International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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Volume 15, Number 3, May-June 2022

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Fahanna Beegum, Nubesh Khan, Sageena George, S Anandaraj

Early Prediction of Dental Caries using Hormonal Fingerprint in 6–12 Years Old Children: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:247 - 250]

Keywords: Biological marker, Caries risk, Hormonal fingerprints, Second and fourth digit lengths ratio

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2387  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: The ratio between second and fourth digit lengths (2D:4D ratio) is termed as hormonal fingerprint. Second and fourth digit lengths ratio is used as a biological marker for predicting and diagnosis of many metabolic disorders mainly coronary heart disease and autism, whereas, in dentistry, this method is still in blooming stage. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the new biological marker–hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of caries in children. Methodology: A total of 250 children were randomly selected from both sexes of the age group 6–16 years. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and community periodontal index probes. Caries status (deft and DMFT) was recorded and subjects with a total DMFT/deft score of >5 were considered to have a high caries rate. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of vernier caliper. The entire study population was divided into children with 2D:4D ratio less than 1 and ≥1 based on the calculations of 2D:4D. Results: The results showed that 79.67% males and 29.92% females have 2D:4D ratio <1 and 70.07% females and 20.32% males have 2D:4D ≥1. There is negative correlation between caries incidence and 2D:4D ratio. Children with low 2D:4D ratio have high caries index (54.4%) and high 2D:4D ratio have low caries index (45.6%), which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The study confirms a positive correlation between low 2D:4D ratio and high caries, which could be used as an early biological predictor of dental caries.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sakshi Tiwari, Sonali Saha, Kavita Dhinsa, Nishi Grover, Manjari S Gundewar, Abhay M Tripathi

Remineralizing Potential of Low-fluoridated, Nonfluoridated and Herbal Nonfluoridated Dentifrices on Demineralized Surface of Primary Teeth: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:251 - 257]

Keywords: Demineralization, Dentifrice, Fluoride, Herbal, Nonfluoride

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2365  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the remineralizing potential of commercially available low-fluoridated, nonfluoridated, and herbal nonfluoridated child formula dentifrices on primary teeth. Materials and methods: Total of 36 primary teeth were placed in the demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial carious lesions of approximately 100 μm depth, and then cut longitudinally into 30 sections of 100–150 μm thickness and randomly assigned to three groups. Sections were treated with low-fluoridated, nonfluoridated, and herbal nonfluoridated dentifrice. Lesions were evaluated using polarized light microscopy. Results: Intragroup comparison of mean lesion depth from pretreatment to posttreatment among the three study groups revealed that maximum reduction in lesion depth was found to be in group I (low-fluoridated) followed in descending order by group III (herbal nonfluoridated) and group II (nonfluoridated), respectively. Conclusion: Group I (low-fluoridated) and group III (herbal nonfluoridated) demonstrated remineralization of carious lesions by virtue of a decrease in lesion depth, whereas group II (nonfluoridated) showed an increase in lesion depth. Clinical significance: Fluoride dentifrices are the most widely used products that deliver topical fluoride to the oral environment. The major drawback is the risk of dental fluorosis, which occurs because of ingestion of dentifrices, in preschool children. This necessitates use of preventive measures which include (1) reducing the amount of toothpaste used, (2) supervised brushing in preschool children and (3) developing low-fluoride toothpastes for minimizing risk of dental fluorosis. Further dental professionals must investigate effectiveness of increasingly popular “Herbal” products.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohit Sharma, Shilpi Gupta, Deepak P Bhayya, Kanchi Upadhyay, Divya Pandya, Ankita Srivastava, Shweta Gupta

CBCT Analysis of Maxillary First Molar in Indian Population

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:258 - 262]

Keywords: CBCT laboratory study, Maxillary first molar, Root canal morphology, Variation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2375  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to assess the variations in root canal morphology of permanent maxillary first molar with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: One hundred extracted teeth were cleaned and arranged in U shape template mimicking natural arch in set of five teeth. These arches were scanned in CBCT and were analyzed by expert radiologist for number of roots, number of canals per root, and Vertucci classification. Result: A maximum number of permanent maxillary first molars had three roots, and only 2% had two roots. All the palatal roots and 99% of distobuccal roots had one canal, but one of the distobuccal roots had two canals. Incidence of two canals in MB root is more frequent (60%) than incidence of one canal. The most common type of Vertucci's classification for MB root is a type I, followed by type IV, type II, type VI, type V, type VII.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anil Pandey, Lumbini Pathivada, Premkishore Kajapuram, Alok Avinash, Brij Kumar, Saurav K Prabhat

Assessment of Cariogenicity by pH-value Decrement of Plaque Solution with Four Infant Milk Formulas: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:263 - 266]

Keywords: Early childhood caries, Infant formulas, Plaque pH

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2386  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: People all over the world use a wide variety of infant formulas to nourish the infants. Recent studies demonstrated the high caries-inducing potential of infant formulas. This indicates a need for awareness toward the possible role of the infant formulas in the etiology of early childhood caries (ECC). Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate and comparatively assess the change in plaque pH solutions after fermenting four commonly used infant milk formulas. Materials and methods: This simple randomized study was carried out on 40 healthy children aged 4–6 years old. The children received full-mouth prophylaxis before examination. They were asked not to implicate oral hygiene for 24 hours and not to have anything at least 2 hours prior the study. Supragingival plaque from the buccal surface of posterior teeth was collected using a Hu-Friedy's curette. Four commonly used infant milk formulas were prepared and given to children for rinsing. The pH of plaque samples were measured at 30 and 60 minutes at 37°C. Results: The present study showed that all of the four infant milk formulas decreased the mean pH values in plaque solutions significantly after 30 and 60 minutes of preparation. Conclusion: Our results showed that the plaque pH varied in response to the oral rinsing with the various infant formulas and most of infant formulas were able to reduce the pH significantly below the pH before the rinse. Based upon this study further evaluation of the cariogenicity of infant formulas is recommended.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vanita P More, Shivayogi M Hugar, Suma Sogi, Rohan S Bhambar, M Suganya, Shweta Hugar

Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Fluoride and the Combined Use of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride Varnishes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count in Children with Mixed Dentition: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:267 - 272]

Keywords: Chlorhexidine varnish, Fluoride varnish, Mixed dentition, S. mutans

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2360  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To study the effect of combination of chlorhexidine and Fluoride on the growth and colonization of cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans) in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: Sixty children of age 6–14 years with mixed dentition and S. mutans count > 1 x 105 CFU/mL of saliva were divided: group I–chlorhexidine varnish; group II–Fluoride varnish; group III–Combination of chlorhexidine and Fluoride varnish. chlorhexidine and Fluoride varnishes were applied to teeth once every week for four consecutive weeks in respective groups. Salivary S. mutans count was estimated and evaluated at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. Results: No significant difference was seen in group I and II at the end of 1, 3, and 6 months (p > 0.001) but the reduction in S. mutans count was statistically more significant in group III after a period of 6 months (p < 0.001). Maximum reduction in count was noted in group III at all intervals of varnish application. Conclusion: The concomitant use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish would prove to be more effective than individual components over a longer period of time and especially in high caries risk children.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Satya P Yadav, Mili Meghpara, Nikhil Marwah, Anant G Nigam, Shubham Godhani, Srishty Chalana

Association of Early Childhood Caries with Feeding, Dietary Habits, and Oral Hygiene Practices among Rural and Urban School Children of Jaipur

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:273 - 279]

Keywords: Early childhood caries, Dietary habits, Feeding habits, Oral hygiene practices, Risk factors of early childhood caries, Rural and urban areas of Jaipur

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2396  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To determine possible associations of early childhood caries (ECC) with risk factors such as feeding and dietary habits of children and oral hygiene practices by the parents or caregiver in rural and urban school children in Jaipur, India. Materials and methods: An observational cross-sectional study was designed with a dental examination and a standardized questionnaire. A total of 1,824 children, that is, 848 (46%) rural, and 976 (54%) urban school children were enrolled in the study. The data regarding their diet and feeding habits of children, oral hygiene practices of the parents or caregivers were collected with the help of a standardized questionnaire. The caries status of rural and urban school children was recorded using the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index. Data thus collected were compiled, analyzed and were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v 26.0, IBM). Comparison of frequencies of categories of variables with groups was done using Chi-square test with p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of ECC was 34.7% in rural and 45.5% in urban school children of Jaipur (p < 0.01). Caries risk increased with the use of both bottle and breast feeding, habit of milk at night, eating snacks between meals with no habit of rinsing teeth, and decrease in parental supervision during oral hygiene practices. In urban school children there is an increased access to junk food and refined sugar daily as compared to rural school children with more than two times in a week was found statistically highly significant in the study (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The prevalence of ECC was higher in urban school children as compared to rural school children in Jaipur. It was found that risk factors such as diet and feeding habits of children and oral hygiene practices by the parents or caregiver are strongly associated with the prevalence of ECC. It was concluded that the epidemiological data, which have been collected in a very comprehensive way can be utilized more effectively to eliminate the root cause of the disease by improving oral health services in the rural and urban school children in Jaipur, India.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ritu Singh, Sandhya S Patil, K Madhu, Rachana Thakur, Shruti B Nimbeni, Mihir Nayak, B Malathi, Snehalika More, Mandeep Shah

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Video-based Intervention on the Knowledge of Infant Oral Health among New Mothers

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:280 - 286]

Keywords: Infant oral health care, Knowledge, Video presentation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2374  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objectives: Infant oral health is the foundation upon which preventive dental health education must be built to enhance the conditions for a disease-free oral cavity. Majority of the mothers are ignorant about their oral health and also about the fact that their oral health status affects that of their babies. Educational videotapes have proved to be effective in educating mothers on various child health issues. So the objectives of this study were to educate the mothers about the need for infant oral health care, compare the level of mother's knowledge on infant oral health before and after the video presentation and assess the effectiveness of the presentation. Methodology: An interactive educational video presentation containing evidence-based information about infant oral health care and prevention was developed. This presentation was based upon information provided by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) on anticipatory guidance. It includes the persuasive message on maternal oral health during preconception and pregnancy and its implication on birth outcomes, vertical transmission of Streptococcus mutans, infant oral health, the risk for early childhood caries (ECC), and increased caries experience on permanent teeth if primary teeth are affected. Emergency care for infant oral trauma, consequences of traumatic injuries to the primary dentition from an aspect of possible damage to the developing tooth, dietary habits, and oral hygiene behaviors. It also emphasizes the timing of the first dental visit and the periodicity of dental screenings. The survey was designed to compare the effectiveness of instructional videotaped persuasive messages by using pre- and post-questionnaires. Two hundred mothers of infants below the age of 12 months were included in the study. They were asked to fill out the questionnaires before and after the presentation on the same visit. Results: The results showed a highly significant improvement in knowledge (p< 0.05) as assessed by the proportion of correct responses following a single viewing of the AV-aid. Conclusion: The knowledge of new mothers on infant oral health care was inadequate, and there was an improvement in their knowledge of infant oral health care after the instructional video presentation. An instructional video presentation is an effective tool for improving the oral health knowledge of new mothers. Significance: By this study, we want to inculcate the habit of oral hygiene maintenance among the mothers, which indirectly affects the infant's oral health. Through this study, we educated the mothers regarding infant oral health care, which significantly improved their knowledge.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vinay K Srivastava

Prevalence of Abscesses Associated with Carious Primary Teeth in Preschool Children and its Association with Age, Gender, Location, and Parent's Education and Social Class: An Observational Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:287 - 292]

Keywords: Carious primary tooth, Parental education, Social class, Tooth abscess

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2376  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of periapical abscesses within carious primary teeth. Tooth abscesses in preschool children are a source of extra attention and worry for parents. Untreated carious primary teeth have a high chance of developing into a periapical abscess. Study design: The study design adopted was an analytical observational study. Materials and methods: Children (n = 300) of which 56.7% males, and 43.3% females were evaluated for prevalence of abscesses associated with carious primary teeth. Teeth were examined by the WHO criteria of caries detection1 and abscesses associated with carious teeth were observed based on clinical signs and symptoms. Statistical analysis of data was done by Z-test with the help of SPSS 16 version. Results: Prevalence of abscesses in anterior and posterior carious primary teeth was highest at the age of 3–5 years, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the prevalence of abscesses and genders. A significant difference (Z = 2.15, p < 0.05), (Z = 4.17, p < 0.001) was observed in prevalence of abscesses of anterior and posterior carious primary teeth among urban and rural populations respectively. If parents are graduates, the development of tooth abscesses in carious primary anterior and posterior teeth was significantly reduced. The social class of parents also significantly affects the development of tooth abscesses in carious primary anterior and posterior teeth. Conclusion: In the study, 30% abscess prevalence within carious primary teeth of preschool children was observed. Carious primary posterior teeth are two times more prone to develop abscesses as compared to carious primary anterior teeth. Social class and the education status of parents also affect the prevalence of abscesses. Clinical significance: Data on abscesses prevalence in primary teeth helps Government to plan preventive, interceptive, restorative, and preventive educational programs at the school level.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sonu Acharya, Raju Biswas

Body Image in Preschool Children Following Premature Loss of Primary Teeth: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:293 - 298]

Keywords: Body image, Child, Premature loss, Psychology, Self-esteem, Self-image

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2390  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Pediatric dentists often see a good number of children under 6 years of age and are likely to encounter a child with missing anterior teeth. Here the parents are more concerned about the facial esthetics of the child and also about the timing of permanent teeth to erupt. Aim: To know the impact on self-esteem or body image of preschool children following the premature loss of primary anterior teeth. Materials and methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 780 children in the age group of 4–6 years. The COHIP-SF 19 was utilized to know the social well-being of the child following the premature loss of anterior teeth. The descriptive and inferential analysis of the data was done by using IBM SPSS software. Results: There was a statistically significant association between gender and social well-being. More number of boys were concerned about their looks (p = 0.054). However, girls were found to be significantly more (p = 0.003) shy or withdrawn as compared to boys. There was a statistically significant association between a child's age and social well-being. More number of children between the ages of 4 years (23.1%) and 6 years (25.8%) were worried or anxious due to premature loss of an anterior tooth. Significantly more no of children of age 5 years (48.6%) was uncomfortable when asked about the missing tooth as compared to 4- and 6-year-old children. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference in the mean social well-being scores between boys and girls. No statistically significant difference in the mean social well-being scores between children of ages 4, 5, and 6 years (p > 0.05). Conclusion: There is an association between the self-image of younger children and missing anterior teeth.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Niveditha Bhupanapadu, Mohammed A Sattar, Arpita Deb

Evaluation of Nanoleakage Depth and Pattern of Cervical Restorations Bonded with Different Adhesive Systems

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:299 - 303]

Keywords: Dentinbonding, Hybrid layer, Nanoleakage

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2391  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate nanoleakage depth and pattern of cervical restorations bonded with different adhesive systems. Materials and methods: Thirty-six extracted human premolar teeth were used for the study and grouped according to different bonding agents. Group I: fifth generation dentin bonding agent—ONE COAT SL. Group II: sixth generation dentin bonding agent—PARABOND. Group III: seventh generation dentin bonding agent—ONE COAT 7.0. For nanoleakage depth evaluation, 36 teeth were divided into three groups of 12 teeth each, according to adhesive systems used. For each adhesive system, teeth were subdivided into three subgroups of four teeth each, according to storage period, 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months before the examination. In each tooth, two cavities were prepared (buccal and lingual), each cavity was lined with different adhesive systems and restored using a nanohybrid composite. The restored teeth were then immersed in water bath at temperature 37oC for intended period of time and then stored in 50% silver nitrate for 24 hours and photo developing solution for 8 hours. After this, the teeth were cut in buccolingual direction and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis for nanoleakage depth analysis. Results: Group II showed the highest nanoleakage at all three periods. At 24 hours, group III showed more leakage than group I (mean = 0.2869 > 0.2506). At 1 month storage period, there was no significant difference in the leakage. At 3 months storage period, group III showed less leakage than group I (mean = 0.5544 < 0.7313).

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Raghavendr Singh, Medha Lakhanam

An In Vitro Study of Three Types of Pit and Fissure Sealants for Viscosity, Resin Tag, and Microleakage: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:304 - 310]

Keywords: Dental caries, Microleakage, Pit and fissure sealant, Resin tag length, Viscosity

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2392  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: One of the important techniques for prevention of dental caries is the application of pit and fissure sealants. The sealant success depends on not only adhering firmly to the enamel surface, but also isolation of pits and fissures from the rest of the oral environment. The study was conducted to evaluate and compare three pit and fissure sealant materials for viscosity, microleakage, and resin tag length. Materials and methods: Sixty premolars were selected for the study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Group I: type VII GIC, group II: Delton FS, group III: Delton. Teeth were prepared by pumice prophylaxis and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. The respective pit and fissure sealants were applied. Teeth were stored in 1% methylene blue dye and sectioned mesiodistally into two halves. The microleakage was assessed using stereomicroscope and resin tag length using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Brookfield's viscometer was used to measure the viscosity. Result: Viscosity was lowest for Delton and highest for type VII GIC. Microleakage was seen least with the Delton (0.0%) sealant, followed by Delton FS (20.0%), and highest in Type VII GIC (85.0%) in the scoring criteria of 3 and 4 and the mean length of the resin tags was least for Type VII GIC was 3.79 ± 2.58 µm, followed by Delton FS was 5.60 ± 2.12 µm, and highest for Delton was 7.27 ± 3.43 µm. The relation between viscosity, resin tag length, and microleakage was negative. As the viscosity gets lower, the more long the resin tags formed and the microleakage decreased. Delton pit and fissure sealant had lowest viscosity and microleakage scores while longest resin tag lengths. Conclusion: Delton with the lowest viscosity and microleakage appears to be a more suitable pit and fissure sealant compatible with residual moisture and ideal for use in children, where isolation is a problem.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

P Swati Manohar, Priya Subramaniam

Oral Health-related Quality of Life and Oral Hygiene of Children and Adolescents with Hearing Impairment

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:311 - 315]

Keywords: Hearing impairment, Oral health quality of life, Oral hygiene

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2377  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Hearing impairment affects communication and oral hygiene practices. Aim: To determine the effect of dental education and motivation on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and oral hygiene in children and adolescents with hearing impairment. Materials and methods: Ninety children aged 8–16 years were selected from a special school of hearing impaired. Their OHRQoL was assessed using child oral health impact profile short form (COHIP–SF) at baseline and at 12 months. Oral hygiene was assessed using Silness and Loe plaque index and Loe and Silness gingival index. Oral health education followed by motivational sessions once a month was carried out for 12 months. Data was statistically analyzed using student paired t-test and Karl Pearson correlation test. Level of significance was considered as 5%. Results: COHIP score showed a significant improvement from 39.7 at baseline to 48.0 at 12 months (p < 0.05). A significant reduction was seen in plaque (p = 0.002) and gingival inflammation (p < 0.05) at 6 and 12 months. An inverse relation was seen between the COHIP score and gingival health. Conclusion: OHRQoL of children and adolescents with hearing impairment significantly improved from baseline to 12 months.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vrushali R Khobragade, Prashanthkumar Vishwakarma, Arun S Dodamani, Minal M Kshirsagar, Deepa T Pazare, Rahul N Deokar

Oral Health Status of Mothers According to Different Personality Traits and Influence on their Child's Oral Health: A Cross-sectional Survey

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:316 - 321]

Keywords: Cross-sectional study, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Personality traits

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2393  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: Oral hygiene practices vary as per different personalities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of mothers of various personality traits and its influence on their child's oral health. Materials and methods: The present study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 450 mothers of 20–40 years having child of 3–7 years. “Eysenck Personality Questionnaire” was given to all the mothers to classify them into four different personality traits, i.e., Extroversion, Neuroticism, Lie scale, and Psychoticism; followed by an assessment of oral health status of both mothers and their child. Collected data were compiled in MS-Excel sheet and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results were statistically analyzed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA). For pairwise intergroup multiple comparisons, post hoc Tukey test was applied. Association of child's oral health status with mother's oral health with respect to four different personality traits was done by linear regression analysis. From the present study it was seen that severity of dental caries status was more in psychoticism group as compared to other personality groups (p < 0.05) for mothers as well as children. Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was seen to be statistically significant with highest mean in Lie scale group. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded that there is a positive correlation with mother's personality traits and oral health status of mothers and their children.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Paliki Bhuvaneswari, C Vinay, KS Uloopi, Kakarla Sri RojaRamya, Rayala Chandrasekhar, Penmatsa Chaitanya

Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Self-adhering Flowable Composite as Fissure Sealant in 6–9-year-old Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:322 - 326]

Keywords: Pit and fissure sealant, Randomized controlled trial, Sealant retention, Self-adhering flowable composite, Unfilled resin sealant

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2382  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the retention rate of self-adhering flowable composite as fissure sealant in comparison with the unfilled resin sealant on first permanent molars of 6–9-year-old children. Materials and methods: A 2-arm, split-mouth randomized controlled trial included 100 children of age 6–9 years with completely erupted mandibular first permanent molars. A total of 200 teeth were randomly divided into two groups, group I: self-adhering flowable composite; group II: unfilled resin sealant. Sealants were placed on the mandibular first permanent molars and the children were recalled at 6, 12, and 18 months intervals to evaluate the retention rate. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. Results: Self-adhering flowable composite has shown a complete retention rate of 67%, 47%, and 46% at 6, 12, and 18-month intervals, respectively, whereas unfilled resin sealant has shown 41%, 8%, and 5% retention rate at 6, 12, and 18-month intervals, respectively. The difference in the complete sealant retention rates between the groups is found to be statistically highly significant at all the follow-up intervals (p = 0.0004, 0.0001, and 0.0001 at 6, 12, and 18-month intervals, respectively). In both groups, maximum sealant loss occurred between 6 and 12-month intervals. Retention rates were higher at 6 months intervals which were significantly reduced over 18 months intervals. Conclusion: Self-adhering flowable composite has shown a higher retention rate compared to unfilled resin sealant at all the time intervals. The retention rate of both materials decreased with time. However, the loss of sealant was more with unfilled resin sealant. Clinical significance: In pediatric dental practice, the elimination of a step in restorative dentistry protocol makes a big difference as time is a critical factor in obtaining children's cooperation. The use of self-adhering materials eliminates the step of bonding agent application, which simplifies the restorative protocol and makes the clinical practice effective. Therefore, these self-adhering flowable composite resin materials can be considered fissure sealants in routine clinical practice.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Alok Patel, Sayali P Belsare, Shweta S Jajoo, Smita Patil, Sanket Kunte, Shweta Chaudhary

Comparison of the Influence of a Packaged Fruit Juice on the Bacterial Adhesion on a Glass Ionomer Cement and an Esthetic Restorative Material In Vitro

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:327 - 331]

Keywords: Composite, Fruit juice, Glass ionomer cement, In vitro

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2394  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate and compare the effect of a packaged orange juice on the two most commonly used restorative materials in pediatric dentistry. Methodology: Fifteen samples each of 6 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness of a glass ionomer cement (GIC) and an esthetic restorative material were prepared using silicone rings. These were exposed to a packaged orange fruit juice and then placed in a standard culture of Streptococcus mutans. The bacterial adhesion to these samples was evaluated after exposure to the fruit juice for 1 day and for 7 days. Results: Results from the study show that there is a decrease in the colony forming unit (CFU) after exposure to the packaged fruit juice as opposed to the studies using carbonated acidic drinks, which have shown a consistent rise in the CFU due to a change in the surface morphology. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was seen that the consumption of fruit juice may not cause a deteriorating effect on the restorative materials considered. However, the results were not statistically significant and further research is necessary to come to a conclusion regarding the reduction in the bacterial count after exposure to the fruit juice. Clinical implications: With further research, such studies can help in improving the diet counseling practices.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Jagruti H Thakur, Amar N Katre

Comparison of the Efficacy of Homeopathic Drug Arnica and Ibuprofen on Postextraction Pain in Children: A Triple-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:332 - 337]

Keywords: Arnica, Children, Ibuprofen, Postextraction pain

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2379  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To compare the homeopathic drug Arnica with ibuprofen as an analgesic for postextraction pain control in children. Materials and methods: Forty-four healthy children between 8 and 12 years of age requiring two clinical sessions of tooth extraction in two different quadrants of the oral cavity were selected for the study. All the children received both the drugs in this crossover trial with a washout of 10 days. Patient-rated and operator-assessed pain was compared to a 10-point validated Visual Analog Scale at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours using the paired t-test. Acceptance to taste and frequency of dosing was recorded at the end of three days using a five-point Likert scale and were compared using the Chi-squared test. Kappa statistics were performed to assess intraoperator variability. Results: Pain reduction by Ibuprofen was significantly more than Arnica only at 48 hours with respect to both patient-reported and operator-assessed pain [(t = 3.567, p < 0.05), (t = 2.834, p < 0.05)]. As the age of the child increased, patient-reported pain significantly decreased. Children preferred the taste of Arnica over that of Ibuprofen (x2 = 56.76, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: There was no difference between Arnica and Ibuprofen in the postextraction pain management in 8–12-year-old children. Clinical significance: The results of this study suggest that Arnica may be considered as an alternative to ibuprofen in managing postextraction pain in 8–12-year-old children, especially those with asthma, COPD, or known allergy to ibuprofen.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kashmira M Gurav, Vittaldas Shetty, Vineet Vinay, Ketaki Bhor, Chirayu Jain, Pallavi Divekar

Effectiveness of Oral Health Educational Methods among School Children Aged 5–16 Years in Improving their Oral Health Status: A Meta-analysis

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:12] [Pages No:338 - 349]

Keywords: Audio–video presentations, Oral health education, Oral health promotion, Oral health talk, Oral hygiene, School children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2395  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Two major oral diseases, dental caries and gingival conditions are prevalent in young population. School-based oral health education (OHE) programs with recognized technology and traditional lecturing could be strategic in promotion of oral health behavior in developed and developing countries. Aim: The aim of the study is to summarize existing evidence in order to evaluate the effectiveness of OHE programs in school children aged 5–16 years in improving their oral health status. Methodology: Clinical trials with school children between 5 and 16 years were included. Eligible studies were those which had outcomes as caries, plaque and gingival indices, and oral hygiene status. Articles published from 2010 to 2019 in English language from PubMed, Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), and Google Scholar were searched. Forty-one articles were identified and relevance was determined by examining title and full article. Nine articles were included for qualitative synthesis and seven were eligible for meta-analysis. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane Handbook. A meta-analysis was done using Review Manager 5.3 software. Results: After the meta-analysis results for cumulative mean difference was found as 0.05 (–0.17, 0.27), –0.37 (–0.74, 0.00), –0.20 (–0.33, –0.07), and –0.17 (–0.73, 0.38) for plaque status, Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), debris status, and dental caries, respectively showing a significant difference favoring the experimental group than traditional group. Conclusion: Interventions given by various aids like lectures, albums, models, flipcharts, leaflets, E-programs, games, drawings, and presentations proved effective in improving oral hygiene status and dental caries, but no reduction in plaque levels and gingival inflammation as compared to oral health talk/counseling by dentists.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Priti S Adsul, Preeti Dhawan, Avantika Tuli, Nitin Khanduri, Aditi Singh

Evaluation and Comparison of Physical Properties of Cention N with Other Restorative Materials in Artificial Saliva: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:350 - 355]

Keywords: Artificial saliva, Cention N, Conventional glass-ionomer cement, Flexural strength, Microhardness, Zirconomer improved

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2383  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine and compare flexural strength and microhardness of Cention N with Glass ionomer cement (GIC) (GC Gold Label Type IX Extra) and Zirconomer improved at a distinctive time period in artificial saliva. Materials and methods: Cention N, GC Gold Label Type IX Extra, Zirconomer improved for the fabrication of samples. To determine the physical properties such as flexural strength and microhardness, test samples (n-30) of dimensions 12 mm (length)*4 mm (breadth)*2 mm (thickness) were made and divided into three groups. Every sample was dipped for 28 days in a plastic tube containing 5 mL of artificial saliva. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA with a post hoc test, intergroup and intragroup analyses were carried out. Results: In an intergroup analysis, flexural strength and microhardness of Cention N were substantially higher than Zirconomer improved and GIC (GC Gold Label Type IX Extra), respectively. In intragroup analysis found that there was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the level of flexural strength as well as microhardness after samples were immersed in artificial saliva of group A (Cention N), group B (GC Gold Label Type IX Extra), and group C (Zirconomer improved) from 1st day to 28th day in artificial saliva. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Cention N had the highest flexural strength and microhardness of the three materials tested. Zirconomer improved can be used as a basic filling material in various restorative procedures due to good comparable mechanical properties and is economical for patients.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Raghavendra Havale, Dhanu G Rao, Neha Bemalgi, Omera B Fatima, Sara S Syeda, Namratha Tharay

Comparative Evaluation of Novel Herbal Rice Husk Mouthwash with Kidodent against Streptococcus mutans: A Parallel Double-blinded Randomized Control Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:356 - 361]

Keywords: Children, Herbal, Kidodent, Mouthwash, Rice husk

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2399  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of rice husk extract mouthwash (RHM) and Kidodent mouthwash (KM) for reduction in salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and methods: After approval from institutional review board and institutional informed consent, 45 children who met the inclusion criteria were divided into three groups. In group A, children received rice husk mouth wash whereas in group B placebo is specified and in group C, intervention being KM. The unstimulated saliva is collected at baseline, 7th, 10th, and 15th days and subjected to microbiological analysis. The data are statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Rice husk mouthwash showed equivalent, significant, and effective reduction in S. mutans count similar to KM (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The rice husk mouthwash showed potential therapeutic effect in reduction of S. mutans. Clinical trial registry india (CTRI No): CTRI/2020/10/028594.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rachna Sharma, Natasha Ghambir, Nidhi Gupta, Rashi Singh

Comparative Evaluation of Different Varnishes and Pit and Fissure Sealants on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva of Children

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:362 - 365]

Keywords: Sealant, S. mutans, Pit and fissures, Varnish

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2385  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of different varnishes: 3M ESPE Clinpro and Voco Profluorid and fissure sealants- 3M ESPE ClinPro and Ivoclar Vivadent Helioseal-F on the S. mutans count in the saliva of children. Materials and methods: Eighty children of 6–12 years of age with no incidence of caries were selected and saliva samples were collected by drooling method after oral prophylaxis. The children were divided randomly into four groups and materials were applied accordingly. Saliva samples were obtained immediately after the procedure as well as 1-month, 3-months and 6-months posttreatment. Saliva samples were inoculated on Mitis salivarius agar and colony counts of S. mutans were obtained. Results: This study showed that both the varnishes and pit and fissure sealants were equally effective in reducing the salivary S. mutans count in children in a time period of 6-months however pit and fissure sealants were more effective in preventing caries. Conclusion: Both varnishes and pit and fissure sealants are equally effective in reducing S. mutans count in saliva.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sulaiman Y Alfayz, Mahmoud Alabdulsalam, Abdulrahman Alabdulathim, Ravi G Raghunath

Evaluation of Unmet Restorative Treatment Needs among Pediatric Patients of King Faisal University Dental Clinics, Saudi Arabia

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:366 - 370]

Keywords: Deciduous dentition, Mixed dentition, Unmet restorative treatment needs

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2384  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate unmet restorative treatment needs (URTN) among the children visiting Dental Clinics Complex (DCC), King Faisal University in Al Ahsa region of Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 332 children, 3–13 years old. All the children were grouped based on dentition and gender. Details of patient history, clinical examination, radiographs, and the proposed treatment plan was accessed from Titanium patient management software to assess URTN. Result: Only 37 children (11.14%) reported to be caries free while the remaining 295 children (88.16%) had one or more carious teeth which needed treatment. Unmet restorative treatment needs were higher for restorable teeth and stainless steel (SS) crown in deciduous dentition group while mixed dentition group showed higher URTN for unrestorable teeth, missing tooth due to caries, filled tooth with caries, remaining root and space maintenance. Based on gender, URTN like restorable teeth and filled tooth with caries were more among girls while missing tooth due to caries and SS crown were more among boys. Conclusion: Majority of the children had untreated carious teeth. Children in the mixed dentition group showed higher URTN. Clinical significance: More emphasis on addressing URTN is needed. Improving dental healthcare services to meet the oral healthcare needs, eventually promotes overall quality of life of an individual.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zohra Jabin, Iffat Nasim, V Vishnu Priya, Nidhi Agarwal

Comparative Evaluation of Salivary Fluoride Concentration after Topical Application of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:371 - 375]

Keywords: Enamel demineralization, Primary teeth, Saliva, Silver diamine fluoride

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2398  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: The topical fluoride acts on the tooth in many ways and their most important action is inhibition of demineralization and enhancement of enamel remineralization. Aim: The purpose of this clinical trial was to assess the fluoride concentration in saliva before and after 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) application on enamel and duration of its availability at different time intervals. Methodology: A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 40 healthy children aged between 6 and 12 years. The participants were then randomly allocated into two different groups in which the first group (group I) was given 30% SDF and the second group (group II) were topically applied with 5% NaF solution. The fluoride concentration was measured in the salivary samples, which were collected at three time intervals, that is, at baseline (S1), 2 hours (S2), and 24 hours (S3) after application. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for evaluation and independent paired t-test was conducted for comparison between groups. Results: When using an ANOVA with repeated measures with a Greenhouse–Geisser correction, the mean scores of fluoride concentration were statistically significantly different at different time intervals for both NaF (F = 20.854, p < 0.0005) and SDF (F = 22.746, p < 0.0005). Conclusion: The present trial concluded that topical fluoride application increases fluoride bioavailability in saliva thereby increasing tooth remineralization. A steep rise in fluoride concentration was observed shortly post-SDF application at 2 hours and 24 hours time interval emerging a need for further research into the field of fluoridation with SDF.

CASE REPORT

Umapathy Thimmegowda, Praveen M Nagarajshetty, B Amrutha, Kumar B Niwlikar, Ashwini C Prabhakar

Bilateral Incisiform Superlative Maxillary Permanent Lateral Incisors in a Nonsyndromic Young Girl: A Review and Report of a Case with Comprehensive Management

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:376 - 379]

Keywords: Hyperdontia, Incisiform supplemental teeth, Supernumerary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2389  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: This case report aims to describe the management of a case of non-syndromic bilateral incisiform superlative lateral incisors in a young girl. Background: Supernumerary teeth are an excess number of teeth as compared to the normal dental formula. Supernumerary teeth closely resembling normal tooth shape and morphology are called superlative tooth. Superlative incisiform lateral incisors occurring bilaterally is very rare in the arch. Case description: This paper describes a case of non-syndromic bilateral incisiform superlative lateral incisors in a 16-year-old female patient and its management by pediatric and orthodontic therapy. Conclusion: In this case as both the teeth were equally formed, the tooth which is more out of occlusion and causing discomfort will be extracted under local anesthesia and continued with orthodontic treatment for the correction of crowding. Clinical significance: When superlative teeth are present, they should be investigated and diagnosed properly. Superlative teeth should be managed according to the presenting clinical feature so that further complications can be minimized in the developing dentition.

CASE REPORT

Preetika Yadav, Mandeep S Virdi

Spinal Tap Needle Technique for Creating Apical Plug with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in Immature Permanent Teeth

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:380 - 384]

Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Pediatric dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2388  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This report evaluates the apical plug formation in two cases with necrotic immature maxillary central incisors in 11 and 12 years old female patients by the use of spinal tap needle to create apical plug-in single increment without any residual mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) attachment to the wall of the root canal. Materials and methods: The shape of the immature root canal resembles a truncated cone. To achieve a truncated cone with MTA on the apical 4 mm in order to plug the open apex, the volume of material that will be required can be calculated by taking spinal tap needle (BD Spinal, Spain) equal to the last file used, in a way that the MTA extruded is equal to the amount required to shape the apical plug in a single increment. Result: A uniform void-free apical plug was made in single increments by using this technique. Conclusion: This spinal tap needle is very economical, available in various sizes corresponding to endodontic K files, so spinal tap needle method is a viable method to create uniform void-free accurate apical plug in one increment without the wastage of material and time preventing the material to extrude beyond.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Shweta Kajjari, Riddhi S Joshi, Shivayogi M Hugar, Niraj Gokhale, Priya Meharwade, Chaitanya Uppin

The Effects of Lavender Essential Oil and its Clinical Implications in Dentistry: A Review

[Year:2022] [Month:May-June] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:385 - 388]

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antinociceptive and antioxidant, Anxiolytic

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2378  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Essential oils have been known to have many medicinal properties. They have been utilized by medical practitioners since the medieval ages. Lavender essential oil is known to be rich in medicinal properties like antimicrobial activity, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant properties. Utilization of herbal products like lavender essential oils will benefit the patients in many ways. Incorporation of these properties in the field of dentistry has ample advantages. The purpose of this review article is to enlist the current and prospective uses of lavender essential oils in the field of dentistry and to identify the lacunae using which research regarding this topic can be taken one step closer to clinical practice.

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