Citation Information :
Austin D, JayaKumar HL, Chandra KM, Kemparaj V, Prahladka P. Cross-sectional Study on White Spot Lesions and its Association with Dental Caries Experience among School Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020; 13 (2):107-112.
Aim: To evaluate the association of white spot lesions (WSLs) with existing dental caries experience and other clinical parameters among children aged 7–12 years. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study on 407 children using Nyvad's caries diagnostic criteria was performed on the permanent first incisors and molars. Accordingly, they were grouped as cases (presence of caries) and controls (sound). The data pertaining to sociodemographic variables and clinical variables of oral hygiene index (OHI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS-dmfs), eruption degree of first permanent molars, and number of WSLs were subjected to bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression to identify the predictor variables for the caries lesion activity. Results: Relatively higher DMFS-dmfs scores, the number of WSLs, GBI, and OHI were recorded among the cases. In multiple logistic regression analysis, WSL ≥ 1 (OR = 18.78; CI 9.74–36.21, p = 0.0001), DMFS-dmfs + WSL ≥ 20 (OR = 30.75; CI 1.8–525.28, p = 0.0001), GBI > 0.5 (OR = 8.46; CI 4.05–17.66, p = 0.0001); OHI > 1.2 (OR = 2.83; CI 1.11–7.23, p = 0.03) were found to be significant predictors for the cases. Conclusion: It is important to be cognizant of the initiation of caries in children through the initial stages so that efforts can be pooled in towards prevention rather than extensive curative measures. Clinical significance: In routine clinical examinations, WSLs are seldom detected. An insight into these lesions can help the dentists’ to strategize the preventive measures enabling a reduction in total dental caries experience, burden of disease, and improved quality of life.
Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, et al. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83(9):661–669.
Gomez J. Detection and diagnosis of the early caries lesion. BMC Oral Health 2015;15(Suppl 1):S3. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-15-S1-S3.
Ekstrand KR, Bjørndal L. Structural analysis of plaque and caries in relation to the morphology of the groove-fossa system on erupting mandibular third molars. Caries Res 1996;31(5):336–348. DOI: 10.1159/000262416.
Nyvad B, Machiulskiene V, Baelum V. Reliability of a new caries diagnostic system differentiating between active and inactive caries lesions. Caries Res 1999;33(4):252–260. DOI: 10.1159/000016526.
Diniz MB, Rodrigues JA, Lussi A, Traditional and Novel Caries Detection Methods, Contemporary Approach to Dental Caries, Dr Ming-Yu Li (ed.), 2012; ISBN: 978-953-51-0305-9, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/contemporary-approach-to-dental-caries/traditionaland-novel-caries-detection-methods.
Roopa KB, Pathak S, Poornima P, et al. White spot lesions: a literature review. J Pediatr Dent 2015;3:1–7.
Gomez J, Tellez M, Pretty IA, et al. Non-cavitated carious lesions detection methods: a systematic review. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013;41(1):54–66. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12021.
World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 5th ed., Geneva: WHO; 2013.
Glass RL. The first international conference on the declining prevalence of dental caries. J Dent Res 1982;61(special issue):1301–1388.
Ferreira MAF, Mendes NS. Factors associated with active white enamel lesions. Int J Paediatr Dent 2005;15(5):327–334. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2005.00641.x.
Ogaard B, Seppä L, Rolla G. Relationship between oral hygiene and approximal caries in 15-year-old Norwegians. Caries Res 1994;28(4):297–300. DOI: 10.1159/000261989.
Harris R, Nicoll AD, Adair PM, et al. Risk factors for dental caries in young children: a systematic review of the literature. Community Dent Health 2004;21(1 Suppl):71–85.
Greene JC, Vermillion JR. The simplified oral hygiene index. J Am Dent Assoc 1964;68(1):7–13. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1964.0034.
Ainamo J, Bay I. Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J 1975;25(4):229–235.
World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 4th ed., Geneva: WHO; 1997.
Ekstrand KR, Christiansen J, Christiansen ME. Time and duration of eruption of first and second permanent molars: a longitudinal investigation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31(5):344–350. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2003.00016.x.
Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale - a revision. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70(3):273–274. DOI: 10.1007/bf02725598.
Quaglio JM, Sousa MB, Ardenghi TM, et al. Association between clinical parameters and the presence of active caries lesions in first permanent molars. Braz Oral Res 2006;20(4):358–363. DOI: 10.1590/s1806-83242006000400014.
Kemoli AM. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): a possible factor in the high prevalence of dental caries in developing nations. Edorium J Dent 2015;2:51–55. DOI: 10.5348/D01-2015-11-ED-9.
Bader JD, Shugars DA, Bonito AJ. Systematic reviews of selected dental caries diagnosis and management methods. J Dent Educ 2001;65(10):960–968.
Ekstrand KR, Ricketts DN, Kidd EA. Reproducibility and accuracy of three methods for assessment of demineralization depth on the occlusal surface: an in vitro examination. Caries Res 1997;31(3): 224–231. DOI: 10.1159/000262404.
Wyne AH, Guile EE. Caries activity indicators. A review. Indian J Dent Res 1993;4(2):39–46.
Ferreira MAF, Souza DLB, de Almeida GC, et al. Active white enamel lesion – a case control study. Oral Health Prev Dent 2007;5(3):209–214.
Lo EC, Schwartz E, Wong MC. Arresting dentine caries in Chinese preschool children. Int J Paediatr Dent 1998;8(4):253–260. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-263x.1998.00094.x.
de Castilho ARF, Mialhe FL, de Souza Barbose T, et al. Influence of family environment on children's oral health. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2013;89(2):116–123. DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2013.03.014.
Naidu R, Nunn J, Kelly A. Socio-behavioural factors and early childhood caries: a cross sectional study of pre-school children in central Trinidad. BMC Oral Health 2013;13:30. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-30.
Kassawara ABC, Tagliaferro EP, Cortelazzi KL, et al. Epidemiological assessment of predictors of caries increment in 7-10 years old: a 2 year old cohort study. J Appl Oral Sci 2010;18(2):116–120. DOI: 10.1590/s1678-77572010000200004.
Jain SK, Pushpanjali K, Reddy SK, et al. Comparison of different caries diagnostic thresholds under epidemiological and clinical settings among 7-15-year-old school children from Bangaluru city. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013;3(2):85–91. DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.122449.
Retnakumari N, Cyriac G. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala - an epidemiological study. Contemp Clin Dent 2012;3(1):2–8. DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.94538.
Etty EJ. Influence of oral hygiene on early enamel caries. Caries Res 1994;28(2):132–136. DOI: 10.1159/000261634.