International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 2 ( 2012 ) > List of Articles

CASE REPORT

Glassfiber Post: An Alternative for Restoring Grossly Decayed Primary Incisors

Citation Information : Glassfiber Post: An Alternative for Restoring Grossly Decayed Primary Incisors. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5 (2):159-162.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1158

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-08-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Restoration of primary incisors, which have been severely damaged by rampant caries or trauma, is a difficult task for the pediatric dentist. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, alternative approaches for treating these teeth have been proposed. This paper discusses the restoration of carious primary maxillary incisors using composite resin restoration reinforced with fiberglass post. Two case reports are presented here to describe the procedure. Over a 1 year period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results.


PDF Share
  1. Yui CK (University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital), Wei SH. Management of rampant caries in children. Quintessence Int 1992 Mar;23(3):159-168.
  2. Motisuki C (Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, University of São Paulo State, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil. cmotisuki@yahoo.com.br), Santos-Pinto L, Giro EM. Restoration of severely decayed primary incisors using indirect composite resin restoration technique. Int J of Paediatr Dent 2005 Jul;15(4):282-286.
  3. Claudia DA, Wanderely MT. Biological restoration of primary anterior teeth. Quintessence International 2000;31(6):404-406.
  4. Rocha Rde O (Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. rarocha@usp.br), das Neves LT, Marotti NR, Wanderley MT, Correa MS. Intracanal reinforcement fiber in pediatric dentistry: A case report. Quintessence Int 2004 Apr;35(4):263-268.
  5. Island G (Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, 1 Kneeland Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Gema.Island@tufts.edu), White GE. Polyethylene ribbon fibers; a new alternative of restoring badly destroyed primary incisors. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005 Winter;29(2):151-156.
  6. Mendes FM (Pediatric Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. medeirosmendes@uol.com.br), De Benedetto MS, del Conte Zardetto CG, Wanderley MT, Correa MS. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crown: A case report. Quintessence Int 2004 Oct;35(9):689-692.
  7. Mortada A (Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. amortada@yahoo.com), King NM. A simplified technique for the restoration of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2004 Spring; 28(3):187-192.
  8. Wanderley MT (Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Brazil), Ferreira SL, Rodrigues CR, Rodrigues Filho LE. Primary anterior tooth restoration using posts with macroretentive elements. Quintessence 1999 Jun;30(6):432-436.
  9. Sharaf AA. The application of fiber core post in restoring badly destroyed primary incisors. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002 Spring;26(3):217-224.
  10. Usha M (Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, V. S. Dental College and Hospital, V. V. Puram, Bangalore - 560 004, Karnataka, India. ushy_mohandas@rediffmail.com), Deepak V, Venkat S, Gargi M. Treatment of severely mutilated incisors: A challenge to the pedodontist. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25 Suppl: S34-36.
  11. Cohen BI (Essential Dental Systems, S. Hackensack, NJ, USA), Pagnillo MK, Deutsch AS, Musikant BL. Fracture strengths of three core restorative materials with or without prefabricated split shank post. J Prosthet Dent 1997 Dec;78(6):560-565.
  12. Subramaniam P (Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, The Oxford Dental College, Hospital and Reserach Centre, Bommanahalli, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560068, Karnataka, India. drpriyapedo@yahoo.com), Babu KL, Sunny R. Glass fiber reinforced composite resin as an intracanal post—a clinical study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2008 Spring;32(3):207-210.
  13. Rifkin AJ. Composite post-crowns in anterior primary teeth. J Dent Assoc S Afr 1983 Apr;38(4):225-227.
  14. Ow RK (Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore), Amrith S. Ocular prosthesis. Use of a tissue conditioner material to modify a stock ocular prosthesis. J Prosthet Dent 1997 Aug;78(2):218-222.
  15. Ferraz JA (Faculty of Dentistry, University of Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil), de Carvalho Junior JR, Saquy PC, Pecora JD, Sousa-Neto MD: Dental anomaly: Dens evaginatus (talon cusp). Braz Dent J 2001;12(2):132-134.
  16. Eden EK (Department of Pedodontics, Ege University, School of Dentistry, 35100 Bornova/Izmir/Turkey), Koca H, Sen BH. Dens invaginatus in primary molar: Report of case. ASDC J Dent Child 2002 Jan-Apr;69(1):49-53, 12.
  17. Hovland EJ, Block RM. Nonrecognition and subsequent endodontic treatment of dens invaginatus. J Endod 1977 Sep;3(9):360-362.
  18. Ridell K (Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Carl Gustafs väg 34, SE-214 21 Malmö, Sweden), Mejare I, Matsson L. Dens invaginatus: A retrospective study of prophylactic invagination treatment. Int J Paediatr Dent 2001 Mar;11(2):92-97.
  19. Rabinowitch BZ. Dens in dente: primary tooth; report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1952 Dec;5(12):1312-1314.
  20. Kupietzky A. Detection of dens invaginatus in a one-year old infant. Pediatr Dent 2000 Mar-Apr;22(2):148-50.
  21. Filstrup SL (School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA. sarafio@msn.com), Briskie D, da Fonseca M, Lawrence L, Wandera A, Inglehart MR. Early childhood caries and quality of life: Child and parent perspectives. Pediatr Dent 2003;25:431-440.
  22. Majewski RF (Children's Hospital of Buffalo), Snyder CW, Bernat JE. Dental emergencies presenting to a children's hospital. ASDC J Dent Child 1988 Sep-Oct;55(5):339-342.
  23. Pongpichit B (Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Muang District, Khon-Kaen, Thailand. pbussayasit@yahoo.com), Sheiham A, Pikhart H, Tsakos G. Time absent from school due to dental conditions and dental care in Thai schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent 2008 Spring;68(2):76-81.
  24. Sheiham A (Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT. a.sheiham@ucl.ac.uk). Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children. Br Dent J 2006 Nov 25;201(10):625-626.
  25. Houpt MI, Limb R, Livingston RL. Clinical effects of nitrous oxide conscious sedation in children. Pediatr Dent 2004 Jan-Feb;26(1):29-36.
  26. Reinstrup P, Ryding E, Ohlsson T, Sandell A, Erlandsson K, Ljunggren K, Salford LG, Strand S, Uski T. Regional cerebral metabolic rate (positron emission tomography) during inhalation of nitrous oxide 50% in humans. Br J Anaesth 2008 Jan;100(1):66-71.
  27. Leung JM, Sands LP, Vaurio LE, Wang Y. Nitrous oxide does not change the incidence of postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly surgical patients. Br J Anaesth 2006 Jun;96(6):754-760.
  28. Piñero-Zapata M, Cinesi-Gómez C, Luna-Maldonado A. Mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure on chronic treatment with benzodiazepines. Enferm Clin 2013 May-Jun;23(3):89-95.
  29. Collado V, Faulks D, Nicolas E, Hennequin M. Conscious sedation procedures using intravenous midazolam for dental care in patients with different cognitive profiles: a prospective study of effectiveness and safety. Plos One 2013 Aug;8(8):e71240.
  30. Brondani JT, Nataline CC, Pippi NL, Massanti A, Prati L, Bertin AP. Ketamine, midazolam and nitrous oxide anesthesia in dogs submitted to cervical esophagoplasty. Cienc Rural 2003 Nov-Dec;33(6):1075-1080.
  31. Yang TF, Chan RC, Kao CL, Chiu JW, Liu TJ, Kao NT, Kuo TB. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability for cerebral palsy patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002 May;81(5):350-354.
  32. Ferreira MC, Pastore C, Imada R, Guaré R, Leite M, Poyares D, Santos MT. Autonomic nervous system in individuals with cerebral palsy: a controlled study. J Oral Pathol Med 2011 Aug;40(7):576-581.
  33. Sari ME, Ozmen B, Koyuturk AE, Tokay U. A retrospective comparison of dental treatment under general anesthesia on children with and without mental disabilities. Niger J Clin Pract 2014 May-Jun;17(3):361-365.
  34. Gáspár J, Tóth Z, Fejérdy L, Kaán B, Fábián TK. Some background data about the high dental anxiety of the Hungarian population. Fogorv Sz 2004 Apr;97(2):85-89.
  35. Shin WJ, Kang SJ, Kim YK, Seong SH, Han SM, Hwang GS. Link between heart rate and blood pressure Mayer wave during general anesthesia. Clin Auton Res 2011 Oct;21(5):309-317.
  36. Li YX, Tang HT, Zhou WF, Hu XY, Xiao SC, Niu XH, Li YC, Wu YS, Yao M, Wang HX, et al. Analgesic and sedative effects of inhaling a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen on burn patient during and after dressing change. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2013 Dec;29(6):537-540.
  37. Wongprasartsuk P, Stevens J. Cerebral palsy and anaesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 2002 May;12(4):296-303.
  38. Verschuren O, Wiart L, Ketelaar M. Stages of change in physical activity behavior in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil 2013 Jan;35(19):1630-1635.
  39. Surén P, Bakken IJ, Aase H, Chin R, Gunnes N, Lie KK, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schj⊘lberg S, Øyen AS, et al. Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in norwegian children. Pediatrics 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-e158.
  40. Pollare T, Lithell H, Selinus I, Berne C. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension. Diabetologia 1988 Jul;31(7):415-420.
  41. Berne C, Pollare T, Lithell H. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on insulin sensitivity with special reference to ACE inhibitors. Diabetes Care 1991 Nov;14(Suppl 4):39-47.
  42. Cohn JN. Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensin in man. Clin Sci 1966 Apr;30(2):267-278.
  43. Julius S, Pascual AV, Reilly K, London R. Abnormalities of plasma volume in borderline hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1971 Jan;127(1):116-119.
  44. Greenwood JP, Scott EM, Stoker JB, Mary DA. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Nov;38(6):1711-1717.
  45. Spirito P, Bellone P, Harris KM, Bernabo P, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ. Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000 Jun;342:1778-1785.
  46. Haider AW, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Increased left ventricular mass and hypertrophy are associated with increased risk for sudden death. J Am Coll Cadiol 1998 Nov;32(5):1454-1459.
  47. Jouven X, Zureik M, Desnos M, Guérot C, Ducimetière P. Resting heart rate as a predictive factor for sudden death in middle-aged men. Cardiovasc Res 2001 May;50(2):373-378.
  48. Gillman MW, Kannel WB, Belanger A, D'Agostino RB. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1993 Apr;125(4):1148-1154.
  49. Julius S, Palatini P, Kjeldsen SE, Zanchetti A, Weber MA, McInnes GT, Brunner HR, Mancia G, Schork MA, Hua TA, et al. Usefulness of heart rate to predict future cardiac events in treated patients with high-risk systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2012 Mar;109(5):685-692.
  50. Palatini P, Roawi W, Casiglia E, Chalmers J, Ferrari R, Grassi G, Inoui T, Jelakovic B, Jensen MT, Julius S, et al. Management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate: Statement of the Second Consensus Conference endorsed by the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens 2016 May;34(5):813-821.
  51. Benedict CR, Shelton B, Johnstone DE, Francis G, Greenberg B, Konstam M, Probstfield JL, Yusuf S. Prognostic significance of plasma norepinephrine in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1996 Aug;94(4):690-697.
  52. Grassi G, Seravalle G, Mancia G. Sympathetic activation in cardiovascular disease: evidence, clinical impact and therapeutic implications. Eur J Clin Invest 2015 Dec;45(12):1367-1375.
  53. Cullington D, Goode KM, Zhang J, Cleland JG, Clark AL. Is heart rate important for patients with heart failure in atrial fibrillation? JACC Heart Fail 2014 Jun;2(3):213-220.
  54. Wikstrand J, HJalmarson A, Waagstein F, Fagerberg J, Goldstein S, Kjekshus J, Wedel H; MERIT-HF Study Group. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in chronic heart failure (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Aug;40(3):491-498.
  55. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Bulter J, Casey DE Jr, Colvin MM, Drazner MH, Filippatos GS, Fonarow GC, Givertz MM, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Aug;70(6):776-803.
  56. Luetic AT. First experience in clinical application of KANET. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):96-99.
  57. Vasilj O. Is in utero fetal neurological assessment comparible to postnatal neurological assessment? Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):91-95.
  58. Tomasovic S, Predojevic M. 4D ultrasound medical devices for recent advances on the etiology of cerebral palsy. Acta Inform Med 2011 Dec;19(4):228-234.
  59. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehavior in high-risk pregnancies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  60. Honemeyer U, Talic A, Therwat A, Paulose I, Patidar R. The clinical value of KANET test in studying fetal neurobehavior in normal and at-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2013 Mar;41(2):187-197.
  61. Kadic AS. Fetal neurology: the role of fetal stress. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):30-39.
  62. Hata T, Kanenishi J, Hanoka U, Uematsu R, Marumo G, Tanaka H. HDlive study of fetal development and behavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014;8(3):250-265.
  63. Reynoso C, Crespo-Eguílaz N, Alcázar JL, Narbona J. Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study. An Pediatr (Barc) 2015 Mar;82(3):183-191.
  64. Predojević M, Talić A, Stanojević M, Kurjak A, Salihagić Kadić A. Assessment of motoric and hemodynamic parameters in growth restricted fetuses-case study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Feb;27(3):247-251.
  65. Kurjak A, Talic A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Serra B, Prats P, Di Renzo GC. The study of fetal neurobehavior in twins in all three trimesters of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Aug;26(12):1186-1195.
  66. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neuro-developmental fetal assessment using Kanet scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363-368.
  67. Kurjak A, Stanojević M, Predojević M, Laušin I, Salihagić-Kadić A. Neurobehavior in fetal life. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Dec;17(6):319-323.
  68. Hepper PG, Dornan JC, Lynch C, Maguire JF. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently. Physiol Behav 2012 Aug 20;107(1):76-81.
  69. Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Badreldeen A, Direnzo GC. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: the role of the Kanet test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Aug;25(8):1267-1272.
  70. Kurjak A, Honemeyer U, Stanojevic M, Zalud I. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal Doppler in the assessment of fetal well-being. J Perinat Med 2013 Jan;41(1):107-114.
  71. Neto MR. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):1-5.
  72. Morokuma S, Fukushima K, Yumoto Y, Uchimura M, Fujiwara A, Matsumoto M, Satoh S, Nakano H. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007 Mar;83(3):177-181.
  73. Kurjak A, Tikvica Luetic A, Stanojevic M, Talic A, Zalud I, Al-Noobi M, Perva S, Abushama M, Tomasovic S, Zaputovic S, et al. Further experience in the clinical assessment of fetal neurobehavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010 Jan-Mar;4(1):59-71.
  74. Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, Yigiter AB, Vasilj O, Lebit D, Shaddad AN, Ahmed B, Kavak ZN, Miskovic B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior: multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77-82.
  75. Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, Ivankovicc D, Kerner M, Tikvica A. The comparison of fetal behavior in high-risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Dec;23(12):1461-1467.
  76. Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Abo-Yaguab S, Younis M, Saleh H, Shaddad AN, Vasilj O, Al Bahar AJ, Miskovic B, Khenyab N. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2:29-44.
  77. Livingston JH, Stivaros S, Warren D, Crow YJ. Intracranial calcification in childhood: a review of aetiologies and recognizable phenotypes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Jul;56(7):612-626.
  78. Couvreur J, Desmonts G, Tournier G, Szusterkac M. A homogeneous series of 210 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in 0 to 11-month-old infants detected prospectively. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1984 Nov;31(10):815-819. (French).
  79. Valentini P, Annunziata ML, Angelone DF, Masini L, De Santis M, Testa A, Grillo RL, Speziale D, Ranno O. Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009 Mar;28(3):297-300.
  80. Valentini P, Buonsenso D, Barone G, Serranti D, Calzedda R, Ceccarelli M, Speziale D, Ricci R, Masini L. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. J Perinatol 2015 Feb;35(2):90-94.
  81. Masini L, De Santis M, Apicella M, Noia G, Santangelo R, Speziale D, Lanzone A, Valentini P. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and amniocentesis in a single center cohort of 1065 pregnancies complicated by maternal Toxoplasma infection. ISUOG 2017—27th World Congress—16-19 September, Vienna, Austria OC05.05. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;50(Suppl 1):10.
  82. Vynnycky E, Adams EJ, Cutts FT, Reef SE, Navar AM, Simons E, Yoshida LM, Brown DW, Jackson C, Strebel PM, et al. Using seroprevalence and immunisation coverage data to estimate the global burden of congenital rubella syndrome, 1996-2010: a systematic review. PLoS One 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0149160.
  83. Duszak RS. Congenital rubella syndrome—major review. Optometry 2009 Jan;80(1):36-43.
  84. Hutton J. Does rubella Cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci 2016 Feb 1;10:25.
  85. Thompson KM, Simons EA, Badizadegan K, Reef SE, Cooper LZ. Characterization of the risks of adverse outcomes following rubella infection in pregnancy. Risk Anal 2016 Jul;36(7):1315-1331.
  86. De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A. Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):390-298.
  87. Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Thom E, Landon MB, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Dombrowski M, Sibai B, et al. Frequency of congenital varicella syndrome in a prospective cohort of 347 pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Aug;100(2):260-265.
  88. Enders G, Miller E, Cradock-Watson J, Bolley I, Ridehalgh M. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1548-1551.
  89. Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):410-420.
  90. Pastuszak AL, Levy M, Schick B, Zuber C, Feldkamp M, Gladstone J, Bar-Levy F, Jackson E, Donnenfeld A, Meschino W, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994 Mar 31;330(13):901-905.
  91. Pretorius DH, Hayward I, Jones KL, Stamm E. Sonographic evaluation of pregnancies with maternal varicella infection. J Ultrasound Med 1992 Sep;11(9):459-463.
  92. Verstraelen H, Vanzieleghem B, Defoort P, Vanhaesebrouck P, Temmerman M. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in fetal varicella syndrome: correlation with pathology findings. Prenat Diagn 2003 Sep;23(9):705-709.
  93. Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986 Jun 12;314(24):1542-1546.
  94. Meyberg-Solomayer GC, Fehm T, Muller-Hansen I, Enders G, Poets C, Wallwiener D, Solomayer EF. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, follow-up, and outcome of congenital varicella syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2006;21(3):296-301.
  95. Pichler M, Staffler A, Bonometti N, Messner H, Deluca J, Thuile T, Kluge R, Schmuth M, Eisendle K. Premature newborns with fatal intrauterine herpes simplex virus-1 infection: first report of twins and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Jun;29(6):1216-1220.
  96. Hutto C, Arvin A, Jacobs R, Steele R, Stagno S, Lyrene R, Willett L, Powell D, Andersen R, Werthammer J, et al. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infections. J Pediatr 1987 Jan;110(1):97-101.
  97. Florman AL, Gershon AA, Blackett PR, Nahmias AJ. Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: resultant congenital malformations. JAMA 1973 Jul 9;225(2):129-132.
  98. Plourde AR, Bloch EM. A literature review of Zika virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jul;22(7):1185-1192.
  99. Paixão ES, Barreto F, Teixeira Mda G, Costa Mda C, Rodrigues LC. History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Zika: a systematic review. Am J Public Health 2016 Apr;106(4):606-612.
  100. Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika virus and birth defects—reviewing the evidence for causality. N Engl J Med 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-1987.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.