The present cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the impact of poor oral health status on school performance of 600 primary and nursery school children of Bengaluru city, India. The data were collected using the methods and standards recommended by the WHO for oral health surveys. Oral health status was assessed using the df-t index (number of decayed and filled teeth). Academic performance was assessed based on the marks obtained. The children were divided into three groups: Excellent, average, below average (as given by the school teachers). Comparison between categorical variables was performed using one-way ANOVA using the SPSS software package (version 12.0). The mean df-t of the excellent group was 1.56 ± 2.5, for average group it was 2.05 ± 2.8 and for the below average group it was 4.47 ± 2.7. The below average group showed high caries index compared to other groups. The relation between school performance and mean df-t was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate the impact that poor oral health has, on lowering school performance in children. It can be safely concluded that improvement of children's oral health may be a vehicle to improve their educational experience.
Critical connection between student health and academic achievement: How schools and policymakers can achieve a positive impact. A brief developed jointly by wested and the Philip R. Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies, University Of California, San Francisco On Behalf Of The California Education Supports Project.
NCHS, NHANES III [Internet]. 1996; Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/guidelines1.pdf.
Gift, HC. Oral health outcomes research: Challenges and opportunities. In: Slade GD, editor. Measuring oral health and quality of life. Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Dental Ecology, University of North Carolina; 1997. p. 25-46.
Ramage S. The impact of dental disease on school performance: The view of the school nurse. J Southeastern Society Pediatr Dent 2000;6(2):26.
Schechter N. The impact of acute and chronic dental pain on child development. J Southeastern Society Pediatr Dent 2000; 6(2):16.
Reisine ST. Dental health and public policy: The social impact of dental disease. Am J Public Health 1985 Jan;75(1):27-30.
Oral health and quality of life. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. 2000; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/OralHealth/publications/factsheets/sgr2000_fs5.htm.
Rampersaud GC (Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, SW 23rd Drive, FETL Building 685, Gainesville, FL 32611-0720, USA. email@example.com), Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 2005 May;105(5):743-760; quiz 761-2.
Southward LH (Social Science Research Center, P.O. Box 5287, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org), Robertson A, Wells-Parker E, Eklund NP, Silberman SL, Crall JJ, Edelstein BL, Baggett DH, Parrish DR, Hanna H. Oral health status of Mississippi Delta 3-to 5-year-olds in child care: An exploratory study of dental health status and risk factors for dental disease and treatment needs. J Public Health Dent 2006 Spring;66(2):131-137.
Peterson J (Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75266-0677, USA. email@example.com), Niessen L, Nana Lopez GM. Texas public school nurses. Texas public school nurses' assessment of children's oral health status. J Sch Health 1999 Feb;69(2):69-72.
Edelstein B (Social and Behavioral Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ble22@ columbia.edu), Vargas CM, Candelaria D, Vemuri M. Experience and policy implications of children presenting with dental emergencies to US pediatric dentistry training programs. 2006 Sep-Oct;28(5):431-437.
Clarke M (Community Dental Services Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org), Locker D, Berall G, Pencharz P, Kenny DJ, Judd P. Malnourishment in a population of young children with severe early childhood caries. Pediatr Dent 2006 May-Jun;28(3):254-259.
Tickle M (School of Dentistry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. email@example.com), Blinkhorn AS, Milsom KM. The occurrence of dental pain and extractions over a 3-year period in a cohort of children aged 3-6 years. J Public Health Dent 2008 Spring;68(2):63-69.
Siegal MD (Bureau of Oral Health Services, Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org), Yeager MS, Davis AM. Oral health status and access to dental care for Ohio Head Start children. Pediatr Dent 2004 Nov-Dec;26(6):519-525.
Meadow D, Edelstein B. An evaluation of the management of dental emergencies by the school nurse. Pediatr Dent 1981 Dec;3(4):325-328.
Children's oral health: More vigilance needed—study shows effects on quality of life. Dental UM [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2006];22(1):69-70. Available from: “www.dentumich.edu/alumni/dentalum/springsummer2006/Childrens_Oral_Health.pdf”.
Muirhead VE (Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1G6. email@example.com), Locker D. School performance indicators as proxy measures of school dental treatment needs: A feasibility study. J Public Health Dent 2006 Fall;66(4):269-272.
Muirhead V (Community Dental Service, Wandsworth Primary Care Trust, London. firstname.lastname@example.org), Marcenes W. An ecological study of caries experience, school performance and material deprivation in 5-year-old state primary school children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2004 Aug;32(4):265-270.
Blumenshine SL (Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. email@example.com), Vann WF Jr, Gizlice Z, Lee JY. Children's school performance: Impact of general and oral health. J Public Health Dent 2008 Spring;68(2):82-87. doi: 10.1111/ j.1752-7325.2007.00062.x.
Low W (Pediatric Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal), Tan S, Schwartz S. The effect of severe caries on the quality of life in young children. Pediatr Dent 1999 Sep-Oct;21(6):325-326.
Filstrup SL (School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org), Briskie D, da Fonseca M, Lawrence L, Wandera A, Inglehart MR. Early childhood caries and quality of life: Child and parent perspectives. Pediatr Dent 2003;25:431-440.
Majewski RF (Children's Hospital of Buffalo), Snyder CW, Bernat JE. Dental emergencies presenting to a children's hospital. ASDC J Dent Child 1988 Sep-Oct;55(5):339-342.
Pongpichit B (Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Muang District, Khon-Kaen, Thailand. email@example.com), Sheiham A, Pikhart H, Tsakos G. Time absent from school due to dental conditions and dental care in Thai schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent 2008 Spring;68(2):76-81.
Sheiham A (Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT. firstname.lastname@example.org). Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children. Br Dent J 2006 Nov 25;201(10):625-626.
Houpt MI, Limb R, Livingston RL. Clinical effects of nitrous oxide conscious sedation in children. Pediatr Dent 2004 Jan-Feb;26(1):29-36.
Reinstrup P, Ryding E, Ohlsson T, Sandell A, Erlandsson K, Ljunggren K, Salford LG, Strand S, Uski T. Regional cerebral metabolic rate (positron emission tomography) during inhalation of nitrous oxide 50% in humans. Br J Anaesth 2008 Jan;100(1):66-71.
Leung JM, Sands LP, Vaurio LE, Wang Y. Nitrous oxide does not change the incidence of postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly surgical patients. Br J Anaesth 2006 Jun;96(6):754-760.
Piñero-Zapata M, Cinesi-Gómez C, Luna-Maldonado A. Mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure on chronic treatment with benzodiazepines. Enferm Clin 2013 May-Jun;23(3):89-95.
Collado V, Faulks D, Nicolas E, Hennequin M. Conscious sedation procedures using intravenous midazolam for dental care in patients with different cognitive profiles: a prospective study of effectiveness and safety. Plos One 2013 Aug;8(8):e71240.
Brondani JT, Nataline CC, Pippi NL, Massanti A, Prati L, Bertin AP. Ketamine, midazolam and nitrous oxide anesthesia in dogs submitted to cervical esophagoplasty. Cienc Rural 2003 Nov-Dec;33(6):1075-1080.
Yang TF, Chan RC, Kao CL, Chiu JW, Liu TJ, Kao NT, Kuo TB. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability for cerebral palsy patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002 May;81(5):350-354.
Ferreira MC, Pastore C, Imada R, Guaré R, Leite M, Poyares D, Santos MT. Autonomic nervous system in individuals with cerebral palsy: a controlled study. J Oral Pathol Med 2011 Aug;40(7):576-581.
Sari ME, Ozmen B, Koyuturk AE, Tokay U. A retrospective comparison of dental treatment under general anesthesia on children with and without mental disabilities. Niger J Clin Pract 2014 May-Jun;17(3):361-365.
Gáspár J, Tóth Z, Fejérdy L, Kaán B, Fábián TK. Some background data about the high dental anxiety of the Hungarian population. Fogorv Sz 2004 Apr;97(2):85-89.
Shin WJ, Kang SJ, Kim YK, Seong SH, Han SM, Hwang GS. Link between heart rate and blood pressure Mayer wave during general anesthesia. Clin Auton Res 2011 Oct;21(5):309-317.
Li YX, Tang HT, Zhou WF, Hu XY, Xiao SC, Niu XH, Li YC, Wu YS, Yao M, Wang HX, et al. Analgesic and sedative effects of inhaling a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen on burn patient during and after dressing change. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2013 Dec;29(6):537-540.
Wongprasartsuk P, Stevens J. Cerebral palsy and anaesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 2002 May;12(4):296-303.
Verschuren O, Wiart L, Ketelaar M. Stages of change in physical activity behavior in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil 2013 Jan;35(19):1630-1635.
Surén P, Bakken IJ, Aase H, Chin R, Gunnes N, Lie KK, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schj⊘lberg S, Øyen AS, et al. Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in norwegian children. Pediatrics 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-e158.
Pollare T, Lithell H, Selinus I, Berne C. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension. Diabetologia 1988 Jul;31(7):415-420.
Berne C, Pollare T, Lithell H. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on insulin sensitivity with special reference to ACE inhibitors. Diabetes Care 1991 Nov;14(Suppl 4):39-47.
Cohn JN. Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensin in man. Clin Sci 1966 Apr;30(2):267-278.
Julius S, Pascual AV, Reilly K, London R. Abnormalities of plasma volume in borderline hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1971 Jan;127(1):116-119.
Greenwood JP, Scott EM, Stoker JB, Mary DA. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Nov;38(6):1711-1717.
Spirito P, Bellone P, Harris KM, Bernabo P, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ. Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000 Jun;342:1778-1785.
Haider AW, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Increased left ventricular mass and hypertrophy are associated with increased risk for sudden death. J Am Coll Cadiol 1998 Nov;32(5):1454-1459.
Jouven X, Zureik M, Desnos M, Guérot C, Ducimetière P. Resting heart rate as a predictive factor for sudden death in middle-aged men. Cardiovasc Res 2001 May;50(2):373-378.
Gillman MW, Kannel WB, Belanger A, D'Agostino RB. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1993 Apr;125(4):1148-1154.
Julius S, Palatini P, Kjeldsen SE, Zanchetti A, Weber MA, McInnes GT, Brunner HR, Mancia G, Schork MA, Hua TA, et al. Usefulness of heart rate to predict future cardiac events in treated patients with high-risk systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2012 Mar;109(5):685-692.
Palatini P, Roawi W, Casiglia E, Chalmers J, Ferrari R, Grassi G, Inoui T, Jelakovic B, Jensen MT, Julius S, et al. Management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate: Statement of the Second Consensus Conference endorsed by the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens 2016 May;34(5):813-821.
Benedict CR, Shelton B, Johnstone DE, Francis G, Greenberg B, Konstam M, Probstfield JL, Yusuf S. Prognostic significance of plasma norepinephrine in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1996 Aug;94(4):690-697.
Grassi G, Seravalle G, Mancia G. Sympathetic activation in cardiovascular disease: evidence, clinical impact and therapeutic implications. Eur J Clin Invest 2015 Dec;45(12):1367-1375.
Cullington D, Goode KM, Zhang J, Cleland JG, Clark AL. Is heart rate important for patients with heart failure in atrial fibrillation? JACC Heart Fail 2014 Jun;2(3):213-220.
Wikstrand J, HJalmarson A, Waagstein F, Fagerberg J, Goldstein S, Kjekshus J, Wedel H; MERIT-HF Study Group. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in chronic heart failure (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Aug;40(3):491-498.
Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Bulter J, Casey DE Jr, Colvin MM, Drazner MH, Filippatos GS, Fonarow GC, Givertz MM, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Aug;70(6):776-803.
Luetic AT. First experience in clinical application of KANET. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):96-99.
Vasilj O. Is in utero fetal neurological assessment comparible to postnatal neurological assessment? Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):91-95.
Tomasovic S, Predojevic M. 4D ultrasound medical devices for recent advances on the etiology of cerebral palsy. Acta Inform Med 2011 Dec;19(4):228-234.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehavior in high-risk pregnancies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Honemeyer U, Talic A, Therwat A, Paulose I, Patidar R. The clinical value of KANET test in studying fetal neurobehavior in normal and at-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2013 Mar;41(2):187-197.
Kadic AS. Fetal neurology: the role of fetal stress. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):30-39.
Hata T, Kanenishi J, Hanoka U, Uematsu R, Marumo G, Tanaka H. HDlive study of fetal development and behavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014;8(3):250-265.
Reynoso C, Crespo-Eguílaz N, Alcázar JL, Narbona J. Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study. An Pediatr (Barc) 2015 Mar;82(3):183-191.
Predojević M, Talić A, Stanojević M, Kurjak A, Salihagić Kadić A. Assessment of motoric and hemodynamic parameters in growth restricted fetuses-case study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Feb;27(3):247-251.
Kurjak A, Talic A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Serra B, Prats P, Di Renzo GC. The study of fetal neurobehavior in twins in all three trimesters of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Aug;26(12):1186-1195.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neuro-developmental fetal assessment using Kanet scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363-368.
Kurjak A, Stanojević M, Predojević M, Laušin I, Salihagić-Kadić A. Neurobehavior in fetal life. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Dec;17(6):319-323.
Hepper PG, Dornan JC, Lynch C, Maguire JF. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently. Physiol Behav 2012 Aug 20;107(1):76-81.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Badreldeen A, Direnzo GC. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: the role of the Kanet test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Aug;25(8):1267-1272.
Kurjak A, Honemeyer U, Stanojevic M, Zalud I. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal Doppler in the assessment of fetal well-being. J Perinat Med 2013 Jan;41(1):107-114.
Neto MR. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):1-5.
Morokuma S, Fukushima K, Yumoto Y, Uchimura M, Fujiwara A, Matsumoto M, Satoh S, Nakano H. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007 Mar;83(3):177-181.
Kurjak A, Tikvica Luetic A, Stanojevic M, Talic A, Zalud I, Al-Noobi M, Perva S, Abushama M, Tomasovic S, Zaputovic S, et al. Further experience in the clinical assessment of fetal neurobehavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010 Jan-Mar;4(1):59-71.
Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, Yigiter AB, Vasilj O, Lebit D, Shaddad AN, Ahmed B, Kavak ZN, Miskovic B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior: multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77-82.
Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, Ivankovicc D, Kerner M, Tikvica A. The comparison of fetal behavior in high-risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Dec;23(12):1461-1467.
Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Abo-Yaguab S, Younis M, Saleh H, Shaddad AN, Vasilj O, Al Bahar AJ, Miskovic B, Khenyab N. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2:29-44.
Livingston JH, Stivaros S, Warren D, Crow YJ. Intracranial calcification in childhood: a review of aetiologies and recognizable phenotypes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Jul;56(7):612-626.
Couvreur J, Desmonts G, Tournier G, Szusterkac M. A homogeneous series of 210 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in 0 to 11-month-old infants detected prospectively. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1984 Nov;31(10):815-819. (French).
Valentini P, Annunziata ML, Angelone DF, Masini L, De Santis M, Testa A, Grillo RL, Speziale D, Ranno O. Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009 Mar;28(3):297-300.
Valentini P, Buonsenso D, Barone G, Serranti D, Calzedda R, Ceccarelli M, Speziale D, Ricci R, Masini L. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. J Perinatol 2015 Feb;35(2):90-94.
Masini L, De Santis M, Apicella M, Noia G, Santangelo R, Speziale D, Lanzone A, Valentini P. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and amniocentesis in a single center cohort of 1065 pregnancies complicated by maternal Toxoplasma infection. ISUOG 2017—27th World Congress—16-19 September, Vienna, Austria OC05.05. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;50(Suppl 1):10.
Vynnycky E, Adams EJ, Cutts FT, Reef SE, Navar AM, Simons E, Yoshida LM, Brown DW, Jackson C, Strebel PM, et al. Using seroprevalence and immunisation coverage data to estimate the global burden of congenital rubella syndrome, 1996-2010: a systematic review. PLoS One 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0149160.
Hutton J. Does rubella Cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci 2016 Feb 1;10:25.
Thompson KM, Simons EA, Badizadegan K, Reef SE, Cooper LZ. Characterization of the risks of adverse outcomes following rubella infection in pregnancy. Risk Anal 2016 Jul;36(7):1315-1331.
De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A. Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):390-298.
Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Thom E, Landon MB, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Dombrowski M, Sibai B, et al. Frequency of congenital varicella syndrome in a prospective cohort of 347 pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Aug;100(2):260-265.
Enders G, Miller E, Cradock-Watson J, Bolley I, Ridehalgh M. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1548-1551.
Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):410-420.
Pastuszak AL, Levy M, Schick B, Zuber C, Feldkamp M, Gladstone J, Bar-Levy F, Jackson E, Donnenfeld A, Meschino W, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994 Mar 31;330(13):901-905.
Pretorius DH, Hayward I, Jones KL, Stamm E. Sonographic evaluation of pregnancies with maternal varicella infection. J Ultrasound Med 1992 Sep;11(9):459-463.
Verstraelen H, Vanzieleghem B, Defoort P, Vanhaesebrouck P, Temmerman M. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in fetal varicella syndrome: correlation with pathology findings. Prenat Diagn 2003 Sep;23(9):705-709.
Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986 Jun 12;314(24):1542-1546.
Meyberg-Solomayer GC, Fehm T, Muller-Hansen I, Enders G, Poets C, Wallwiener D, Solomayer EF. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, follow-up, and outcome of congenital varicella syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2006;21(3):296-301.
Pichler M, Staffler A, Bonometti N, Messner H, Deluca J, Thuile T, Kluge R, Schmuth M, Eisendle K. Premature newborns with fatal intrauterine herpes simplex virus-1 infection: first report of twins and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Jun;29(6):1216-1220.
Plourde AR, Bloch EM. A literature review of Zika virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jul;22(7):1185-1192.
Paixão ES, Barreto F, Teixeira Mda G, Costa Mda C, Rodrigues LC. History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Zika: a systematic review. Am J Public Health 2016 Apr;106(4):606-612.
Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika virus and birth defects—reviewing the evidence for causality. N Engl J Med 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-1987.
Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.