International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2014 ) > List of Articles


Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

Nidhi Sehrawat, Mohita Marwaha, Kalpana Bansal

Keywords : Cerebral palsy, Dental considerations, Management

Citation Information : Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014; 7 (2):109-118.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1247

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; The Author(s).


Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist's skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient.

PDF Share
  1. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Practical oral care for people with cerebral palsy. Bethesda, MD; NIH Publication No. 09-5192; 2009.
  2. Slovin M, Falagario-Wasserman J. Special needs of anxious and phobic dental patients. Dent Clin N Am 2009;53:207-219.
  3. Sankar C, Mundkur N. Cerebral palsy-definition, classification, etiology and early diagnosis. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72(10): 865-868.
  4. Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE. Primary care of the child with cerebral palsy: a review of system (Part II). Pediatr Health Care 2007;21:226-237.
  5. Pakula AT, Braun KVN, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Cerebral palsy: classification and epidemiology. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2009;20:425-452.
  6. Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Goldstein M, Bax M. A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurology 2007;109:8-14.
  7. Berker AN, Yalcin MS. Cerebral palsy: orthopedic aspects and rehabilitation. Pediatr Clin N Am 2008;55:1209-1225.
  8. Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE, Thorogood C. Cerebral palsy: introduction and diagnosis (Part I). J Pediatr Health Care 2007; 21(3):146-152.
  9. Dougherty NJ. A review of cerebral palsy for the oral health professional. Dent Clin N Am 2009;53:329-338.
  10. Minear WL. A classification of cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 1956; 18:841-852.
  11. Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Walter S, Russell D, Wood E, Galuppi B. Development and reliability of a system to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39(4):214-223.
  12. Rethlefsen SA, Ryan DD, Kay RM. Classification systems in cerebral palsy. Orthop Clin N Am 2010;41:457-467.
  13. Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Walter S, Russell D, Wood E, Galuppi B. Gross motor function classification system expanded and revised. Canchild centre for childhood disability research 2007.
  14. International classification of functioning (ICF), disability and health. WHO- FIC information sheet, September 2010.
  15. Graham HK, Harvey A, Rodda J, Nattrass GR, Pirpiris M. The functional mobility scale. J Pediatr Orthop 2004;24(5): 514-520.
  16. Eliasson AC, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Rosblad B, Beckung E, Arner M, Ohrvall AM, Rosenbaum P. The manual ability classification system for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence of validity and reliability. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006;48(7):549-554.
  17. Hidecker MJC, Paneth N, Rosenbaum PL, Kent RD, Lillie J, Eulenberg JB, Chester K, Johnson B, Michalsen L, Evatt M, et al. Developing and validating the communication function classification system for individuals with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011;53(8):704-710.
  18. Gunel MK, Mutlu A, Tarsuslu T, Livanelioglu A. Relationship among the manual ability classification syatem (MACS), the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), and the functional status (WeeFIM) in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Eur J Pediatr 2009;168:477-485.
  19. Winter K, Baccaglini L, Tomar S. A review of malocclusion among individuals with mental and physical disabilities. Spec Care Dentist 2008;28(1):19-26.
  20. Franklin DL, Luther F, Curzon MEJ. The prevalence of malocclusion in children with cerebral palsy. Eur J Orthod 1996;18:637-643.
  21. Carmagnani FG, Goncaives GKM, Correa MSNPC, Santos MTBRD. Occlusal characteristics in cerebral palsy patients. J Dent Child 2007;74:41-45.
  22. Strodel BJ. The effects of spastic cerebral palsy on occlusion. J Dent Child 1987;54(4):255-260.
  23. Rosenbaum CH, McDonald RE, Levitt EE. Occlusion of cerebral-palsied children. J Dent Res;45(6):1696-1700.
  24. Miamoto CB, Ramos-Jorge ML, Pereira LJ, Paiva SM, Pordeus IA, Marques LS. Severity of malocclusion in patients with cerebral palsy: determinant factor. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010;138:394e1-394e5.
  25. Oliveira AC, Paiva SM, Martins MT, Torres CS, Pordeus IA. Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in children with special needs. Eur J Orthod 2011;33:413-418.
  26. Holan G, Peretz B, Efrat J, Shapira J. Traumatic injuries to the teeth in young individuals with cerebral palsy. Dent Traumatol 2005;21:65-69.
  27. Ferreira MC, Guare RO, Prokopowitsch I, Santos MTBR. Prevalence of dental trauma in individuals with special needs. Dent Traumatol 2011;27:113-116.
  28. Costa MM, Afonso RL, Ruviere DB, Aguiar SMHCA. Prevalence of dental trauma in patients with cerebral palsy. Spec Care Dentist 2008;28(2):61-64.
  29. Ohito FA, Opinya GN, Wangombe J. Traumatic dental injuries in normal and handicapped children in Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr Med J 1992;69(12):680-682.
  30. Miamoto CB, Ramos-Jorge ML, Ferreira MC, Oliveira MD, Vieira-Andrade RG, Marques LS. Dental trauma in individuals with severe cerebral palsy: prevalence and associated factors. Braz Oral Res 2011;25(4):319-323.
  31. Santos MT, Souza CB. Traumatic dental injuries in individuals with cerebral palsy. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:290-294.
  32. Ortega AOL, Guimaraes AS, Ciamponi AL, Marie SKN. Frequency of parafunctional oral habits in patients with cerebral palsy. J Oral Rehab 2007;34:323-328.
  33. Lindqvist B, Heijbel J. Bruxism in children with brain damage. Acta Odont Scand 1974;32:313-319.
  34. Roberto LL, Machado MG, Resende VLS, Castilho LS, Abreu MHNGD. Factors associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of children with cerebral palsy. Braz Oral Res 2012; 26(5):471-477.
  35. Ferreira de Camargo MA, Frias AC, Antunes JL. The incidence of dental caries in children and adolescents who have cerebral palsy and are participating in a dental program in Brazil. Spec Care Dentist 2011;31(6):210-215.
  36. Santos MT, Guare RO, Celiberti P, Siqueira WL. Caries experience in individuals with cerebral palsy in relation to oromotor dysfunction and dietary consistency. Spec Care Dentist 2009;29(5): 198-203.
  37. Meningaud JP, Pitak-Arnnop P, Chikhani L, Bertrand JC. Drooling of saliva: a review of the etiology and management options. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod 2006; 101:48-57.
  38. Hedge AM, Pani SC. Drooling of saliva in children with cerebral palsy-etiology, prevalence, and relationship to salivary flow rate in an Indian population. Spec Care Dentist 2009;29(4):163-168.
  39. Tahmassebi JF, Curzon MEJ. Prevalence of drooling in children with cerebral palsy attending special schools. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003;45:613-617.
  40. Subasi F, Mumcu G, Koksal L, Cimilli H, Bitlis D. Factors affecting oral health habits among children with cerebral palsy: Pilot study. Pediatr Int 2007;49:853-857.
  41. Santos MT, Nogueira MLG. Infantile reflexes and their effects on dental caries and oral hygiene in cerebral palsy individuals. J Oral Rehab 2005;32:880-885.
  42. Guare RO, Ciampioni AL. Prevalence of periodontal disease in the primary dentition of children with cerebral palsy. J Dent Child 2004;71:27-32.
  43. Goncalves GK, Carmagnani FG, Correa MS, Duarte DA, Santos MT. Dental erosion in cerebral palsy patients. J Dent Child 2008;75:117-120.
  44. Lin X, Wu W, Zhang C, Lo EC, Chu CH, Dissanayaka WL. Prevalence and distribution of developmental enamel defects in children with cerebral palsy in Beijing, China. Int J Pediatr Dent 2011;21(1):23-28.
  45. Miamoto CB, Pereira LJ, Paira SM, Pordeus IA, Ramos-Jorge ML. Prevalence and risk indicators of temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms in a pediatric population with spastic cerebral palsy. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011;35(3):259-264.
  46. Mc Donald, Dean, Avery. Dentistry for the child and adolescents. 9th ed. Elsevier publication; 2011.
  47. Parkin SF, Hargreaves JA, Weyman J. Children's dentistry in general practice. Br Dent J 1970;129(1):27-29.
  48. Santos MT, Manzano FS. Assistive stabilization based on the neurodevelopmental treatment approach for dental care in individuals with cerebral palsy. Quintessence Int 2007;38(8):681-687.
  49. Ferguson FS, Cinotti D. Home oral health practice: the foundation for desensitization and dental care for special needs. Dent Clin N Am 2009;53:375-387.
  50. Wongprasartsuk P, Stevens J. Cerebral palsy and anaesthesia. Pediatr Anaesth 2002;12:296-303.
  51. Solomowitz BH. Treatment of mentally disabled patients with intravenous sedation in a dental clinic outpatient setting. Dent Clin N Am 2009;53:231-242.
  52. Voytus ML. Evaluation, scheduling, and management of dental care under general anesthesia for special needs patients. Dent Clin N Am 2009;53:243-254.
  53. Jensen TM. Evidence-based dental care for children with cerebral palsy. 2008 Apr 18.
  54. Loyola-Rodriguez JP, Aguilera-Morelos AA, Santos-Diaz MA, Zavala-Alonso V, Davila-Perez C, Olvera-Delgado H, Patino-Marin N, De Leon-Cobian I. Oral rehabilitation under dental general anesthesia, conscious sedation, and conventional techniques in patients affected by cerebral palsy. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2004;28(4):279-284.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.