Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study
Hind Pal Bhatia, Visuja Chaudhary, Archana Aggarwal, Ashish Kumar Singh
Citation Information :
Bhatia HP, Chaudhary V, Aggarwal A, Kumar Singh A. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5 (2):108-112.
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Candida albicans in extensive carious lesions before and after treatment of the carious lesions and to evaluate the carriage of Candida albicans in children with and without caries.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 60 childrens who were divided into two groups: Experimental group (group 1) and controlled group (group 2). Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups according to the dentition as: Group A (Deciduous), group B (Mixed) and group C (Permanent). Swab samples for mycological studies were collected from the dorsum of the tongue, vestibular sulcus and peak of the palatal vault. All samples were cultured directly on SDA plate (Sabouraud's dextrose agar). Number of Candida colonies was determined by counting colony forming unit on SDA plates. Further identification of Candida albicans was done by germ-tube test and corn-meal agar.
Result: Overall prevalence of Candida albicans carriage was significantly higher and mean value of Candida albicans CFU (colony forming unit) was remarkably higher in group 1 (experimental group) as compare to group 2 (control group). Significant reduction in the frequency and mean value of Candida albicans CFU/plate was seen in children after treatment of carious lesions.
Conclusion: This study supports the active role of Candida species in dental caries. Hence, Candida albicans may play an important role as a risk factor for dental caries. It was also seen that the oral environment stabilization procedures were able to reduce Candida albicans counts. Thus, these procedures can be considered efficient in the reduction of caries risk.
Signoretto C (Università di Verona, Dipartimento di Patologia, Sezione di Microbiologia, Strada Le Grazie, 8-37134 Verona, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org), Burlacchini G, Faccioni F, Zanderigo M, Bozzola N, Canepari P. Support for the role of Candida species in extensive caries lesions of children. New Microbiol 2009 Jan;32(1):101-107.
Russell C, Lay KM. Natural history of Candida species and yeasts in the oral cavities of infants. Arch Oral Bio 1973 Aug;18(8):957-62.
Kleinegger CL (College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA), Lockhart SR, Vargas K, Soll DR. Frequency, intensity, species, and strains of oral Candida vary as a function of host age. J Clin Microbiol 1996 Sep;34(9):2246-2254.
Akdeniz BG (Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, School of Dentistry, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey), Koparal E, Sen BH, Ate° M, Denizci AA. Prevalence of Candida albicans in oral cavities and root canal of children. ASDC J Dent Child 2002 Sep-Dec;69(3):289-292.
Ugun-Can B (Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. email@example.com), Kadir T, Akyüz S. Oral Candida carriage in children with and without dental caries. Quintessence Int 2007 Jan;38(1):45-49.
Rozkiewicz D (Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Bia3ystok, Poland), Daniluk T, Zaremba ML, Cylwik-Rokicka D, Stokowska W, Pawiñska M, Dabrowska E, Marczuk-Kolada G, Waszkiel D. Oral Candida albicans carriage in healthy preschool and school children. Adv Med Sci 2006;51 Suppl 1:187-190.
Dicler De Sant Anna Vitor Barberi, Vania Aparcida Vicente. Analysis of the in vitro adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2007;38:624-631.
Moalic E (Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory, Brest Faculty of Medicine, Brest, France. firstname.lastname@example.org), Gestalin A, Quinio D, Gest PE, Zerilli A, Le Flohic AM. The extentd of oral fungal flora in 353 students and possible relationship with dental caries. Caries Res 2001 Mar-Apr;35(2):149-155.
Martin MV, Wilkinson GR. The oral yeast flora of 10-year-old schoolchildren. Sabouraudia 1983 Jun;21(2):129-135.
Hodson JJ, Craige GT. The incidence of Candida albicans in the plques of teeth of children. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1972 Apr;22(8):296-301.
Coulter WA (Department of Restorative Dentistry and Micro-biology, The Queen's University of Belfast, UK), Murray SD, Kinirons MJ. The use of a concentrated oral rinse culture technique to sample oral candida and lactobacilli in children, and the relationship between candida and lactobacilli levels and dental caries experience: a pilot study. Int J Paediatr Dent 1993 Mar;3(1):17-21.
Raja M (University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. email@example.com), Hannan A, Ali K. Association of oral candidal carriage with dental caries in children. Caries Res 2010;44(3):272-276. doi: 10.1159/000314675. Epub 2010 May 27.
Hossain H (Institute for Medical Microbiology, Giessen, Germany), Ansari F, Schulz-Weidner N, Wetzel WE, Chakraborty T, Domann E. Clonal identity of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract of pre-school children. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2003 Oct;18(5):302-308.
De Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti Parisotto TM, Hebling J, Carlos L, Palomari Spolidorio. Luise Madalena Presence of Candida species in infants oral cavity and its association with early childhood caries. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences 2007 Jan-Mar;6(20):1249-1253.
Marcos Augusto do Rego, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Antonio Olava Cardosa Jorge. Effets of oral environment stabilization procedure on counts of Candida species in children. Psequi Odontol Bras 2003;17(4):332-336.
Sikri V, Singh H. A comparative evaluation of light cure composites, light cure glass ionomers and compomers for restoration of cervical abrasion erosion lesions—An in vivo and in vitro study. Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2002;5(1):22-31.
Toledano M (University of Granada, Granada, Spain), Osorio E, Osorio R, Garcia-Godoy F. Microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1999 May;81(5):610-615.
Rodrigues JA (Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba-UNICAMP, SP, Brazil), De Magalhães CS, Serra MC, Rodrigues Júnior AL. In vivo microleakage of glass-ionomer composite resin hybrid materials. Oper Dent 1999 Mar-Apr;24(2):89-95.
Brackett WW (Department of General Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee-Memphis, USA), Gunnin TD, Gilpatrick RO, Browning WD. Microleakage of class V compomer and light cured glass ionomer restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1998 Mar;79(3):261-263.
Yap AU (Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore), Mok BY. Surface finish of a new hybrid aesthetic restorative material. Oper Dent 2002 Mar-Apr;27(2):161-166.
Irie M (Department of Biomaterials, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Japan), Suzuki K. Effects of delayed polishing on gap formation of cervical restorations. Oper Dent 2002 Jan-Feb;27(1):59-65.
Irie M (Okayama University Dental School, Department of Biomaterials, Japan), Suzuki K. Water storage effect on the marginal seal of resin modified glass ionomer restorations. Oper Dent 1999 Sep-Oct;24(5):272-278.
Grzić R, Bakarcić D, Prpić I, Jokić NI, Sasso A, Kovac Z, Lajnert V. Dental health and dental care in children with cerebral palsy. Coll Antropol 2011 Sep;35(3):761-764.
Pilge S, Jordan D, Kreuzer M, Kochs EF, Schneider G. Burst suppression-MAC and burst suppression-CP as measures of cerebral effects of anaesthetics. Br J Anaesth 2014 Jun;112(6):1067-1074.
Houpt MI, Limb R, Livingston RL. Clinical effects of nitrous oxide conscious sedation in children. Pediatr Dent 2004 Jan-Feb;26(1):29-36.
Reinstrup P, Ryding E, Ohlsson T, Sandell A, Erlandsson K, Ljunggren K, Salford LG, Strand S, Uski T. Regional cerebral metabolic rate (positron emission tomography) during inhalation of nitrous oxide 50% in humans. Br J Anaesth 2008 Jan;100(1):66-71.
Leung JM, Sands LP, Vaurio LE, Wang Y. Nitrous oxide does not change the incidence of postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly surgical patients. Br J Anaesth 2006 Jun;96(6):754-760.
Piñero-Zapata M, Cinesi-Gómez C, Luna-Maldonado A. Mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure on chronic treatment with benzodiazepines. Enferm Clin 2013 May-Jun;23(3):89-95.
Collado V, Faulks D, Nicolas E, Hennequin M. Conscious sedation procedures using intravenous midazolam for dental care in patients with different cognitive profiles: a prospective study of effectiveness and safety. Plos One 2013 Aug;8(8):e71240.
Brondani JT, Nataline CC, Pippi NL, Massanti A, Prati L, Bertin AP. Ketamine, midazolam and nitrous oxide anesthesia in dogs submitted to cervical esophagoplasty. Cienc Rural 2003 Nov-Dec;33(6):1075-1080.
Yang TF, Chan RC, Kao CL, Chiu JW, Liu TJ, Kao NT, Kuo TB. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability for cerebral palsy patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002 May;81(5):350-354.
Ferreira MC, Pastore C, Imada R, Guaré R, Leite M, Poyares D, Santos MT. Autonomic nervous system in individuals with cerebral palsy: a controlled study. J Oral Pathol Med 2011 Aug;40(7):576-581.
Sari ME, Ozmen B, Koyuturk AE, Tokay U. A retrospective comparison of dental treatment under general anesthesia on children with and without mental disabilities. Niger J Clin Pract 2014 May-Jun;17(3):361-365.
Gáspár J, Tóth Z, Fejérdy L, Kaán B, Fábián TK. Some background data about the high dental anxiety of the Hungarian population. Fogorv Sz 2004 Apr;97(2):85-89.
Shin WJ, Kang SJ, Kim YK, Seong SH, Han SM, Hwang GS. Link between heart rate and blood pressure Mayer wave during general anesthesia. Clin Auton Res 2011 Oct;21(5):309-317.
Li YX, Tang HT, Zhou WF, Hu XY, Xiao SC, Niu XH, Li YC, Wu YS, Yao M, Wang HX, et al. Analgesic and sedative effects of inhaling a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen on burn patient during and after dressing change. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2013 Dec;29(6):537-540.
Wongprasartsuk P, Stevens J. Cerebral palsy and anaesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 2002 May;12(4):296-303.
Verschuren O, Wiart L, Ketelaar M. Stages of change in physical activity behavior in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil 2013 Jan;35(19):1630-1635.
Surén P, Bakken IJ, Aase H, Chin R, Gunnes N, Lie KK, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schj⊘lberg S, Øyen AS, et al. Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy in norwegian children. Pediatrics 2012 Jul;130(1):e152-e158.
Pollare T, Lithell H, Selinus I, Berne C. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension. Diabetologia 1988 Jul;31(7):415-420.
Berne C, Pollare T, Lithell H. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on insulin sensitivity with special reference to ACE inhibitors. Diabetes Care 1991 Nov;14(Suppl 4):39-47.
Cohn JN. Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensin in man. Clin Sci 1966 Apr;30(2):267-278.
Julius S, Pascual AV, Reilly K, London R. Abnormalities of plasma volume in borderline hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1971 Jan;127(1):116-119.
Greenwood JP, Scott EM, Stoker JB, Mary DA. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Nov;38(6):1711-1717.
Spirito P, Bellone P, Harris KM, Bernabo P, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ. Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000 Jun;342:1778-1785.
Haider AW, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Increased left ventricular mass and hypertrophy are associated with increased risk for sudden death. J Am Coll Cadiol 1998 Nov;32(5):1454-1459.
Jouven X, Zureik M, Desnos M, Guérot C, Ducimetière P. Resting heart rate as a predictive factor for sudden death in middle-aged men. Cardiovasc Res 2001 May;50(2):373-378.
Gillman MW, Kannel WB, Belanger A, D'Agostino RB. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1993 Apr;125(4):1148-1154.
Julius S, Palatini P, Kjeldsen SE, Zanchetti A, Weber MA, McInnes GT, Brunner HR, Mancia G, Schork MA, Hua TA, et al. Usefulness of heart rate to predict future cardiac events in treated patients with high-risk systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2012 Mar;109(5):685-692.
Palatini P, Roawi W, Casiglia E, Chalmers J, Ferrari R, Grassi G, Inoui T, Jelakovic B, Jensen MT, Julius S, et al. Management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate: Statement of the Second Consensus Conference endorsed by the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens 2016 May;34(5):813-821.
Benedict CR, Shelton B, Johnstone DE, Francis G, Greenberg B, Konstam M, Probstfield JL, Yusuf S. Prognostic significance of plasma norepinephrine in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1996 Aug;94(4):690-697.
Grassi G, Seravalle G, Mancia G. Sympathetic activation in cardiovascular disease: evidence, clinical impact and therapeutic implications. Eur J Clin Invest 2015 Dec;45(12):1367-1375.
Cullington D, Goode KM, Zhang J, Cleland JG, Clark AL. Is heart rate important for patients with heart failure in atrial fibrillation? JACC Heart Fail 2014 Jun;2(3):213-220.
Wikstrand J, HJalmarson A, Waagstein F, Fagerberg J, Goldstein S, Kjekshus J, Wedel H; MERIT-HF Study Group. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in chronic heart failure (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Aug;40(3):491-498.
Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Bulter J, Casey DE Jr, Colvin MM, Drazner MH, Filippatos GS, Fonarow GC, Givertz MM, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Aug;70(6):776-803.
Luetic AT. First experience in clinical application of KANET. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):96-99.
Vasilj O. Is in utero fetal neurological assessment comparible to postnatal neurological assessment? Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):91-95.
Tomasovic S, Predojevic M. 4D ultrasound medical devices for recent advances on the etiology of cerebral palsy. Acta Inform Med 2011 Dec;19(4):228-234.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehavior in high-risk pregnancies. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Honemeyer U, Talic A, Therwat A, Paulose I, Patidar R. The clinical value of KANET test in studying fetal neurobehavior in normal and at-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2013 Mar;41(2):187-197.
Kadic AS. Fetal neurology: the role of fetal stress. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):30-39.
Hata T, Kanenishi J, Hanoka U, Uematsu R, Marumo G, Tanaka H. HDlive study of fetal development and behavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014;8(3):250-265.
Reynoso C, Crespo-Eguílaz N, Alcázar JL, Narbona J. Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study. An Pediatr (Barc) 2015 Mar;82(3):183-191.
Predojević M, Talić A, Stanojević M, Kurjak A, Salihagić Kadić A. Assessment of motoric and hemodynamic parameters in growth restricted fetuses-case study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Feb;27(3):247-251.
Kurjak A, Talic A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Serra B, Prats P, Di Renzo GC. The study of fetal neurobehavior in twins in all three trimesters of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Aug;26(12):1186-1195.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neuro-developmental fetal assessment using Kanet scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(4):363-368.
Kurjak A, Stanojević M, Predojević M, Laušin I, Salihagić-Kadić A. Neurobehavior in fetal life. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Dec;17(6):319-323.
Hepper PG, Dornan JC, Lynch C, Maguire JF. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently. Physiol Behav 2012 Aug 20;107(1):76-81.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Stanojevic M, Honemeyer U, Badreldeen A, Direnzo GC. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventriculomegaly: the role of the Kanet test. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Aug;25(8):1267-1272.
Kurjak A, Honemeyer U, Stanojevic M, Zalud I. Comparison between antenatal neurodevelopmental test and fetal Doppler in the assessment of fetal well-being. J Perinat Med 2013 Jan;41(1):107-114.
Neto MR. KANET in Brazil: first experience. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;9(1):1-5.
Morokuma S, Fukushima K, Yumoto Y, Uchimura M, Fujiwara A, Matsumoto M, Satoh S, Nakano H. Simplified ultrasound screening for fetal brain function based on behavioral pattern. Early Hum Dev 2007 Mar;83(3):177-181.
Kurjak A, Tikvica Luetic A, Stanojevic M, Talic A, Zalud I, Al-Noobi M, Perva S, Abushama M, Tomasovic S, Zaputovic S, et al. Further experience in the clinical assessment of fetal neurobehavior. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010 Jan-Mar;4(1):59-71.
Kurjak A, Abo-Yaqoub S, Stanojevic M, Yigiter AB, Vasilj O, Lebit D, Shaddad AN, Ahmed B, Kavak ZN, Miskovic B, et al. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal neurobehavior: multicentric study in high-risk pregnancies. J Perinat Med 2010;38(1):77-82.
Miskovic B, Vasilj O, Stanojevic M, Ivankovicc D, Kerner M, Tikvica A. The comparison of fetal behavior in high-risk and normal pregnancies assessed by four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Dec;23(12):1461-1467.
Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Abo-Yaguab S, Younis M, Saleh H, Shaddad AN, Vasilj O, Al Bahar AJ, Miskovic B, Khenyab N. An attempt to introduce neurological test for fetus based on 3D and 4D sonography. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;2:29-44.
Livingston JH, Stivaros S, Warren D, Crow YJ. Intracranial calcification in childhood: a review of aetiologies and recognizable phenotypes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Jul;56(7):612-626.
Couvreur J, Desmonts G, Tournier G, Szusterkac M. A homogeneous series of 210 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in 0 to 11-month-old infants detected prospectively. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1984 Nov;31(10):815-819. (French).
Valentini P, Annunziata ML, Angelone DF, Masini L, De Santis M, Testa A, Grillo RL, Speziale D, Ranno O. Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009 Mar;28(3):297-300.
Valentini P, Buonsenso D, Barone G, Serranti D, Calzedda R, Ceccarelli M, Speziale D, Ricci R, Masini L. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. J Perinatol 2015 Feb;35(2):90-94.
Masini L, De Santis M, Apicella M, Noia G, Santangelo R, Speziale D, Lanzone A, Valentini P. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and amniocentesis in a single center cohort of 1065 pregnancies complicated by maternal Toxoplasma infection. ISUOG 2017—27th World Congress—16-19 September, Vienna, Austria OC05.05. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;50(Suppl 1):10.
Vynnycky E, Adams EJ, Cutts FT, Reef SE, Navar AM, Simons E, Yoshida LM, Brown DW, Jackson C, Strebel PM, et al. Using seroprevalence and immunisation coverage data to estimate the global burden of congenital rubella syndrome, 1996-2010: a systematic review. PLoS One 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0149160.
Hutton J. Does rubella Cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci 2016 Feb 1;10:25.
Thompson KM, Simons EA, Badizadegan K, Reef SE, Cooper LZ. Characterization of the risks of adverse outcomes following rubella infection in pregnancy. Risk Anal 2016 Jul;36(7):1315-1331.
De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A. Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):390-298.
Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Thom E, Landon MB, Paul R, Miodovnik M, Dombrowski M, Sibai B, et al. Frequency of congenital varicella syndrome in a prospective cohort of 347 pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Aug;100(2):260-265.
Enders G, Miller E, Cradock-Watson J, Bolley I, Ridehalgh M. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1548-1551.
Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol 2006 May;21(4):410-420.
Pastuszak AL, Levy M, Schick B, Zuber C, Feldkamp M, Gladstone J, Bar-Levy F, Jackson E, Donnenfeld A, Meschino W, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994 Mar 31;330(13):901-905.
Pretorius DH, Hayward I, Jones KL, Stamm E. Sonographic evaluation of pregnancies with maternal varicella infection. J Ultrasound Med 1992 Sep;11(9):459-463.
Verstraelen H, Vanzieleghem B, Defoort P, Vanhaesebrouck P, Temmerman M. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in fetal varicella syndrome: correlation with pathology findings. Prenat Diagn 2003 Sep;23(9):705-709.
Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986 Jun 12;314(24):1542-1546.
Meyberg-Solomayer GC, Fehm T, Muller-Hansen I, Enders G, Poets C, Wallwiener D, Solomayer EF. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, follow-up, and outcome of congenital varicella syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2006;21(3):296-301.
Pichler M, Staffler A, Bonometti N, Messner H, Deluca J, Thuile T, Kluge R, Schmuth M, Eisendle K. Premature newborns with fatal intrauterine herpes simplex virus-1 infection: first report of twins and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Jun;29(6):1216-1220.
Plourde AR, Bloch EM. A literature review of Zika virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jul;22(7):1185-1192.
Paixão ES, Barreto F, Teixeira Mda G, Costa Mda C, Rodrigues LC. History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Zika: a systematic review. Am J Public Health 2016 Apr;106(4):606-612.
Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika virus and birth defects—reviewing the evidence for causality. N Engl J Med 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-1987.
Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.