Aim: To provide an overview of the techniques of indirect pulp treatment (IPT) and the new materials used.
Background: Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT) is a conservative treatment approach that can be used in primary molars. Pulpotomy has been adopted as the treatment of choice for deep caries in primary molars. IPT showed higher success rates in recent researches.
Materials and methods: Electronic search of English scientific papers was accomplished using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Papers published from 1995 to 2019 were included. Search terms used were recent advances, indirect pulp treatment, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), biodentine, TheraCal–LC, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), and calcium hydroxide.
Review results: Seventy two papers were obtained from the electronic search and references of selected studies. Thirty five papers explained recent advances in IPT materials for primary molars. MTA produces more dentinal bridging with superior quality than calcium hydroxide. Similarly, Biodentine can form reparative dentin in a very short period. TheraCal–LC has increased stability and durability with strong physical properties and low solubility. Furthermore, CHX is a chemical disinfectant which can aid in increasing the success rate of IPT when conjugated with other materials. It produced highly successful IPT when combined with RMGI or calcium hydroxide.
Conclusion: IPT is the preferred treatment approach for preservation of primary dentition. CHX is an emerging material that can provide promising results in IPT when combined with other materials.
Clinical significance: Up to date, no material had replaced the popular use of calcium hydroxide in IPT. The use of CHX with RMGI can increase the success rate while preserving the advantages of the latter as it is considered the liner of choice for primary teeth, making IPT a suitable substitute for pulpotomy in primary molars.
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