International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of the Average Nasal and Nasopharyngeal Volume in 10–13-year-old Children: A Preliminary CBCT Study

Keywords : Cone-beam computed tomography, Cross-sectional study, Mouth breathing, Nasal cavity volume, Nasopharyngeal volume

Citation Information : Evaluation of the Average Nasal and Nasopharyngeal Volume in 10–13-year-old Children: A Preliminary CBCT Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021; 14 (2):187-191.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1917

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-07-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: Mouth breathing is one of the most common deleterious habits prevalent in children which leads to various skeletal and dental malocclusions. Due to the close relationship between nasal and nasopharyngeal cavity volume and maxilla, transverse maxillary deficiency causes reduced nasal and nasopharyngeal cavity volume leading to mouth breathing. Therefore, knowledge of average nasal and nasopharyngeal cavity volume is essential to accurately diagnose mouth breathing and to evaluate underlying causative factors. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomographic scans of 60 children were taken and nasal cavity and nasopharyngeal volumes were calculated using Planmeca Romexis 5.2.0.R software. Average volumes were computed using predetermined landmarks and compared among gender. Results: The nasal cavity and nasopharyngeal volume showed significant differences among the gender (p value < 0.001 and 0.018, respectively). Conclusion and clinical significance: Knowledge of the average nasal and nasopharyngeal cavity volumes can be a useful diagnostic aid for mouth breathing patients and also assess the causative factors and treatment outcomes in these patients.

  1. Conti PB, Sakano E, Ribeiro MA, et al. Assessment of the body posture of mouth-breathing children and adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2011;87(4):357–363. DOI: 10.2223/JPED.2102.
  2. Cunha DA, Silva GAP, Motta MEFA, et al. Mouth breathing in children and its repercussions in the nutritional state. Rev Cefac 2007;9(1):47–54. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-18462007000100007.
  3. El H, Palomo JM. Three-dimensional evaluation of upper airway following rapid maxillary expansion: a CBCT study. Angle Orthod 2014;84(2):265–273. DOI: 10.2319/012313-71.1.
  4. Smith T, Ghoneima A, Stewart K, et al. Three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of airway volume changes after rapid maxillary expansion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;141(5):618–626. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.12.017.
  5. Romulo de Medeiros J, Ferraro Bezerra M, Gurgel Costa FW, et al. Does pterygomaxillary disjunction in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion influence upper airway volume? A prospective study using Dolphin imaging 3D. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017;46(9):1094–1101. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.04.010.
  6. Chung CH, Font B. Skeletal and dental changes in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse dimensions after rapid palatal expansion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004;126(5):569–575. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.10.035.
  7. Kurt G, Altug-Atac AT, Atac MS, et al. Changes in nasopharyngeal airway following orthopedic and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. J Craniofac Surg 2010;21(2):312–317. DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181cf5f73.
  8. Gordon JM, Rosenblatt M, Witmans M, et al. Rapid palatal expansion effects on nasal airway dimensions as measured by acoustic rhinometry. A systematic review. Angle Orthod 2009;79(5):1000–1007. DOI: 10.2319/082108-441.1.
  9. Montgomery WM, Vig PS, Staab EV, et al. Computed tomography: a three-dimensional study of the nasal airway. Am J Orthod 1979;76(4):363–375. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(79)90223-9.
  10. Cankurtaran M, Çelik H, Çakmak Ö, et al. Effects of the nasal valve on acoustic rhinometry measurements: a model study. J Appl Physiol 1985 2003;94(6):2166–2172. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01146.2002.
  11. Doruk C, Sokucu O, Bicakci AA, et al. Comparison of nasal volume changes during rapid maxillary expansion using acoustic rhinometry and computed tomography. Eur J Orthod 2007;29(3):251–255. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjl069.
  12. Tsolakis IA, Venkat D, Hans MG, et al. When static meets dynamic: Comparing cone-beam computed tomography and acoustic reflection for upper airway analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2016;150(4):643–650. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.03.024.
  13. Palomo JM, Rao PS, Hans MG. Influence of CBCT exposure conditions on radiation dose. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;105(6):773–782. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.12.019.
  14. El H, Palomo JM. Measuring the airway in 3 dimensions: a reliability and accuracy study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010;137(4 Suppl):S50.e1-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.01.014.
  15. Osorio F, Perilla M, Doyle DJ, et al. Cone beam computed tomography: an innovative tool for airway assessment. Anesth Analg 2008;106(6):1803–1807. DOI: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318172fd03.
  16. Yokley TR. Ecogeographic variation in human nasal passages. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009;138(1):11–22. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.20893.
  17. Ha YC, Han SJ. A 3-dimensional analysis of nasal cavity volume after maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018;76(6):1344.e1–1344.e7. DOI: 10.1016/j.joms.2017.12.033.
  18. Martins LS, Liedke GS, Heraldo LDS, et al. Airway volume analysis: is there a correlation between two and three-dimensions? Eur J Orthod 2018;40(3):262–267. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjx067.
  19. Buck LM, Dalci O, Darendeliler MA, et al. The effect of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) on upper airway volume: a systematic review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016;74(5):1025–1043. DOI: 10.1016/j.joms.2015.11.035.
  20. Ertekin T, Değermenci M, Nisari M, et al. Age-related changes of nasal cavity and conchae volumes and volume fractions in children: a stereological study. Folia Morphol 2016;75(1):38–47. DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2015.0078.
  21. Emirzeoglu M, Sahin B, Celebi M, et al. Estimation of nasal cavity and conchae volumes by stereological method. Folia Morphol 2012;71(2):105–108.
  22. Denotti G, Ventura S, Arena O, et al. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med 2014;3(1):e030108.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.