International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Goldenhar Syndrome: A Case Report with Review

Babita Jangra

Citation Information : Jangra B. Goldenhar Syndrome: A Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016; 9 (3):278-280.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1377

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2010

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).


Goldenhar syndrome is a rare condition which is characterized by a multitude of anomalies involving craniofacial structures, vertebrae, internal organs and usually occurs unilaterally. The etiology of this syndrome is unclear since it varies genetically and is linked to a plethora of reasons. Herein, we report a case of Goldenhar syndrome with hemifacial microsomia and microtia along with systemic involvement which was clinically and radio-graphically assessed. Many classical signs of the syndrome were present in the patient along with few rare ones. The various aspects of this rare disease have been discussed with emphasis on timely diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach to manage it.

PDF Share
  1. Goldenhar M. Associations malformatives de l'oeil et l'oreille, en particulier le syndrome dermoide épibulbaire-appendices auriculaires-fistula auris congenita et ses relations avec la dysostose mandibulo-faciale. J Genet Hum 1952;1:243-282.
  2. Ashokan CS, Sreenivasan A, Saraswathy GK. Goldenhar syndrome—review with case series. J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Apr;8(4):ZD17-ZD19.
  3. Araneta MR, Moore CA, Onley RS, Edmonds LD, Karcher JA, McDonough C, Hiliopoulos KM, Schlangen KM, Gray GC. Goldenhar syndrome among infants born in military hospital to Gulf war veterans. Teratology 1997 Oct;56(4):244-251.
  4. Kulkarni VV, Shah MD, Parikh AA. Goldenhar syndrome: a case report. J Postgrad Med 1985 Jul;31(3):177-179.
  5. Mounoud RL, Klein D, Weber F. A case of Goldenhar syndrome: acute vitamin A intoxication in the mother during pregnancy. J Genet Hum 1975 Jun;23(2):135-154.
  6. Mathur MV, Mishra Lt Col RK, Golden-har syndrome. MJAFI 2000;56:231-232.
  7. Vinay C, Reddy RS, Uloopi KS, Madhuri V, Sekhar RC. Craniofacial features in Goldenhar syndrome. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009 Apr-Jun;27(2):121-124.
  8. Kokavec R. Goldenhar syndrome with various clinical manifestations. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006 Sep;43(5):628-634.
  9. Werler MM, Starr JR, Cloonan YK, Speltz ML. Hemifacial microsomia: from gestation to childhood. J Craniofac Surg 2009 Mar;20(Suppl 1):664-669.
  10. Iwamoto Y. Diagnosis and treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2007 Feb;37(2):79-89.
  11. Langman AW, Kaplan MJ, Matthay K. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandible. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989 Jan;100(1):74-77.
  12. Schultze-Mosgau S, Thorwarth M, Wehrhan F, Holter W, Stachel KD, Grabenbauer G. Ewing sarcoma of the mandible in a child: interdisciplinary treatment concepts and surgical reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg 2005 Nov;16(6):1140-1146.
  13. Lopes SL, Almeida SM, Costa AL, Zanardi VA, Cendes F. Imaging findings of Ewing's sarcoma in the mandible. J Oral Sci 2007 Jun;49(2):167-171.
  14. Regezi JA, Sciubba J. Oral Pathology. Philadelphia (PA): WB Saunders; 1999. p. 407-408.
  15. Behnia H, Motamedi MH. Radiolucent lesion of the man-dibular angle and ramus. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998 Sep;56(9):1086-1090.
  16. Waldron CA. Bone pathology. In: Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE, editors. Oral and maxillofacial pathol-ogy. Philadelphia (PA): WB Saunders; 1995. p. 487-489.
  17. Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM. A textbook of oral pathology. Philadelphia (PA): WB Saunders; 1983. p. 177-178.
  18. Sai SS, Jambhekar NA. Pathology of Ewing's sarcoma/PNET: current opinion and emerging concepts. Indian J Orthop 2010 Oct-Dec;44(4):363-368.
  19. Vaccani JP, Forte V, de Jong AL, Taylor G. Ewing's sarcoma of the head and neck in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1999 May 25;48(3):209-216.
  20. Khanna G, Sato Y, Smith RJ, Bauman NM, Nerad J. Causes of facial swelling in pediatric patients: correlation of clinical and radiologic findings. Radiographics 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):157-171.
  21. Khoury JD. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Adv Anat Pathol 2005 Jul;12(4):212-220.
  22. Bimal Krishna KB, Thomas V, Kattoor J, Kusumakumari P. A radiological review of Ewing's sarcoma of mandible: a case report with one-year follow-up. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013 May;6(2):109-114.
  23. Batsakis JG, Mackay B, el-Naggar AK. Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: an interim report. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1996 Oct;105(10):838-843.
  24. Yalcin S, Turoglu HT, Ozdamar S, Sadikoglu Y, Gurbuzer B, Yenici O. Ewing's tumor of the mandible. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993 Sep;76(3):362-367.
  25. Mubeen AS, Telkar S. Ewing's sarcoma of the ramus of mandible: report of a case. J Indian Assoc Oral Med Radiol 2007;19:590-594.
  26. Ward-Booth P. Surgical management of malignant tumors of the jaws and oral cavities. In: Peterson LJ, Indresano AT, Marciani RD, Roser SM, editors. Principles of oral and max-illofacial surgery, Chapter 32. Vol. 2. Philadelphia (PA): JB Lippincott; 1992. p. 806.
  27. Krane MS, Schiller AL. Hyperostosis, neoplasms, and other dis-orders of bone and cartilage. In: Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine, Chapter 326. Vol. 2. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill; 1994. p. 2197.
  28. Fonseca AS, Mezzalira R, Crespo AN, Bortoleto AE Jr, Paschoal JR. Ewing's sarcoma of the head and neck. Sao Paulo Med J 2000 Nov;118(6):198-200.
  29. Talesb KT, Motamedi MH, Jeihounian M. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandibular condyle: report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003 Oct;61(10):1216-1219.
  30. Brazão-Silva MT, Fernandes AV, Faria PR, Cardoso SV, Loyola AM. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandible in a young child. Braz Dent J 2010 Jan;21(1):74-79.
  31. Brinkhuis M, Wijnaendts L, Van der Linden J, Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor and extraosseus ES: a histo-logical, immunohistochemical and DNA flow cytometric study. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1995;425:611-666.
  32. Ozer E, Kanlikama M, Karakurum G, Sirikci A, Erkilic S, Aydin A. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the mandible. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2002 Sep 24;65(3):257-261.
  33. Kapadia SB. Tumors of the nervous system. In: Barnes L, editor. Surgical pathology of the head and neck. New York (NY): Marcel Dekker; 2001. p. 848-852.
  34. Dorfman HD, Czerniak B. Ewing's sarcoma and related enti-ties. Bone tumors. St Louis (MO): Mosby; 1998. p. 607-653.
  35. German J. Cytogenic aspects of human disease. In: Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine, Chapter 62. Vol. 2. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill; 1994. p. 372-373.
  36. Sorensen P, Shimada H, Liu XF. Biophenotypic sarcomas with myogenic and neural differentiation express the Ewing's sarcoma EWS/FLI1 fusion gene. Cancer Res 1995 Mar 15;55(6):1385-1392.
  37. Perlman EJ, Dickman PS, Askin FB, Grier HE, Miser JS, Link MP. Ewing's sarcoma-routine diagnostic utilization of MIC2 analysis: a Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group Intergroup Study. Hum Pathol 1994 Mar;25(3):304-307.
  38. Weidner N, Tjoe J. Immunohistochemical profile of mono-clonal antibody O13: antibody that recognizes glycoprotein p30/32MIC2 and is useful in diagnosing Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral neuroepithelioma. Am J Surg Pathol 1994 May;18(5):486-494.
  39. Sandberg AA, Bridge JA. Updates on cytogenetics and molecu-lar genetics of bone and soft tissue tumors: Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2000 Nov;123(1):1-26.
  40. Vicha A, Stejskalova E, Sumerauer D, Kodet R, Malis J, Kucerova H, Bedrnicek J, Koutecky J, Eckschlager T. Malignant peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2002 Nov;139(1):67-70.
  41. Weiss SW, Goldblum JR. Soft tissue tumor and Ewing's sarcoma histologic and immunohistochemical staining (MIC 2). Philadelphia (PA): Mosby; 2001. p. 1292-1295.
  42. Berk R, Heller A, Heller D, Schwartz S, Klein EA. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandible: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995 Feb;79(2):159-162.
  43. Ozaki T, Hillmann A, Hoffmann C, Rübe C, Blasius S, Dunst J, Jürgens H, Winkelmann W. Significance of surgical margin on the prognosis of patients with Ewing's sarcoma. A report from the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study. Cancer 1996 Aug 15;78(4):892-900.
  44. Wexler LH, DeLaney TF, Tsokos M, Avila N, Steinberg SM, Weaver-McClure L, Jacobson J, Jarosinski P, Hijazi YM, Balis FM, et al. Ifosfamide and etoposide plus vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Cancer 1996 Aug 15;78(4): 901-911.
  45. Bernstein M, Kovar H, Paulussen M, Randall RL, Schuck A, Teot LA, Juergens H. Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors: current management. Oncologist 2006 May;11(5):503-519.
  46. Van der Woude HJ, Bloem JL, Hogendoorn PC. Preoperative evaluation and monitoring chemotherapy in patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing's sarcoma: review of current imaging modalities. Skeletal Radiol 1998 Feb;27(2):57-71.
  47. Kuttesch JF Jr, Wexler LH, Marcus RB, Fairclough D, Weaver-McClure L, White M, Mao L, Delaney TF, Pratt CB, Horowitz ME, et al. Second malignancies after Ewing's sarcoma: radiation dose-dependency of secondary sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 1996 Oct;14(10):2818-2825.
  48. Votta JV, Fantuzzo JJ, Boyd CB. Peripheral primitive neuroec-todermal tumor associated with the anterior mandible: a case report and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005 Nov;100(5):592-597.
  49. Koscielniak E, Morgan M, Treuner J. Soft tissue sarcoma in children: prognosis and management. Paediatr Drugs 2002;4(1):21-28.
  50. Sharada P, Girish HC, Umadevi HS, Priya NS. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2006;10:31-35.
  51. Gosau M, Baumhoer D, Ihrler S, Kleinheinz J, Driemel O. Ewing sarcoma of the mandible mimicking an odontogenic abscess-a case report. Head Face Med 2008 Nov;5(4):24.
  52. Ogunlewe OM, Akinwande AJ, Ladeinde LA, Adeyemo LW. Spontaneous regeneration of whole mandible after total mandibulectomy in a sickle cell patient. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006 Jun;64:981-984.
  53. Adekeye EO. Rapid bone regeneration subsequent to subtotal mandibulectomy. Report of an unusual case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1997 Oct;44(4):521-526.
  54. Park HW, Kim HJ, Park BM. Spontaneous regeneration of the lateral malleolus after traumatic loss in a three-year-old boy: a case report with seven-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1997 Jan;79(1):66-67.
  55. Whitmyer CC, Esposito SJ, Smith JD, Zins JE. Spontaneous regeneration of a resected mandible in a preadolescent. A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 1996 Apr;75(4):356-359.
  56. Ruggiero SL, Donoff RB. Bone regeneration after mandibular resection: report of two cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991 Jun;49(6):647-652.
  57. Nagase M, Ueda K, Suzuki I, Nakajima T. Spontaneous regeneration of condyle following hemimandibulectomy by disarticulation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1985 Mar;43(3):218-220.
  58. Arrington ED, Smith WJ, Chambers HG, Bucknell AL, Davino NA. Complications of iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1996 Aug;(329):300-309.
  59. Lemperle SM, Calhoun CJ, Curran RW, Holmes RE. Bony healing of large cranial and mandibular defects protected from soft-tissue interposition: a comparative study of spontaneous bone regeneration, osteoconduction, and cancellous autografting in dogs. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998 Mar;101(3):660-672.
  60. Ihan Hren M, Miljavec M. Spontaneous bone healing of the large bone defects in the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008 Dec;37(12):1111-1116.
  61. Smartt JM Jr, Low DW, Bartlett SP. The pediatric mandible: I. A primer on growth and development. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005 Jul;116(1):14-23.
  62. Farkas LG, Posnick JC, Hreczko T. Anthropometric growth study of the head. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 1992 Jul;29(4):303-308.
  63. Moss ML, Salentijn L. The primary role of functional matrices in facial growth. Am J Orthod 1969 Jun;55(6):566-577.
  64. Posnick J. Orthognathic surgery: principles and practice. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. p. 69-134.
  65. Kurjak A, Talic A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Serra B, Prats P, Di Renzo GC. The study of fetal neurobehavior in twins in all three trimesters of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Aug;26(12):1186-1195.
  66. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neuro-developmental fetal assessment using Kanet scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363-368.
  67. Kurjak A, Stanojević M, Predojević M, Laušin I, Salihagić-Kadić A. Neurobehavior in fetal life. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Dec;17(6):319-323.
  68. Hepper PG, Dornan JC, Lynch C, Maguire JF. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently. Physiol Behav 2012 Aug 20;107(1):76-81.
  69. Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Badreldeen A, Direnzo GC. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: the role of the Kanet test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Aug;25(8):1267-1272.
  70. Kurjak A, Honemeyer U, Stanojevic M, Zalud I. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal Doppler in the assessment of fetal well-being. J Perinat Med 2013 Jan;41(1):107-114.
  71. Neto MR. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):1-5.
  72. Morokuma S, Fukushima K, Yumoto Y, Uchimura M, Fujiwara A, Matsumoto M, Satoh S, Nakano H. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007 Mar;83(3):177-181.
  73. Kurjak A, Tikvica Luetic A, Stanojevic M, Talic A, Zalud I, Al-Noobi M, Perva S, Abushama M, Tomasovic S, Zaputovic S, et al. Further experience in the clinical assessment of fetal neurobehavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010 Jan-Mar;4(1):59-71.
  74. Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, Yigiter AB, Vasilj O, Lebit D, Shaddad AN, Ahmed B, Kavak ZN, Miskovic B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior: multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77-82.
  75. Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, Ivankovicc D, Kerner M, Tikvica A. The comparison of fetal behavior in high-risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Dec;23(12):1461-1467.
  76. Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Abo-Yaguab S, Younis M, Saleh H, Shaddad AN, Vasilj O, Al Bahar AJ, Miskovic B, Khenyab N. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2:29-44.
  77. Livingston JH, Stivaros S, Warren D, Crow YJ. Intracranial calcification in childhood: a review of aetiologies and recognizable phenotypes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Jul;56(7):612-626.
  78. Couvreur J, Desmonts G, Tournier G, Szusterkac M. A homogeneous series of 210 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in 0 to 11-month-old infants detected prospectively. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1984 Nov;31(10):815-819. (French).
  79. Valentini P, Annunziata ML, Angelone DF, Masini L, De Santis M, Testa A, Grillo RL, Speziale D, Ranno O. Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009 Mar;28(3):297-300.
  80. Valentini P, Buonsenso D, Barone G, Serranti D, Calzedda R, Ceccarelli M, Speziale D, Ricci R, Masini L. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. J Perinatol 2015 Feb;35(2):90-94.
  81. Masini L, De Santis M, Apicella M, Noia G, Santangelo R, Speziale D, Lanzone A, Valentini P. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and amniocentesis in a single center cohort of 1065 pregnancies complicated by maternal Toxoplasma infection. ISUOG 2017—27th World Congress—16-19 September, Vienna, Austria OC05.05. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;50(Suppl 1):10.
  82. Vynnycky E, Adams EJ, Cutts FT, Reef SE, Navar AM, Simons E, Yoshida LM, Brown DW, Jackson C, Strebel PM, et al. Using seroprevalence and immunisation coverage data to estimate the global burden of congenital rubella syndrome, 1996-2010: a systematic review. PLoS One 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0149160.
  83. Duszak RS. Congenital rubella syndrome—major review. Optometry 2009 Jan;80(1):36-43.
  84. Hutton J. Does rubella Cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci 2016 Feb 1;10:25.
  85. Thompson KM, Simons EA, Badizadegan K, Reef SE, Cooper LZ. Characterization of the risks of adverse outcomes following rubella infection in pregnancy. Risk Anal 2016 Jul;36(7):1315-1331.
  86. De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A. Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):390-298.
  87. Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Thom E, Landon MB, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Dombrowski M, Sibai B, et al. Frequency of congenital varicella syndrome in a prospective cohort of 347 pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Aug;100(2):260-265.
  88. Enders G, Miller E, Cradock-Watson J, Bolley I, Ridehalgh M. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1548-1551.
  89. Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):410-420.
  90. Pastuszak AL, Levy M, Schick B, Zuber C, Feldkamp M, Gladstone J, Bar-Levy F, Jackson E, Donnenfeld A, Meschino W, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994 Mar 31;330(13):901-905.
  91. Pretorius DH, Hayward I, Jones KL, Stamm E. Sonographic evaluation of pregnancies with maternal varicella infection. J Ultrasound Med 1992 Sep;11(9):459-463.
  92. Verstraelen H, Vanzieleghem B, Defoort P, Vanhaesebrouck P, Temmerman M. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in fetal varicella syndrome: correlation with pathology findings. Prenat Diagn 2003 Sep;23(9):705-709.
  93. Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986 Jun 12;314(24):1542-1546.
  94. Meyberg-Solomayer GC, Fehm T, Muller-Hansen I, Enders G, Poets C, Wallwiener D, Solomayer EF. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, follow-up, and outcome of congenital varicella syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2006;21(3):296-301.
  95. Pichler M, Staffler A, Bonometti N, Messner H, Deluca J, Thuile T, Kluge R, Schmuth M, Eisendle K. Premature newborns with fatal intrauterine herpes simplex virus-1 infection: first report of twins and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Jun;29(6):1216-1220.
  96. Hutto C, Arvin A, Jacobs R, Steele R, Stagno S, Lyrene R, Willett L, Powell D, Andersen R, Werthammer J, et al. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infections. J Pediatr 1987 Jan;110(1):97-101.
  97. Florman AL, Gershon AA, Blackett PR, Nahmias AJ. Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: resultant congenital malformations. JAMA 1973 Jul 9;225(2):129-132.
  98. Plourde AR, Bloch EM. A literature review of Zika virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jul;22(7):1185-1192.
  99. Paixão ES, Barreto F, Teixeira Mda G, Costa Mda C, Rodrigues LC. History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Zika: a systematic review. Am J Public Health 2016 Apr;106(4):606-612.
  100. Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika virus and birth defects—reviewing the evidence for causality. N Engl J Med 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-1987.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.