International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2022 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prevalence, Pattern, and Severity of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in 8–12-year-old Schoolchildren of Moradabad City

Ajla Khan, Nishita Garg, Sandeep S Mayall, Lumbini Pathivada, Harsimran Kaur, Ramakrishna Yeluri

Keywords : Epidemiological study, Hypomineralization of second primary molar, Molar hypomineralization, Molar incisor hypomineralization, Prevalence

Citation Information : Khan A, Garg N, Mayall SS, Pathivada L, Kaur H, Yeluri R. Prevalence, Pattern, and Severity of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in 8–12-year-old Schoolchildren of Moradabad City. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (2):168-174.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2362

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim and objective: Recently, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has become more evident and one of the most common reasons for loss of teeth in children after dental caries. Being a country with a diverse ethnic population, the prevalence of MIH in different regions of India may differ. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, pattern, and severity of MIH in 8–12-year-old Schoolchildren in Moradabad city. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in various schools of Moradabad city to target a sample of 2,300 children aged between 8 and 12 years. The examination was done in their respective schools by a calibrated examiner in natural daylight using European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry diagnostic criteria for MIH 2015. The results, thus obtained, were statistically analyzed using Pearson\'s Chi-square test. Results: A prevalence of 3.96% (91/2300) for MIH was reported without any gender predilection. Molar hypomineralization showed a prevalence of 1.3% (29/2300) whereas the prevalence for hypomineralization of second primary molars was 1.4% (22/1620). The most common type of defect was type 2 and most of the affected teeth were of grade I. Mandibular molars were more commonly affected compared to the maxillary molars. Conclusions: A prevalence of 3.96% (91/2300) was observed for MIH. Frequent dental screening camps should be organized in schools at the community level for the enhancement of early diagnosis of MIH and designing appropriate management strategies.


PDF Share
  1. Reid DJ, Dean MC. Variation in modern human enamel formation times. J Hum Evol 2006;50(3):329–346. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.09.003
  2. Smith BH. Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS, editors. Advances in dental anthropology. New York: Wiley-Liss; 1991. p. 143–168.
  3. Koch G, Hallonsten AL, Ludvigsson N, et al. Epidemiologic study of idiopathic enamel hypomineralization in permanent teeth of Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15(5):279–285. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1987.tb00538.x
  4. Weerheijm KL, Jälevik B, Alaluusua S. Molar–incisor hypomineralisation. Caries Res 2001;35(5):390–391. DOI: 10.1159/000047479
  5. Weerheijm KL. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): clinical presentation, aetiology and management. Dent Update 2004;31(1):9–12. DOI: 10.12968/denu.2004.31.1.9
  6. Weerheijm KL, Groen HJ, Beentjes VE, et al. Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children. ASDC J Dent Child 2001;68(4):259–262.
  7. Leppäniemi A, Lukinmaa PL, Alauusua S. Nonfluoride hypomineralizations in the permanent first molars and their impact on the treatment need. Caries Res 2001;35(1):36–40. DOI: 10.1159/000047428
  8. Weerheijm KL, Duggal M, Mejàre I, et al. Judgement criteria for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in epidemiologic studies: a summary of the European meeting on MIH held in Athens, 2003. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2003;4(3):110–113.
  9. Cho SY, Ki Y, Chu V. Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008;18(5):348–352. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2008.00927.x
  10. Kemoli AM. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in six to eight year-olds in two rural divisions in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2008;85(10):514–519. DOI: 10.4314/eamj.v85i10.9668
  11. Costa-Silva CM, Jeremias F, De Souza JF, et al. Molar incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical consequences in Brazilian children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2010;20(6):426–434. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01097.x
  12. Ng JJ, Eu OC, Nair R, et al. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Singaporean children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2015;25(2):73–78. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12100
  13. Pitiphat W, Savisit R, Chansamak N, et al. Molar iencisor hypomineralization and dental caries in six- to seven-year-old Thai children. Pediatr Dent 2014;36(7):478–482.
  14. Shrestha R, Upadhaya S, Bajracharya M. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation among school children in Kavre. Kathmandu Univ Med J 2014;12(45):38–42. DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v12i1.13631
  15. Parikh DR, Ganesh M, Bhaskar V. Prevalence and characteristics of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2012;13(1):21–26. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262836
  16. Mittal NP, Goyal A, Gauba K, et al. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and clinical presentation in school children of the northern region of India. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2014;15(1):11–18. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-013-0045-4
  17. Kirthiga M, Poornima P, Praveen R, et al. Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33(3):213–217. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.160366
  18. Anjum R, Sudhan ZA. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of children coming to Indira Gandhi Govt. Dental college, Jammu. Int J Clin Cases Investigat 2015;6(4):140–145.
  19. Bhaskar SA, Hegde S. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32(4):322–329. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.140960
  20. Subramaniam P, Gupta T, Sharma A. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru city, India. Contemp Clin Dent 2016;7(1):11–15. DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.177091
  21. Yannam SD, Amarlal D, Rekha CV. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2016;34(2):134–138. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.180438
  22. Mittal R, Chandak S, Chandwani M, et al. Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016;6(1):34–39. DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.175409
  23. Mishra A, Pandey RK. Molar incisor hypomineralization: an epidemiological study with prevalence and etiological factors in Indian pediatric population. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):167–171. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1357
  24. Krishnan R, Ramesh M, Chalakkal P. Prevalence and characteristics of MIH in school children residing in an endemic fluorosis area of India: an epidemiological study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2015;16(6):455–460. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-015-0194-8
  25. Mittal N, Sharma BB. Molar incisor hypomineralization: prevalence and defect characteristics in Indian schoolchildren. J Cranio Max Dis 2015;4(1):49–56. DOI: 10.4103/2278-9588.151904
  26. Babu V, Jha S. Prevalence and characteristics of molar incisor hypomineralization in children residing in South Bangalore, India. Int J Sci Study 2014;2(9):74–78.
  27. Ghanim A, Elfrink M, Weerheijm K, et al. A practical method for use in epidemiological studies on enamel hypomineralisation. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2015;16(3):235–246. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-015-0178-8
  28. Saba N, Umar R. Hydrogeochemical assessment of Moradabad city, an important industrial town of Uttar Pradesh, India. Sustain Water Resour Manag 2016;2:217–236. DOI: 10.1007/s40899-016-0053-8
  29. World Health Organization. Oral health surveys: basic methods. 5th ed. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
  30. Willmott NS, Bryan RA, Duggal MS. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation: a literature review. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2008;9(4):172–179. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262633
  31. Elfrink MEC, Veerkamp JSJ, Aartman IHA, et al. Validity of scoring caries and primary molar hypomineralization (DMH) on intraoral photographs. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2009;10(1):5–10. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262693
  32. Jalevik B, Klingberg G. Treatment outcomes and dental anxiety in 18-year-olds with MIH, comparisons with healthy controls - a longitudinal study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2012;22(2):85–91. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01161.x
  33. Jälevik B. Enamel hypomineralization in permanent first molars. A clinical, histo-morphological and biochemical study. Swed Dent J Suppl 2001(149):1–86.
  34. Elfrink ME, Schuller AA, Weerheijm KL, et al. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds. Caries Res 2008;42:282–285. DOI: 10.1159/000135674
  35. Buchgraber B, Kqiku L, Ebeleseder KA. Molar incisor hypomineralization: proportion and severity in primary public school children in Graz, Austria. Clin Oral Investig 2018;22(2):757–762. DOI 10.1007/s00784-017-2150-y
  36. Lygidakis NA, Dimou G, Briseniou E. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2008;9(4):200–206. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262636
  37. Ahmadi R, Ramazani N, Nourinasab R. Molar incisor hypomineralization: a study of prevalence and etiology in a group of Iranian children. Iran J Pediatr 2012;22(2):245–251.
  38. Schmalfuss A, Stenhagen KR, Tveit AB, et al. Canines are affected in 16-year-olds with molar–incisor hypomineralisation (MIH): an epidemiological study based on the Tromsø study: “Fit Futures”. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2016;17(2):107–113. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-015-0216-6
  39. Gurrusquieta BJ, Núñez VM, López MLAJ. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in Mexican children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;41(1):18–21. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628-41.1.18
  40. Margarit MG, Pizarro MC, Company JMM, et al. Epidemiologic study of molar-incisor hypomineralization in 8-year-old Spanish children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2014;24(1):14–22. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12020
  41. Durmus B, Abbasoglu Z, Peker S, et al. Possible medical aetiological factors and characteristics of molar incisor hypomineralisation in a group of Turkish children. Acta Stomatol Croat 2013;47(4):297–305. DOI: 10.15644/asc47/4/1
  42. Soviero V, Haubek D, Trindade C, et al. Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities and their sequelae in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 7 to 13-year-old Brazilian children. Acta Odontol Scand 2009;67(3):170–175. DOI: 10.1080/00016350902758607
  43. Elfrink M, Ghanim A, Manton D, et al. Standardised studies on molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) and hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM): a need. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2015;16(3):247–255. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-015-0179-7
  44. Weerheijm KL, Mejare I. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: a questionnaire inventory of its occurrence in member countries of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Int J Paediatr Dent 2003;13(6):411–416. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-263x.2003.00498.x
  45. FDI commission on oral health, research & epidemiology. A review of the developmental defects of enamel index (DDE index). Int Dent J 1992;42:411–426.
  46. Gomez TPM, Jimeno FG, Dalmau LJB, et al. Prevalence of molar–incisor hypomineralisation observed using transillumination in a group of children from Barcelona (Spain). Int J Paediatr Dent 2012;22(2):100–109. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01172.x
  47. Condò R, Perugia C, Maturo P, et al. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient. Oral Implantol 2012;5(2-3)58–69.
  48. Jasulaitye L, Veerkamp JS, Weerheijm KL. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: review and prevalence data from a study of primary school children in Kaunas (Lithuania). Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2007;8(2):87–94. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262575
  49. Chawla N, Messer LB, Silva M. Clinical studies on molar incisor hypomineralisation part 1: distribution and putative associations. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2008;9(4):180–190. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262634
  50. Ghanim A, Morgan M, Marino R, et al. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and defect characteristics in Iraqi children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011;21(6):413–421. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01143.x
  51. Zawaideh FI, Al-Jundi SH, Al-Jaljoli MH. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence in Jordanian children and clinical characteristics. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2011;12(1):31–33. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262776
  52. Mittal N, Sharma BB. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and possible association with molar incisor hypomineralisation in Indian children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2015;16(6):441–447. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-015-0190-z
  53. Ghanim A, Manton D, Marino R, et al. Prevalence of demarcated hypomineralisation defects in second primary molars in Iraqi children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2013;23(1):48–55. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2012.01223.x
  54. Wogelius P, Haubek D, Poulsen S. Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 6 to 8-years-old Danish children. Acta Odontol Scand 2008;66(1):58–64. DOI: 10.1080/00016350801926941
  55. Barber AN, Company JMM, Catalá BM, et al. Hypomineralized second primary molars as predictor of molar incisor hypomineralization. Sci Rep 2016;6:31929. DOI: 10.1038/srep31929
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.