International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2014 ) > List of Articles


The Antibacterial Effects of Apacaries Gel on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro Study

Apa Juntavee, Jomjai Peerapattana, Ariya Ratanathongkam, Nartsajee Nualkaew, Supaporn Chatchiwiwattana, Panta Treesuwan

Keywords : Antibacterials, Streptococcus mutans, Apacaries gel

Citation Information : Juntavee A, Peerapattana J, Ratanathongkam A, Nualkaew N, Chatchiwiwattana S, Treesuwan P. The Antibacterial Effects of Apacaries Gel on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014; 7 (2):77-81.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1241

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; The Author(s).


Background: New approaches for chemomechanical caries removal require effective materials with antibacterial properties for removal of infected dentin. Apacaries gel is a newly developed material comprised polyphenol from mangosteen extracts and papain mixed in gel preparation. Aim: This study evaluated the antibacterial effects of Apacaries gel on Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Materials and methods: Mangosteen pericarp powder was extracted. The amount of phenolic compounds was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The time-kill kinetics were investigated. Mangosteen extract and papain were mixed with gel base to develop Apacaries gel. The inhibition zone of the Apacaries gel was determined using agar well diffusion methods. Results: The mangosteen pericarp extract, which contains α-mangostin, was active against S. mutans strain ATCC25175. The time-kill kinetics curve showed that applying 1 mg/ml of mangosteen extract can reduce S. mutans by 50% within approximately 5 seconds; after this reduction, the bacterial count rapidly dropped to 0 within 60 seconds. Using mangosteen extract and papain mixture gel preparation resulted in a larger inhibition zone than using the mangosteen extract gel or papain gel separately. Conclusion: Apacaries gel can effectively inhibit S. mutans strain ATCC25175. Apacaries is capable of S. mutans inhibition better than both mangosteen extract or papain separately. The Antibacterial Effects of Apacaries Gel on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):77-81.

PDF Share
  1. Alaluusua S, Renkonen OV. Streptococcus mutans establishment and dental caries experience in children from 2 to 4 years old. Europ J Oral Sci 1983;91(6):453-457.
  2. Casamassimo PS, Thikkurissy S, Edelstein BL, Maiorini E. Beyond the dmft: the human and economic cost of early childhood caries. J Am Dent Associ 2009;140(6):650-657.
  3. Laitala M, Alanen P, Isokangas P, Söderling E, Pienihäkkinen K. A cohort study on the association of early mutans streptococci colonisation and dental decay. Car Res 2012;46(3):228-233.
  4. Pandit I, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M, Verma L. Various methods of caries removal in children: a comparative clinical study. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prevent Dentist 2007;25(2):93.
  5. Banerjee A, Watson T, Kidd E. Conservative dentistry: dentine caries excavation: a review of current clinical techniques. Br Dent J 2000;188(9):476-482.
  6. Maragakis GM, Hahn P, Hellwig E. Chemomechanical caries removal: a comprehensive review of the literature. Int Dent J 2011;51(4):291-299.
  7. Maragakis G, Hahn P, Hellwig E. Clinical evaluation of chemomechanical caries removal in primary molars and its acceptance by patients. Car Res 2001;35(3):205-210.
  8. Nakahara K, Kawabata S, Ono H, Ogura K, Tanaka T, Ooshima T, et al. Inhibitory effect of oolong tea polyphenols on glycosyltransferase of mutans Streptococci. Appl Environ Microbiol 1993 Apr;59(4):968-973.
  9. Matsumoto M, Hamada S, Ooshima T. Molecular analysis of the inhibitory effects of oolong tea polyphenols on glucan-binding domain of recombinant glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans MT8148. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003;228(1):73-80.
  10. Duarte S, Gregoire S, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Schaich K, Bowen WH, et al. Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006 Apr;257(1):50-56.
  11. Gregoire S, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Koo H. Influence of cranberry phenolics on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases and Streptococcus mutans acidogenicity. J Appl Microbiol 2007 Nov;103(5):1960-1968.
  12. Thimothe J, Bonsi IA, Padilla-Zakour OI, Koo H. Chemical characterization of red wine grape (vitis vinifera and vitis interspecific hybrids) and pomace phenolic extracts and their biological activity against Streptococcus mutans. J Agric Food Chem 2007 Dec 12;55(25):10200-10207.
  13. Sturr MG, Marquis RE. Comparative acid tolerances and inhibitor sensitivities of isolated F-ATPases of oral lactic acid bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992 Jul;58(7):2287-2291.
  14. Xiao Y, Liu T, Zhan L, Zhou X. The effects of tea polyphenols on the adherence of cariogenic bacterium to the salivary acquired pellicle in vitro. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2000 Oct; 18(5):336-339.
  15. Li JY, Zhan L, Barlow J, Lynch RJ, Zhou XD, Liu TJ. Effect of tea polyphenol on the demineralization and remineralization of enamel in vitro. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2004 May; 35(3):364-366.
  16. Bussadori SK, Castro LC, Galvao AC. Papain gel: a new chemomechanical caries removal agent. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005; 30(2):115-119.
  17. Bussadori SK, Guedes CC, Hermida Bruno ML, Ram D. Chemomechanical removal of caries in an adolescent patient using a papain gel: case report. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2008;32(3):177-180.
  18. Pothitirat W, Gritsanapan W. HPLC quantitative analysis method for the determination of á-mangostin in mangosteen fruit rind extract. Thai J Agricultural Sci 2009;42(1):7-12.
  19. Singleton VL, Rossi Jr JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enology Viticult 1965;16(3):144-158.
  20. Jrah Harzallah H, Kouidhi B, Flamini G, Bakhrouf A, Mahjoub T. Chemical composition, antimicrobial potential against cariogenic bacteria and cytotoxic activity of Tunisian Nigella sativa essential oil and thymoquinone. Food Chem 2011;129(4): 1469-1474.
  21. Mattana C, Satorres S, Sosa A, Fusco M, Alcaraz L. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus. Brazilian J Microbiol 2010; 41(3):581-587.
  22. Lester K, Simmonds R. Zoocin A and Lauricidin in combination reduce Streptococcus mutans growth in a multispecies biofilm. Caries Res 2012;46(3):185-193.
  23. Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Reviews 1986;50(4):353.
  24. Vieira A, Modesto A, Ismail A, Watt R. Summary of the IADR cariology research group symposium, Barcelona, Spain, July 2010: new directions in cariology research. Caries Res 2012;46(4): 346-352.
  25. Steenbergen JN, Mohr JF, Thorne GM. Effects of daptomycin in combination with other antimicrobial agents: a review of in vitro and animal model studies. J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2009;64(6):1130-1138.
  26. Wright GD, Sutherland AD. New strategies for combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. Trends in Molecular Medicine 2007;13(6):260-267.
  27. Streckfuss JL, Perkins D, Horton IM, Brown LR, Dreizen S, Graves L. Fluoride resistance and adherence of selected strains of Streptococcus mutans to smooth surfaces after exposure to fluoride. J Dent Res 1980;59(2):151-158.
  28. Trahan L, Soderling E, Drean MF, Chevrier MC, Isokangas P. Effect of xylitol consumption on the plaque-saliva distribution of mutans streptococci and the occurrence and long-term survival of xylitol-resistant strains. J Dent Res 1992;71(11): 1785-1791.
  29. Nguyen PT, Marquis RE. Antimicrobial actions of ƒ¿-mangostin against oral streptococci. Canadian J Microbiol 2011;57(3):217- 225.
  30. Bertassoni L, Marshall G. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009;31(6):253-258.
  31. Kim JH, Park WB, Park CY, Kim OK. Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme and papain activited by EDTA and cysteine against Escherichia coli in culture medium and in aqueuos aloe vera extract. Food Sci Biotechnol 1998;7(3):160-164.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.