International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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2018 | September-October | Volume 11 | Issue 5

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Saravanakarthikeyan Balasubramanian, Ishwarya Gurucharan, Mahalaxmi Sekar

Letter to the Editor

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:2] [Pages No:357 - 358]

Keywords: Cold, Pain, Precooling

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1539  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Pain is an important aspect of pediatric dentistry. Phlenophobia or fear for needle is one of the significant factor for reduced apprehensiveness and decreased pain threshold in pediatric patients.



Puneet Goenka, Samir Dutta, Aditi Sarawgi, Mitakshara Nirwan

Prevalence of Dental Caries in Children of Age 5 to 13 Years in District of Vaishali, Bihar, India

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:6] [Pages No:359 - 364]

Keywords: Children, Dental caries, Prevalence, Vaishali

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1540  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Dental caries is the most common type of oral health problem globally. It is known to have multifactorial etiology with a number of variables that influence the prevalence of the condition. Aim: The present study was carried out in the district of Vaishali, Bihar, India, with an aim to determine the prevalence of dental caries in children of 5 to 13 years. Settings and design: It was a descriptive type of epidemiological study and the design adopted for the study was crosssectional. No active intervention and follow-up examinations were performed. Materials and methods: A total of 1,000 children of 5 to 13 year age group were examined for the study. The study population was categorized based on age, sex, location, and socioeconomic status. The examination procedure and criteria were those recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Statistical analysis used: The data obtained from the survey were subjected to statistical evaluation using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Test for significance was done with the help of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square test. Results: The difference in the caries prevalence between the age groups and between the socioeconomic level was very highly significant (p = 0.000). There was a statistically significant difference observed in the prevalence of caries between the sexes (p = 0.016) as well as between urban and rural (p = 0.018). Conclusion: It is expected that the data obtained with the help of this survey will prove to be very useful to the concerned authorities in handling dental caries which is a biosocial disease rooted in the technology and economy of our society.



Mohammed S Aldossary, Abdullah A Alamri, Sattam A Alshiha, Mohammed A Hattan, Yazeed K Alfraih, Hessa M Alwayli

Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in the First Permanent Molars among Male Children in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:6] [Pages No:365 - 370]

Keywords: Cross-sectional survey, Dental caries, First permanent molar, Fissure sealants, Preventive dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1541  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries and the presence of fissure sealants on the first permanent molars (FPMs) among 6 to 9 years old primary school boys in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: The carious status and the presence of fissure sealants on the FPMs were examined in 1844 schoolboys, aged 6-9 years (the first three grades), from 17 randomly selected primary schools in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of differences in prevalence and proportions. Results: A total of 5394 FPMs were assessed in the 1844 children. Eighty-three point five percent of children were caries free. Only 0.8% of the children had at least one fissure sealant applied. At tooth level, the decayed FPMs counted for 10.6%. There was obvious underuse of fissure sealants on the FPMs; 0.5% (n = 25). The caries prevalence in the mandibular FPMs (14.4%), was significantly higher than in the maxillary FPMs, 7.7% (p < 0.01). The proportion of carious FPMs increased with age of the children significantly (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of the presence of fissure sealants among the three different grade/age groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Caries prevalence in the FPMs was moderate but serious amongst this cohort of young students. This was opposed with very low use of fissure sealants. Clinical significance: Careful examination of the first permanent molars among children is mandatory because of their high caries susceptibility. It is important to increase public and dental professionals’ awareness of the effectiveness of fissure sealants and encouraging more placement.



PS Praveen Kumar, Lakshmikantha G, Nikita Singh

Incidence and Demographic Patterns of Orofacial Clefts in Mysuru, Karnataka, India: A Hospital-based Study

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:4] [Pages No:371 - 374]

Keywords: Cleft lip and palate, Congenital, Incidence, Syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1542  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The study was conducted to know the incidence and trends of orofacial clefts between 1st January 2011 and 31st August 2016 in Mysuru, Karnataka; and to describe the demographic patterns. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective, hospitalbased study. Data were retrieved from multiple sources like Parturition books, Neonatal intensive care unit records, baby and mothers case records archived in medical records department of Cheluvamba Hospital, a Tertiary Care Government Hospital, attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, Karnataka, between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2016. All subjects with CL ± P were included in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured proforma, designed based on the review of the literature. Prior to the study, approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee was obtained. Collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc.). Results: A total of 59 children with CL ± P were born between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2016 among 77667 births (Male: 36,625; Females: 41042). Hence the incidence of orofacial clefts in this hospital was 0.76/1000 births/year. Incidence in boys was 0.71/1000 births and in girls it was 0.78/1000 births (p < 0.7). Distribution of CL ± P showed that cleft lip with palate were more prevalent, which was 64.4%. 54.2% of the female child had clefts. Pierre-Robin syndrome was the most common associated malformation. Conclusion: This study indicates that CL ± P are the most common types of orofacial clefts. Adequate ante-natal history in birth records is not been given critical importance, with lack of parental counseling. Public awareness regarding the early diagnosis of orofacial clefts, follow up, surgery and dental therapy is required.



Dhanu G Rao, Shamama Sheereen, Shrutha S Prakasha, Manva M Zulfikar

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Practitioners Towards Pediatric Dental Care in Raichur District, Karnataka, India–A Survey

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:7] [Pages No:375 - 381]

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Medical practitioner

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1543  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To determine the knowledge and attitude of medical practitioners towards dental care of children in Raichur district. Materials and methods: The present study is a crosssectional survey conducted among the medical practitioners of Raichur district. The study was conducted on 300 practitioners, randomly selected. The data pertaining to their knowledge and attitude about oral health was gathered using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive studies. Results: Among the study subjects, 32.7% of the respondents could recognize the precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral cavity. A total of 65.3% considered that dental caries is not infectious. About 52.7% of the physicians thought that scaling causes tooth sensitivity and only 22.7% knew that tooth brushing should be initiated after the eruption of the first milk tooth. Conclusion: Medical practitioners had a moderate knowledge and attitude towards pediatric dental care.



Alireza Heydari, Mahdi Shahrabi, Maryam Shafizadeh, Elnaz A Anaraki, Mostafa Aref

Parental Knowledge and Awareness of the First Permanent Molar

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:4] [Pages No:382 - 385]

Keywords: Deciduous, DMF index, dentition, Education, Permanent, Prenatal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1544  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and Aim: This study aimed to assess the awareness of parents about the presence of first permanent molar and its effect on the health of this tooth. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional research has been done on 250 elementary school students which were 6 to 8-year-old boys and their parents in Tehran city. Sampling was done randomly. The questionnaires were filled out by the parents, and then tooth condition was registered in a visit formfor each student separately. Next, the related children's decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) was determined and recorded. The mean value was calculated. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) via a generalized estimating equation. Results: There was a significant relationship between parental awareness of being permanent of the first permanent molar and DMFT (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Socio-economical factors like parental education can have an effect on oral health condition.



Prachi Sijeria, Rahul Bhartia, Nanjunda Swamy KV

Evaluation of Root Canal Filling in Primary Teeth by Volumetric Analysis: In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:7] [Pages No:386 - 392]

Keywords: Bi-directional spiral, Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), Lentulo spiral, NaviTip System

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1545  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of various techniques to fill root canals of primary teeth by volumetric analysis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess percentage of obturated volume (POV), percentage volume of voids (PVV), and depth-of-fill. Methodology: Root canals in 40 extracted deciduous maxillary incisors were instrumented with H-files to size 35 and volume of the canal measured using CBCT under “On Demand 3D AppTM Software” (Cybermed Inc. Medical 3D imaging software). The teeth were divided into four groups of 10 samples each and root filled by Lentulo spiral mounted on slow-speed hand-piece, NaviTip System, Bi-directional spiral and Combination method i.e. Lentulo spiral mounted on slow speed hand-piece followed by NaviTip syringe respectively, after that depth-of-fill for each group was checked. Then, the filled canal volume was measured using CBCT under “On Demand 3D AppTM Software”. Further, the (POV), (PVV) was calculated. Statistical analysis: The data were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA, Turkey post Hoc test and Pearson's Chi-square test. Clinical significance: Adequate adaptation of root canal filling material decreases the chance of microorganism regrowth, reinfection due to voids creation and minimizes the potential drawback of overfilling like foreign body reaction or deflection of the unerupted permanent tooth. Results: The four groups were comparable in canal volume. The overall percentage of obturated volume was 53%, 59.7%, 40.3% and 75.1%; the overall percentage volume of voids was 48%, 40.3%, 58.6%, 29.5%; optimally filled canals for each group was 80%, 60%, 30% and 90% respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The greatest percentage of obturated volume and maximum number of optimally filled canals was obtained in method combining both Lentulo spiral in slow speed hand piece along with NaviTip system. Whereas, voids were the constant finding with all root fillings.



Hitaf Nasrallah, Balsam El Noueiri, Charles Pilipili, Fouad Ayoub

Evaluation of Biodentine Pulpotomies in Deciduous Molars with Physiological Root Resorption (Stage 3)

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:6] [Pages No:393 - 398]

Keywords: Biodentine™, Primary molars, Pulpotomy, Pulp canal obliteration, Physiological root resorption

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1546  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Conservation of primary dentition is essential for maintenance of arch length, esthetic, mastication, speech and prevention of abnormal habits. The commonly supported treatment for retaining carious primary molars with affected pulp is pulpotomy. Aim: The study aims to evaluate clinically and radiographically the rates of success and efficacy of Biodentine™ as pulpotomy medicament exclusively on primary molars with physiological root resorption. Materials and methods: A total number of 35 primary molars in stage three of formation were selected to undergo pulpotomy treatment. All teeth were restored with pediatric stainless-steel crowns. The clinical findings were evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 12-month intervals and the radiographic follow-ups evaluations were done at 6 and 12 months. The resulting data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS© for Windows version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Mc Nemar test was conducted to evaluate the differences in results between months 6 and 12. Results: Periodontal ligament space (PLS) widening and alveolar bone lesion were not seen in any of the 35 cases, 9 teeth (25.7%) manifested pulp canal obliteration (PCO), and none of the cases showed signs of pathologic root resorption. The clinical and radiographic success rates in pulpotomy using Biodentine™ at 6 and 12 months were 100%. Conclusion: Pulpotomies performed with Biodentine™ were entirely successful. This dressing material appears to be a serious pulpotomy agent in primary molars with root resorption.


Original Article

Ila Srinivasan, Shyamachalam , Priya Mendiretta

A Comparative Evaluation of the Sedative Effects of Nitrous Oxide-oxygen Inhalation and Oral Midazolam–Ketamine Combination in Children

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:7] [Pages No:399 - 405]

Keywords: Anxiolysis, Nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation, Oral ketamine–midazolam combination, Sedative effects

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1547  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: To compare nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation and low dose oral midazolam–ketamine combination for anxiolysis in the management of children aged between 3 to 10 years for dental treatment. Materials and methods: A comparative clinical study with equal number of subjects in both the groups evaluating efficacy of oral ketamine–midazolam combination and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation in children with Frankl behavior rating score 2 and ASA1. A total of 30 children were equally divided into 2 groups, oral midazolam-ketamine (MK) group which received 0.25mg/ kg midazolam with 3mg/kg ketamine in combination and the Nitrous oxide-oxygen (N) group which received nitrous oxideoxygen inhalation. The parameters evaluated were the drug/ mask acceptance, need for the use of a physical restraint. Houpt's sedation scale, faces pain score, sedation duration, time taken to achieve the maximum sedation and adverse reactions were assessed. Student t-test was used for comparison between the groups and proportions were compared using Chi-square test. Results: The results found no statistically significant differences between the groups in all the parameters except for the duration of sedation and the time taken to achieve maximum sedation which were higher in oral MK group than the Nitrousoxide oxygen inhalation group. Conclusion: Both oral-midazolam and ketamine combination and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation were found to have similar clinical success among 3 to 10-year-old children in bringing about anxiolysis during dental treatment. Clinical Significance: Both oral ketamine-midazolam combination, nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation are equally effective for anxiolysis in children during dental treatment.


Original Article

Selva Balaji, Ramesh Venkatesan, Shantham Krishnamoorthy, Senthilkumar Marimuthu

Assessment of Coronal Leakage with Two Intracanal Medicaments After Exposure to Human Saliva–An In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:6] [Pages No:406 - 411]

Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Dental leakage, Root canal therapy, Temporary dental restorations

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1548  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: One among the various reasons for root canal failure in endodontics is the leakage of an intracanal medicament due to improper coronal sealing. Aim: To assess the coronal leakage of two intracanal medicaments sealed with two different temporary filling materials. Materials and methods: An in-vitro study was done on 55 teeth where they were divided into three groups with two root canal medicaments namely calcium hydroxide + 0.2% chlorhexidine solution, triple antibiotic paste, and a control group. These three groups were restored temporarily with MD Temp and IRM, and these samples were checked for coronal leakage after 30 days. Results: The group, triple antibiotic paste with IRM stayed for more number of days without leakage with the mean of 24.5 days, followed by group triple antibiotic paste with MD Temp. The least coronal leakage was seen in group MD Temp without Intracanal medicament with the mean of eight and half days followed by group IRM without Intracanal medicament. When comparing the two temporary filling materials without any medicament, there was no significant difference between the same. When comparing within MD Temp group, the least microleakage was seen with Triple antibiotic paste with MD Temp. In the IRM group, the least microleakage was seen with Triple antibiotic paste with IRM. Conclusion: Triple antibiotic paste was found to be the most promising intracanal medicament with an appropriate seal. Clinical significance: The best intracanal medicament, which is triple antibiotic paste in the present study could prevent microorganism leakage and inhibit bacterial growth.


Original Article

Shital DP Kiran, Aayushi Vithalani, Devdatt J Sharma

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Play Therapy among Children Undergoing Dental Procedure through Drawings Assessed by Graphological Method: A Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:412 - 416]

Keywords: Anxiety, Behavioral management, Bubble play therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1549  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Behavior modification is defined as the attempt to alter human behavior and emotion in a beneficial way and accordance with the laws of learning. Play therapy is one such behavior modification technique. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of play therapy among children undergoing dental treatment by the graphological method. Materials and methods: Children were made to draw before treatment, after treatment of one class 1 lesion without application of any behavior modification technique and after treatment of the second lesion of class 1 caries with play therapy. Graphologist and scores assessed drawings were given by graphological method. Results: Significant reductions in stress levels were observed in the drawings which were made after play therapy. Conclusion: Play therapy is an effective behavior modification technique in pediatric dentistry, which may be used in routine dental practice.


Original Article


A Comparitive Evaluation of the Effect of Sports and Fruit Drinks on the Surface Roughness of Nanofilled Composite and Light Cure GIC–An In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:8] [Pages No:417 - 424]

Keywords: Bindhu jeera fizz, Gatorade, Light cure RMGIC, Nano-filled composite, Tang

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1550  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Tooth coloured restorative materials are commonly used for restorations in children and adolescents, who are major consumers of soft drinks. Under acidic conditions, restorative materials suffer degradation over time, which can be predicted by changes in the surface roughness. Aim: Compare the effect of acidic drinks Gatorade, Tang, Bindhu Jeera Fizz, and 10% sucrose solution (control group) on nano filled composite and light cure RMGIC and test the time dependent change by immersing them in these drinks ever day 8th hourly and examining them on the 10th, 20th and 60th day. Methodology: Fourty specimens of each material was made and divided equally in 4 groups, group 1 (gatorade), group 2 (Tang), group 3 (Bindhu Jeera Fizz), group 4 (10% sucrose). Each specimen was immersed every 8th hourly daily for 60 days and the surface roughness was assessed on the 0,10th, 20th and 6th day using a with a 3-D optical profilometer. Results: The surface roughness increased progressively with time with maximum average roughness value (Ra) value was seen on the 60th day in both the materials irrespective of any acidic drink. The highest value of roughness was seen by Group 2 containing Tang (p < 0.001), followed by Bindhu Jeera Fizz (p < 0.001) and Gatorade (p < 0.001) and the least being the 10% Sucrose (control group) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The maximum change in surface roughness was associated with light cure RMGIC as compared to Nano-filled composite, mostly due to the low mechanical strength and low wear resistance of glass ionomer restorations making it less durable. Hence nano-filled composite proved to be superior then RMGIC, but with longer exposure to acidic drinks the Ra value increased significantly, hence the consumption of these acidic drinks should be limited.


Original Article

Neha Nashine, Arpana Bansal, Parimala Tyagi, Manish Jain, Ankur Jain, Utkarsh Tiwari

Comparison and Evaluation of Attitude and Knowledge Towards the Management of Dental Injury in School Teachers Before and After Oral Health Education

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:425 - 429]

Keywords: Attitude, Avulsed tooth, Dental trauma, Interventional study, Knowledge, School teachers

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1551  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Dental traumatic injuries are prevalent in school-going children. Therefore, It is critical to ascertain the knowledge and practices of school teachers who are in close contact with these children. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of school teachers toward dental trauma and the effect of the educational intervention. Materials and methods: The interventional study was designed by two-stage cluster sampling. A total of 158 teachers were part of the research. Data was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Re-evaluation was done after an informative lecture. Results were statistically analyzed. Result: The knowledge was consistently lacking prior to intervention with the level of correct answer ranging from 0.6 to 56.3%. It improved significantly post education ranging up to 96.6%. A positive attitude was noticed even before the intervention was employed. Conclusion: Study observes a significant knowledge gap regarding the primary management of dental injuries amongst school teachers and emphasizes the need for urgent educational intervention to fill in this gap. Clinical significance: Suggestions derived from this study are especially important in today's scenario where, the concept of conservation, retention, prevention and early intervention of tooth structures is topmost of all the priorities.


Original Article

Ullal A Nayak, Damodhar Kappadi, Deepesh Prajapati

Comparative Clinical Evaluation of Resin-based Pit and Fissure Sealant and Self-adhering Flowable Composite: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:430 - 434]

Keywords: Marginal integrity, Pit and fissure sealant, Retention, Self-adhering flowable composite

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1552  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study evaluated the use of self-adhering flowable composite as a fissure sealant and compared it with a resinbased pit and fissure sealant. Materials and methods: Forty children were selected for the study and all their four permanent first molars were subjected to fluoride free pumice oral prophylaxis. Their occlusal fissures were then prepared with fissurotomy bur using high-speed handpiece under cotton roll isolation and low volume suction. Simple random sampling was done and accordingly a child either received either a resin-based fissure sealant or a self-adhering flowable composite on the prepared fissure. All the restorations were clinically evaluated using Ryge's direct evaluation criteria for four times i.e., immediately after the treatment, at the end of 3rd, 6th and 12th month. The retention was evaluated using Horowytz criteria. Results: The retention rate of Dyad flow after one year was significantly higher than that of Helioseal–F (p = 0.015). The marginal integrity of Dyad Flow was significantly better than that of Helioseal-F during every evaluation period (p < 0.05). Both retention and marginal integrity of both sealants were similar in maxillary and mandibular molars at all evaluation periods. Conclusion: Dyad flow can be used as an alternative to the conventional fissure sealant. Clinical significance: In pediatric dentistry, where shorter appointment time is warranted, the self-adhering composite has the edge over conventional fissure sealant.


Original Article

Kanika Singh Dhull, Brahmananda Dutta, Indira M Devraj, PV Samir

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Mothers towards Infant Oral Healthcare

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:435 - 439]

Keywords: Early childhood caries, Infant oral health care, Knowledge, Mothers

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1553  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Among all the oral diseases, dental caries is the most common chronic disease affecting the children. Early childhood caries is one of the most severe forms of dental caries affecting the children less than 3 years. Though dental caries is preventable, not much importance has been given to the preventive aspect of dental caries. This is because of the lack of oral health education. Vertical colonization occurs from caregiver usually mother to the child. Since mother play an important role in a child's life, their knowledge about child's oral health will have a significant impact on the child's oral health status. A proper knowledge for the mothers regarding infant's oral health care will be beneficial in reducing the burden of dental caries in children. Hence a study was conducted to evaluate the mother's knowledge, attitude and practice towards infant oral health care Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenient sample of 185 first time mothers with a child aged 9 to 24 months of age visiting Department of Pediatrics and Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Board. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study was divided into two sections. The first section contained demographic details and the second section contained knowledge about primary teeth and practice of oral health care. All the participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The purpose of the study and the questionnaire were explained to each participant. The questionnaire was completed and returned before leaving the clinic. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Results: Total 52.5% of the mothers responded that first tooth erupt after 6 months. A total of 86.5% of the mothers were not aware of the first dental visit. 77.8% did not agree that caries causing bacteria is transferred from mother to the child; 53% mothers did not agree that night time bottle feeding causes dental caries and 78.4% disagreed that nocturnal breastfeeding can cause dental caries in children. A total of 65.4% mothers feel dental check-up is not necessary when the first tooth erupt, and 95.7% mother did not have any information on infant oral health care. 72.4% of mothers started using toothbrush and paste after all the primary teeth erupted and only 5.9% of the mother had the knowledge about proper dispensing of toothpaste for children. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and attitude of mothers towards oral health care of children is poor. Health care professionals like a gynecologist, pediatrician Anganwadi workers who contact first-time mothers need to be trained to disseminate appropriate infant oral health care information. The mother needs to be educated about oral health during their antenatal check up



Vikas D Bendgude, Vivian V Kokkali

Survival of Bonded Space Maintainers: A Systematic Review

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:6] [Pages No:440 - 445]

Keywords: Bonded space maintainers, Longevity, Survival rate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1554  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This systematic review was aimed at evaluating the average survival time and the various factors which determine the longevity of bonded space maintainers. Background: Although a meta-analysis could not be performed from the available literature, this review emphasizes the various factors contributing to the success of bonded space maintainers and its relevance during the planning of bonded space maintainers. Review results: The study selection criteria included in-vivo randomized and non-randomized clinical trials performed which was published in English. The databases searched were Pubmed, EBSCOhost and Google scholar, wherein the articles published from 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2015 were selected in the review. Conclusion: From the existing data, it can be concluded that the average survival period of bonded space maintainers is 11.2 months. However, there is a necessity for additional clinical trials with strict protocols to better the level of evidence. Clinical significance: From the various articles included in the review, the longevity of bonded space maintainers was found to be comparable to the banded space maintainers. Hence, the bonded space maintainers can be a suitable alternative to the banded space maintainers in pediatric dentistry.



Shaniya Sain, Reshmi J, Anandaraj S, Jyoti S Issac

Lesion Sterilization and Tissue Repair–Current Concepts and Practices

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:446 - 450]

Keywords: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair, Tripleantibiotic paste, 3-Mix paste

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1555  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A deciduous tooth affected by dental caries involving the pulp tissue with subsequent periradicular pathosis at times makes the conventional endodontic procedures a dilemma for a variety of reasons. In this situation, lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) stands out as the only option by which dentists could increase the longevity of the deciduous teeth of a young child. This therapy aims to eliminate bacteria from the root canals by sterilizing the lesion and promoting tissue repair and regeneration by the host's natural tissue responses. This article reviews the rationale, indications, contraindications and the procedure in detail.



Rishi Tyagi, Amita Poswal, Gaurav Panwar, Kopal Garg

Double Lip–An Atypical Facial Anomaly: Two Case Reports

[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:11] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:451 - 455]

Keywords: Congenital, Cupid's bow shaped, Double lip

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1556  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Double lip is a rare abnormality. It affects the lips, more often the upper lips and could be acquired or congenital. It may be associated with Ascher's syndrome or occur in isolation. In this deformity, there is an accessory fold of redundant mucous membrane inside the vermillion border. This cupid's bow-shaped accessory tissue is usually conspicuous during smiling but maybe occasionally visible even at rest. For the patient, this atypical facial deformity most importantly creates an aesthetic problem. Nonetheless, it may also interfere with their speech or function. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and gives appropriate esthetic and functional results. In this article, we have presented two case reports of congenital maxillary double lip. The etiology, clinical presentation, histopathology and treatment of this infrequent anomaly have been discussed.


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