Aim and objective: To evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of various inorganic metal oxide nanoparticles along with vehicles when used as intracanal medicaments in the root canal system.
Materials and methods: The study included triplicates (n = 36 times) that were subjected to n calcium oxide (CaO), n zinc oxide (ZnO), n magnesium oxide (MgO), and metapaste as intracanal medicaments. The efficacy of novel intracanal medicaments was evaluated for biocompatibility assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)—2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent following antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was evaluated using zone of inhibition (ZOI) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The statistical analysis Kruskal–Wallis test, student t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (v.20.0).
Results: The order of proliferative activity of experimental groups on L929 mouse fibroblast cells using MTT assay was: metapaste > nCaO > nMgO > nZnO). After evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy, group I: nCaO showed maximum ZOI and MIC against E. faecalis, which showed high statistically significant differences between all four groups after ANOVA (p < 0.0001*).
Conclusion:n calcium oxide (CaO) mixed with propylene glycol (PPG) 400 has a potential role as an intracanal medicament with minimum cytotoxic effect and maximum antimicrobial activity against endodontic pathogens.
Clinical significance: Nanoparticles-based intracanal medicament can provide a promising future in reducing endodontic flareups when used as intracanal medicament.
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