International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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VOLUME 16 , ISSUE S2 ( September, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Study of Developmental Defects of Enamel in Young Permanent Maxillary Incisors in 11–13-year-old Indian Children for Occurrence Distribution and Associated Factors

Neha Sheoran, Abhishek Dhindsa, Vishal Juneja, Sunny Mavi

Keywords : Anterior teeth, Demarcated opacities, Esthetics

Citation Information :

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2628

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-11-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Purpose: The aim of present study was to assess the frequency, severity, and distribution of developmental defects of tooth enamel and correlate the etiology with the type of defect in 11–13-year-old Indian children. Materials and methods: The present study included examination of permanent maxillary incisors in 500 children in the age-group of 11–13 years to examine the occurrence of distribution of developmental defects of tooth enamel. Materials and methods: Only the buccal surface of four permanent maxillary incisors was examined for enamel defects using modified developmental defects of enamel (DDE) index by Clarkson which recognized three basic types of enamel defects; namely demarcated opacities, diffuse opacities, and hyploplsia. Personnel details, dental history which included dental infection, extraction, trauma, lifetime fluoride, fluoride in water, and medical history were also recorded. Data was coded and analyzed for distribution of developmental defects of tooth enamel by tooth type and gender using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Result: Out of 500, 114 (22.8%) children showed defective enamel in permanent maxillary incisors. Of all enamel defects, diffuse opacities were most prevalent with 48.25% occurrence followed by demarcated opacities 38.5%, hypoplasia 10.52%, and any other defects 1.75%. No significant difference was observed in males and females for the occurrence of developmental enamel defects. The occurrence of dental enamel defect significantly correlated with dental history as well as with medical history (Chi-squared statistical test, p-value = 0.001**). Conclusion: (1) High fluoride in water accounts for most prevalent diffuse opacity. (2) Demarcated opacities are associated mainly with positive dental history. (3) Hypoplasia of incisors was found to be least prevalent associated with trauma, periapical infections.

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