International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, Its Relation with Dental Caries and Various Enamel Surface Defects in 8–16-year-old Schoolchildren of Lucknow District

Sarita Verma, Kavita Dhinsa, Abhay Mani Tripathi, Sonali Saha, Gunjan Yadav, Deval Arora

Keywords : Dental caries, Enamel surface defects, MIH, Schoolchildren

Citation Information : Verma S, Dhinsa K, Tripathi AM, Saha S, Yadav G, Arora D. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, Its Relation with Dental Caries and Various Enamel Surface Defects in 8–16-year-old Schoolchildren of Lucknow District. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (1):1-8.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2088

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Introduction: The decreased rate in dental caries cases across the world has created an enthusiasm in many clinicians to relate and study different developmental disorders. In past years, defects that are commonly associated with dentistry are hypomineralized areas commonly seen in central incisors and first molars. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect of the enamel, which is qualitative in nature and systemic in origin characterized by advanced and concurrent hypomineralization of the enamel affecting the first permanent molars together with frequent association of the incisors. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), its possible risk factors and its association with dental caries and enamel surface defects (attrition and abrasion) in schoolchildren aged between 8 and 16 years in Lucknow district. Methodology: Indexed teeth (first permanent molars and incisors) of 5,585 schoolchildren, selected by stratified random sampling technique between the age-group of 8 and 16 years, were examined by a trained and calibrated examiner. The data was recorded in a predesigned pro forma by examiner, which consisted of mainly two parts. The first part comprised of general information, while the second part comprised of questions related to risk factors related to MIH (prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history). For the diagnosis of MIH, the Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index was used for diagnosis of MIH, while the decay-missing-filled teeth index (DMFT) criteria were used for assessing dental caries. Enamel surface defects were recorded using the Smith and Knight tooth wear index. Results: A prevalence of 7.6% was reported wherein females were found to be more affected by MIH. A strong significant correlation was found between MIH prevalence and childhood infection. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of MIH is necessary to prevent the rapid destruction of the tooth morphology resulting in complicated treatment. Further studies with greater samples are needed to investigate the different etiological factors and determine the biological molecular mechanism that they may cause. Clinical significance: The data obtained from the current study does not portray a clear consideration of the infants’ medical history in the initial 4 years of life. Further studies may be performed to surpass these shortcomings by using more elaborate medical records of the child in addition to profound recollection of the parents. Due to paucity of literature on this issue in Lucknow District, our current study may provide some information at a baseline level for conducting an extensive research involving different regions pan-India.

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