International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 3 ( 2016 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Primary Oral Health Care in India: Vision or Dream?

Kotumachagi S Suresh, Pravin Kumar, Nagarathna Javanaiah, Shruti Shantappa, Pooja Srivastava

Citation Information : Suresh KS, Kumar P, Javanaiah N, Shantappa S, Srivastava P. Primary Oral Health Care in India: Vision or Dream?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016; 9 (3):228-232.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1369

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-09-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

The contemporary approach to dental caries management in children focuses on prevention than treatment. Pediatricians, general dentists and pediatric dentists must be involved in a detailed preventive program, which includes prenatal counselling, treatment of expectant mothers at risk for dental caries, infant oral health care and the establishment of the dental home, so that dental disease can be prevented in infants, starting at a young age. Various health care system and organizations in India must join together to promote oral health care for all the children and specially focused toward children from disadvantaged background and children with special health care needs.


PDF Share
  1. Ribeiro NM. Breastfeeding and caries. J Pediatr 2004 Nov;80(Suppl 5):S199-S210.
  2. Ferro R, Cecchin C, Besostri A, Olivieri A, Stellini E, Mazzoleni S. Social differences in tooth decay occurrence in a sample of children aged 3 to 5 in north-east Italy. Community Dent Health 2010 Sep;27(3):163-166.
  3. Vargas CM, Ronzio CR. Disparities in early childhood caries. BMC Oral Health 2006;6(Suppl 1):S3-S7.
  4. De Silva Sanigorski AM, Calache H, Gussy M, Dashper S, Gibson J, Waters E. The Vic Generation study. A birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods. BMC Public Health 2010 Feb 25;10:97.
  5. McDonald RE, Avery DR. Dentistry for the child and adolescent. 8th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby; 2004. p. 209.
  6. Boggess KA, Edelstein BL. Oral health in women during preconception and pregnancy: implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Matern Child Health J 2006 Sep;10(Suppl 1):169-174.
  7. Ramos-Gomez FJ, Weintraub JA, Gansky SA, Hoover CO, Featherstone JD. Bacterial, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with early childhood caries. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002 Winter;26(2):165-173.
  8. Kohler B, Lundberg AB, Birkhed D, Papapanou PN. Longitudinal study of intrafamilial mutans Streptococci ribotypes. Eur J Oral Sci 2003 Oct;111(5):383-389.
  9. Davey AL, Rogers AH. Multiple types of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in the human mouth and their intrafamily transmission. Arch Oral Biol 1984;29(6):453-460.
  10. Berkowitz RJ, Jones P. Mouth-to-mouth transmission of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans between mother and child. Arch Oral Biol 1985;30(4):377-379.
  11. Caufield PW, Cutter GR, Dasanayake AP. Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity. J Dent Res 1993 Jan;72(1):37-45.
  12. Li Y, Caufield PW. The fidelity of initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants from their mothers. J Dent Res 1995 Feb;74(2):681-685.
  13. Klein H, Palmer CE. Studies on dental caries V. Familial resemblance in caries experience of siblings. Public Health Rep 1938;53:1353-1364.
  14. Klein H. The family and dental disease IV. Dental disease (DMF) experience in parents and offspring. J Am Dent Assoc 1946 Jun;33(11):735-743.
  15. Jose B, King NM. Early childhood caries lesions in preschool children in Kerala, India. Pediatr Dent 2003 Nov-Dec; 25(6):594-600.
  16. Bharati S, Pal M, Chakrabarty S, Bharati P. Trends in socioeconomic and nutritional status of children younger than 6 years in India. Asia Pac J Public Health 2011 May;23(3):324-340.
  17. Azevedo TD, Bezerra AC, de Toledo OA. Feeding habits and severe early childhood caries in Brazilian preschool children. Pediatr Dent 2005 Jan-Feb;27(1):28-33.
  18. Clarke M, Locker D, Berall G, Pencharz P, Kenny DJ, Judd P. Malnourishment in a population of young children with severe early childhood caries. Pediatr Dent 2006 May-Jun;28(3):254-259.
  19. Infant Oral Health Care. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry oral health policies. Pediatr Dent 1998;20:23.
  20. Nowak A, Casamassimo P. Using anticipatory guidance to provide early dental intervention. J Am Dent Assoc 1995 Aug;126(8):1155-1163.
  21. Shetty K, Acharya B, Higgins M. Anticipatory guidance in pediatric oral health. Internet J Pediatr Neonatol 2005 [cited May 2014]. Available from: http://www.ispub.com/IJPN/6/1/6081.
  22. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Bright future: guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents. Arlington (VA): National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health; 1994.
  23. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on the dental home. Reaffirmed 2010;33(6):24-25.
  24. Nowak AJ, Casamassimo P. The dental home: a primary care oral health concept. J Am Dent Assoc 2002 Jan;133(1):93-98.
  25. Girish Babu KL, Doddamani GM. Dental home: patient centered dentistry. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2012 Jan-Feb;2(1):8-12.
  26. Pinkham JR, Cassamassimo PS, Fields HW, Mc Tigue DJ, Nowak AJ. Pediatric dentistry infancy through adolescence. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders –an imprint of Elsevier; 2012. p. 224-225.
  27. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on Early childhood caries (ECC): classifications, consequences and preventive strategies. Pediatr Dent 2008-2009;30(Suppl 7):39-40.
  28. McDonald R, Avery D, Dean J. Dentistry for the child and the adolescent. 9th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; 2011.
  29. American Academy on Pediatric Dentistry Council on Dental Benefits Programs/Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on model dental benefits for infants, children, adolescents, and individuals with special health care needs. Pediatr Dent 2008-2009;30(Suppl 7):71-73.
  30. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on periodicity of examination, preventive dental services, anticipatory guidance, and oral treatment for infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr Dent 2009;31(Spec Issue):118-125.
  31. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Fluoride supplementation for children: interim policy recommendations. Pediatrics 1995 May;95(5):777.
  32. Eeigal RJ, Donly KJ. The use of pit and fissure sealants. Pediatr Dent 2006 Mar-Apr;28(2):143-150.
  33. Edelstein BL. Disparities in oral health and access to care: findings of national surveys. Ambul Pediatr 2002 Mar-Apr;2(Suppl 2):141-147.
  34. Kohler B, Andreen I, Jonsson B. The effects of caries-preventive measures in mothers on dental caries and the oral presence of the bacteria Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in their children. Arch Oral Biol 1984;29(11):879-883.
  35. Brambilla E, Felloni A, Gagliani M, Malerba A, Garcia-Goday F, Strohmenger L. Caries prevention during pregnancy: results of a 30-month study. J Am Dent Assoc 1998 Jul;129(7):871-877.
  36. Isokangas P, Soderling E, Pienihakkinen K, Alanen P. Occur-rence of dental decay in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum, a follow-up from 0 to 5 years of age. J Dent Res 2000 Nov;79(11):1885-1889.
  37. Wongprasartsuk P, Stevens J. Cerebral palsy and anaesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 2002 May;12(4):296-303.
  38. Verschuren O, Wiart L, Ketelaar M. Stages of change in physical activity behavior in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil 2013 Jan;35(19):1630-1635.
  39. Surén P, Bakken IJ, Aase H, Chin R, Gunnes N, Lie KK, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schj⊘lberg S, Øyen AS, et al. Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in norwegian children. Pediatrics 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-e158.
  40. Pollare T, Lithell H, Selinus I, Berne C. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension. Diabetologia 1988 Jul;31(7):415-420.
  41. Berne C, Pollare T, Lithell H. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on insulin sensitivity with special reference to ACE inhibitors. Diabetes Care 1991 Nov;14(Suppl 4):39-47.
  42. Cohn JN. Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensin in man. Clin Sci 1966 Apr;30(2):267-278.
  43. Julius S, Pascual AV, Reilly K, London R. Abnormalities of plasma volume in borderline hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1971 Jan;127(1):116-119.
  44. Greenwood JP, Scott EM, Stoker JB, Mary DA. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Nov;38(6):1711-1717.
  45. Spirito P, Bellone P, Harris KM, Bernabo P, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ. Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000 Jun;342:1778-1785.
  46. Haider AW, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Increased left ventricular mass and hypertrophy are associated with increased risk for sudden death. J Am Coll Cadiol 1998 Nov;32(5):1454-1459.
  47. Jouven X, Zureik M, Desnos M, Guérot C, Ducimetière P. Resting heart rate as a predictive factor for sudden death in middle-aged men. Cardiovasc Res 2001 May;50(2):373-378.
  48. Gillman MW, Kannel WB, Belanger A, D'Agostino RB. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1993 Apr;125(4):1148-1154.
  49. Julius S, Palatini P, Kjeldsen SE, Zanchetti A, Weber MA, McInnes GT, Brunner HR, Mancia G, Schork MA, Hua TA, et al. Usefulness of heart rate to predict future cardiac events in treated patients with high-risk systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2012 Mar;109(5):685-692.
  50. Palatini P, Roawi W, Casiglia E, Chalmers J, Ferrari R, Grassi G, Inoui T, Jelakovic B, Jensen MT, Julius S, et al. Management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate: Statement of the Second Consensus Conference endorsed by the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens 2016 May;34(5):813-821.
  51. Benedict CR, Shelton B, Johnstone DE, Francis G, Greenberg B, Konstam M, Probstfield JL, Yusuf S. Prognostic significance of plasma norepinephrine in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1996 Aug;94(4):690-697.
  52. Grassi G, Seravalle G, Mancia G. Sympathetic activation in cardiovascular disease: evidence, clinical impact and therapeutic implications. Eur J Clin Invest 2015 Dec;45(12):1367-1375.
  53. Cullington D, Goode KM, Zhang J, Cleland JG, Clark AL. Is heart rate important for patients with heart failure in atrial fibrillation? JACC Heart Fail 2014 Jun;2(3):213-220.
  54. Wikstrand J, HJalmarson A, Waagstein F, Fagerberg J, Goldstein S, Kjekshus J, Wedel H; MERIT-HF Study Group. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in chronic heart failure (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Aug;40(3):491-498.
  55. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Bulter J, Casey DE Jr, Colvin MM, Drazner MH, Filippatos GS, Fonarow GC, Givertz MM, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Aug;70(6):776-803.
  56. Luetic AT. First experience in clinical application of KANET. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):96-99.
  57. Vasilj O. Is in utero fetal neurological assessment comparible to postnatal neurological assessment? Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):91-95.
  58. Tomasovic S, Predojevic M. 4D ultrasound medical devices for recent advances on the etiology of cerebral palsy. Acta Inform Med 2011 Dec;19(4):228-234.
  59. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehavior in high-risk pregnancies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  60. Honemeyer U, Talic A, Therwat A, Paulose I, Patidar R. The clinical value of KANET test in studying fetal neurobehavior in normal and at-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2013 Mar;41(2):187-197.
  61. Kadic AS. Fetal neurology: the role of fetal stress. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):30-39.
  62. Hata T, Kanenishi J, Hanoka U, Uematsu R, Marumo G, Tanaka H. HDlive study of fetal development and behavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014;8(3):250-265.
  63. Reynoso C, Crespo-Eguílaz N, Alcázar JL, Narbona J. Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study. An Pediatr (Barc) 2015 Mar;82(3):183-191.
  64. Predojević M, Talić A, Stanojević M, Kurjak A, Salihagić Kadić A. Assessment of motoric and hemodynamic parameters in growth restricted fetuses-case study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Feb;27(3):247-251.
  65. Kurjak A, Talic A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Serra B, Prats P, Di Renzo GC. The study of fetal neurobehavior in twins in all three trimesters of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Aug;26(12):1186-1195.
  66. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neuro-developmental fetal assessment using Kanet scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363-368.
  67. Kurjak A, Stanojević M, Predojević M, Laušin I, Salihagić-Kadić A. Neurobehavior in fetal life. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Dec;17(6):319-323.
  68. Hepper PG, Dornan JC, Lynch C, Maguire JF. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently. Physiol Behav 2012 Aug 20;107(1):76-81.
  69. Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Badreldeen A, Direnzo GC. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: the role of the Kanet test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Aug;25(8):1267-1272.
  70. Kurjak A, Honemeyer U, Stanojevic M, Zalud I. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal Doppler in the assessment of fetal well-being. J Perinat Med 2013 Jan;41(1):107-114.
  71. Neto MR. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):1-5.
  72. Morokuma S, Fukushima K, Yumoto Y, Uchimura M, Fujiwara A, Matsumoto M, Satoh S, Nakano H. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007 Mar;83(3):177-181.
  73. Kurjak A, Tikvica Luetic A, Stanojevic M, Talic A, Zalud I, Al-Noobi M, Perva S, Abushama M, Tomasovic S, Zaputovic S, et al. Further experience in the clinical assessment of fetal neurobehavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010 Jan-Mar;4(1):59-71.
  74. Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, Yigiter AB, Vasilj O, Lebit D, Shaddad AN, Ahmed B, Kavak ZN, Miskovic B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior: multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77-82.
  75. Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, Ivankovicc D, Kerner M, Tikvica A. The comparison of fetal behavior in high-risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Dec;23(12):1461-1467.
  76. Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Abo-Yaguab S, Younis M, Saleh H, Shaddad AN, Vasilj O, Al Bahar AJ, Miskovic B, Khenyab N. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2:29-44.
  77. Livingston JH, Stivaros S, Warren D, Crow YJ. Intracranial calcification in childhood: a review of aetiologies and recognizable phenotypes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Jul;56(7):612-626.
  78. Couvreur J, Desmonts G, Tournier G, Szusterkac M. A homogeneous series of 210 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in 0 to 11-month-old infants detected prospectively. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1984 Nov;31(10):815-819. (French).
  79. Valentini P, Annunziata ML, Angelone DF, Masini L, De Santis M, Testa A, Grillo RL, Speziale D, Ranno O. Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009 Mar;28(3):297-300.
  80. Valentini P, Buonsenso D, Barone G, Serranti D, Calzedda R, Ceccarelli M, Speziale D, Ricci R, Masini L. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. J Perinatol 2015 Feb;35(2):90-94.
  81. Masini L, De Santis M, Apicella M, Noia G, Santangelo R, Speziale D, Lanzone A, Valentini P. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and amniocentesis in a single center cohort of 1065 pregnancies complicated by maternal Toxoplasma infection. ISUOG 2017—27th World Congress—16-19 September, Vienna, Austria OC05.05. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;50(Suppl 1):10.
  82. Vynnycky E, Adams EJ, Cutts FT, Reef SE, Navar AM, Simons E, Yoshida LM, Brown DW, Jackson C, Strebel PM, et al. Using seroprevalence and immunisation coverage data to estimate the global burden of congenital rubella syndrome, 1996-2010: a systematic review. PLoS One 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0149160.
  83. Duszak RS. Congenital rubella syndrome—major review. Optometry 2009 Jan;80(1):36-43.
  84. Hutton J. Does rubella Cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci 2016 Feb 1;10:25.
  85. Thompson KM, Simons EA, Badizadegan K, Reef SE, Cooper LZ. Characterization of the risks of adverse outcomes following rubella infection in pregnancy. Risk Anal 2016 Jul;36(7):1315-1331.
  86. De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A. Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):390-298.
  87. Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Thom E, Landon MB, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Dombrowski M, Sibai B, et al. Frequency of congenital varicella syndrome in a prospective cohort of 347 pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Aug;100(2):260-265.
  88. Enders G, Miller E, Cradock-Watson J, Bolley I, Ridehalgh M. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1548-1551.
  89. Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):410-420.
  90. Pastuszak AL, Levy M, Schick B, Zuber C, Feldkamp M, Gladstone J, Bar-Levy F, Jackson E, Donnenfeld A, Meschino W, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994 Mar 31;330(13):901-905.
  91. Pretorius DH, Hayward I, Jones KL, Stamm E. Sonographic evaluation of pregnancies with maternal varicella infection. J Ultrasound Med 1992 Sep;11(9):459-463.
  92. Verstraelen H, Vanzieleghem B, Defoort P, Vanhaesebrouck P, Temmerman M. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in fetal varicella syndrome: correlation with pathology findings. Prenat Diagn 2003 Sep;23(9):705-709.
  93. Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986 Jun 12;314(24):1542-1546.
  94. Meyberg-Solomayer GC, Fehm T, Muller-Hansen I, Enders G, Poets C, Wallwiener D, Solomayer EF. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, follow-up, and outcome of congenital varicella syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2006;21(3):296-301.
  95. Pichler M, Staffler A, Bonometti N, Messner H, Deluca J, Thuile T, Kluge R, Schmuth M, Eisendle K. Premature newborns with fatal intrauterine herpes simplex virus-1 infection: first report of twins and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Jun;29(6):1216-1220.
  96. Hutto C, Arvin A, Jacobs R, Steele R, Stagno S, Lyrene R, Willett L, Powell D, Andersen R, Werthammer J, et al. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infections. J Pediatr 1987 Jan;110(1):97-101.
  97. Florman AL, Gershon AA, Blackett PR, Nahmias AJ. Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: resultant congenital malformations. JAMA 1973 Jul 9;225(2):129-132.
  98. Plourde AR, Bloch EM. A literature review of Zika virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jul;22(7):1185-1192.
  99. Paixão ES, Barreto F, Teixeira Mda G, Costa Mda C, Rodrigues LC. History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Zika: a systematic review. Am J Public Health 2016 Apr;106(4):606-612.
  100. Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika virus and birth defects—reviewing the evidence for causality. N Engl J Med 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-1987.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.