, Short stature, Syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1728  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This is a case report of a 16-year-old girl visiting MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital (Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry) for dental treatment. Background: Osteopetrosis acroosteolytica or Toulouse-Lautrec syndrome or pyknodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia, characterized by osteosclerosis, and short stature. Montanari described a patient with an unusual variation of achondroplasia, which in retrospect was the first case of pyknodysostosis to be reported.1 Case description: A 16-year-old girl reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry with a chief complaint of pain in the lower left back region of the jaw since past 2 weeks. Conclusion: Pyknodysostosis is a rare condition that is diagnosed basically on its clinical and radiographic features. Clinical significance: It is important to recognize these features so that correct diagnosis can be made. This allows the treatment and prevention of future complications and ensures a better quality of life to the patient.



Jaya Naidu, Pritha Bhattacharya, Joyce P Mendonsa, Manju M, Kirthana Satish

Multidisciplinary Management of Chronic Atypical Facial Pain of Psychogenic Origin: A Unique Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:196 - 198]

Keywords: Chronic atypical facial pain, Psychogenic pain, Psychosomatic disorder

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1729  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The following case report discusses the diagnostic dilemma presented by and the multidisciplinary management of a patient with chronic atypical facial pain of psychogenic origin. Background: Though oral health care professionals are primarily concerned with the treatment of somatic disorders of the orofacial region, there remains a particularly challenging need to identify, diagnose and treat various psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Case description: This case report describes the management of a 13-year-old male patient with the chief complaint of pain and discoloration of the skin over the right side of the face for the last 5 months, who also demonstrated symptoms of chronic anxiety and social withdrawal. As no associated soft or hard tissue abnormalities could be identified, a diagnosis of atypical/psychogenic facial pain was established. The skin discoloration was diagnosed as pityriasis versicolor and treatment for the same commenced. Following the complete resolution of the skin lesion the patient was asymptomatic, and no longer anxious. Conclusion: Our role as dentists is to mitigate the suffering of patients and to improve their quality of life in collaboration with specialists in psychosomatic medicine. Clinical significance: This case highlights that dentists must be trained to treat not only teeth, but also attend to patient's psychosomatic symptoms.



Arshad Eranhikkal

Management of Traumatic Dental Injuries Using Different Types of Splints: A Case Series

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:199 - 202]

Keywords: Dentoalveolar structures, Periodontium, Splinting, Traumatic injuries

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1746  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Traumatic injuries are described as injuries resulting from external or internal forces that can affect the quality of life of the patients. Different types of facial structures are injured due to traumatic forces. Multiple injuries can occur depending upon intensity of forces. The management of traumatic dental injuries is often difficult. Various types of management techniques have been advocated for comprehensive treatment of traumatic injuries. Splinting has become one of the commonly used methods for management of traumatized teeth. It helps in repositioning and stabilization of teeth. Different types of splints have been used for management of traumatic injuries depending on the type of injury and type of fixation required. The purpose of this case series is to present management of traumatic injuries to anterior teeth in children using different types of splints. Four cases have been included in this case series. Different types of splints have their own advantages and disadvantages and should be applied judiciously depending upon the type and extent of traumatic injuries.



Deepika Patidar, Ramesh R Fry, Atul Sharma, Dinesh C Patidar, Aakanksha Sharma

Dental Rehabilitation Following Surgical Management of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: An Interdisciplinary Approach

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:203 - 205]

Keywords: Crown discoloration, Dental trauma, Pulp canal obliteration, TMJ Ankylosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1726  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJ) is a condition affecting mastication, speech, appearance, and oral hygiene to a major extent. The disease is manifested by restriction to complete failure of the TMJ movement due to fibrous or bony union between the condylar head and glenoid fossa. This case report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl with inability to open the mouth along with fractured and discolored anterior teeth due to trauma. Patient was diagnosed as unilateral bony TMJ ankylosis left side and managed by surgical procedure interpositional arthroplasty followed by physiotherapy. Following satisfactory mouth opening, the required dental rehabilitation procedures were done. Combined efforts of pediatric dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeon with a detailed history, clinical and radiographic assessment helps in correct diagnosis and providing immediate surgical intervention along with the management of associated dental complications in order to reestablish physical and psychological health of the child patient.



Erratum: A New Home for a Streetless Occupant: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:206 - 206]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1756  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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