Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India
Taranatha Mahantesha, Uma B Dixit, Ramesh P Nayakar, Devasya Ashwin, Vijaya P Kamavaram Ellore
Citation Information :
Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D, Kamavaram Ellore VP. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016; 9 (3):256-263.
Introduction: An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water.
Aim: The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India.
Materials and methods: The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean\'s index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire.
Statistical analysis: Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p < 0.05). Bivariate analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affected prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) on χ2 were entered into multiple logistic regressions to assess their independent effects.
Results: In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis.
Conclusion: Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis.
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