International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Adhesive Bond Strength, and the Sustained Release of Fluoride by Chitosan-infused Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement: An In Vitro Study

Alok Patel, Jashneet KMS Dhupar, Shweta S Jajoo, Preetam Shah, Shweta Chaudhary

Keywords : Bond strength, Chitosan, Fluoride release, Glass ionomer cements, Resin-modified GIC

Citation Information : Patel A, Dhupar JK, Jajoo SS, Shah P, Chaudhary S. Evaluation of Adhesive Bond Strength, and the Sustained Release of Fluoride by Chitosan-infused Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021; 14 (2):254-257.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1943

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-07-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: To evaluate the adhesive bond strength, and sustained release of fluoride in chitosan (CH)-infused RMGIC. Materials and methods: Twenty caries-free human permanent premolar teeth, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were cleaned and stored in thymol solution. The crown of each tooth was cut into two halves and RMGIC (n = 10) and CH-infused RMGIC (n = 10) was placed between the two halves of the crown. The tooth was then stored in 10 mL of artificial saliva for a period of 30 days. The fluoride levels of the saliva were checked on the 15th- and the 30th-day using ion chromatography. The adhesive bond strength was checked on the 30th day using a universal testing machine. Results: This study has shown that the bond strength of RMGIC was not affected by the inclusion of CH in it. Whereas, the sustained fluoride release of CH-modified RMGIC indicated that the fluoride release of CH-RMGIC was 8.47% >RMGIC at the end of 15 days, and, 39.68% >RMGIC at the end of 30 days. Conclusion: The inclusion of CH in RMGIC does not alter its bond strength, while it does cause a greater release of fluoride. Clinical significance: In progression with these results, the inclusion of CH in RMGIC could provide desirable properties like mechanical reinforcement effects and catalytic effects on the fluoride release and growth factors.

  1. Debnath A, Kesavappa SB, Singh GP, et al. Comparative valuation of antibacterial and adhesive properties of chitosan modified glass ionomer cement and conventional glass ionomer cement: an In vitro study. J Clin Diagnos Res 2017;11(3):ZC75–ZC78. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/25927.95938.
  2. Gu YW, Yap AUJ, Cheang P, et al. Development of zirconia-glass ionomer cement composites. J Non-Cryst Solids 2005;351(6-7):508–514. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.01.045.
  3. Hammouda IM. Reinforcement of conventional glass ionomer restorative material with short glass fibers. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2009;2(1):73–81. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2008. 04.002.
  4. Lucas ME, Arita K, Nishino M. Toughness, bonding and fluoride-release properties of hydroxyapatite-added glass ionomer cement. Biomaterials 2003;24(21):3787–3794. DOI: 10.1016/s0142-9612(03)00260-6.
  5. Yli-Urpo H, Lassila LVJ, Närhi T, et al. Compressive strength and surface characterization of glass ionomer cements modified by particles of bioactive glass. Dent Mater 2005;21(3):201–209. DOI: 10.1016/
  6. Al Zraikat H, Palamara JEA, Messer HH, et al. The incorporation of casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate into a glass ionomer cement. Dent Mater 2011;27(3):235–243. DOI: 10.1016/
  7. Xia W, Liu P, Zhang J, et al. Biological activities of chitosan and chitooligosaccharides. Food Hydrocoll 2011;25(20):170–179. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.534093.
  8. Tarsi R, Muzzarelli RAA, Guzmàn CA, et al. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite by low-molecular-weight chitosans. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1997;72(2):665–672. DOI: 10.1177/00220345970760020701.
  9. Karthick A, Kavitha M. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of chitosan modified GIC. World J of Med Sci 2014;10(2):169–173.
  10. Xie D, Brantley WA, Culbertson BM, et al. Mechanical properties and microstructures of glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater 2000;16(2):129–138. DOI: 10.1016/s0109-5641(99)00093-7.
  11. Mitra SB. Adhesion to dentin and physical properties of a light-cured glass-ionomer liner/base. J Dent Res 1991;70(1):72–74. DOI: 10.1177/00220345910700011201.
  12. Hayashi Y, Ohara N, Ganno T, et al. Chewing chitosan-containing gum effectively inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2007;52(3):290–294. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2006.10.004.
  13. Roberts GAF. Chitin chemistry. Houndsmill, Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd; 1992. pp. 1–53.
  14. Lehr CM, Bouwstra JA, Schacht EH, et al. In vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive properties of chitosan and some other natural polymers. Int J Pharmacy 1992;78(1-3):43–48. DOI: 10.1016/0378-5173(92)90353-4.
  15. Tarsi R, Corbin B, Pruzzo C, et al. Effect of low-molecular-weight chitosans on the adhesive properties of oral streptococci. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1998;13(4):217–224. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-302x.1998.tb00699.x.
  16. Petri DFS, Donegá J, Benassi AM, et al. Preliminary study on chitosan modified glass ionomer restoratives. Dent Mater 2007;23(8):1004–1010. DOI: 10.1016/
  17. Pillai C, Paul W. Chitin and chitosan polymers: chemistry, solubility and fiber formation. Prog Polym Sci 2009;34(7):641–678. DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.04.001.
  18. Ibrahim MA, Neo J, Esguerra RJ, et al. Characterization of antibacterial and adhesion properties of chitosan-modified glass ionomer cement. J Biomater Applicat 2015;30(4):409–419. DOI: 10.1177/0885328215589672.
  19. Crisp S, Wilson AD. Reactions in glass ionomer cements: I. Decomposition of the powder. J Dent Res 1974;53(6):1408–1413. DOI: 10.1177/00220345740530061901.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.