Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare the relative efficacy of two different chemical irrigants in achieving the same objective of bacteria decrease in deciduous teeth. The classic needle irrigation system and the EndoVac system were chemical irrigants.
Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 80 deciduous molars in patients aged 3–9 years were chosen according to the selection criteria. The teeth were divided randomly into four groups based on the irrigation system and irrigant used, namely, the group I [2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + conventional needle], group II (2.5% NaOCl + EndoVac), group III [2% chlorhexidine (CHX) + conventional needle], and group IV (2% CHX + EndoVac). Pre and postirrigation microbial samples were collected and transferred for microbial assay. Thereafter, pre and postoperative observations were recorded and a mean reduction of bacterial colony-forming units (CFU)/mL was obtained. The statistical analysis was then performed.
Results: In the intragroup comparison, EndoVac and the conventional system showed a statistically significant (p > 0.05) reduction in mean CFU/mL. In the intergroup comparison, EndoVac showed better results than the conventional needle irrigation system (p > 0.05). There was more reduction in CFU in 2% CHX than in 2.5% NaOCl in both the conventional needle system (p = 0.3056) and the EndoVac system (p = 0.4573), with no significant difference.
Conclusion: In this in vivo study, the efficacy of EndoVac was found to be better among all the tested groups. Around 2% CHX was found superior as compared to 2.5% NaOCl with no significant difference.
Clinical significance: The EndoVac apical negative pressure irrigant system eliminates optimum bacterial load. It significantly cleans more debris from mechanically inaccessible regions of root canals. The use of 2% CHX has shown promising results due to its property of substantivity and acceptability by children.
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