Background and objectives: Fluoride is being used for the prevention of dental caries since a long time. Incorporation of fluoride in pit and fissure sealants has been found to reduce initiation and progression of pit and fissure caries. Authors conducted this study to evaluate and compare the effect of fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants on the inhibition of demineralization of adjacent enamel and to reduce wall lesion frequency.
Materials and methods: A total of 60 caries-free human third molars were randomly assigned into three groups receiving conventional resin sealant without fluoride (Group A), fluoride releasing resin sealant (Group B), glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant (Group C). Fissure cavities of 5 × 2 × 1.5 mm were prepared on buccal surfaces of teeth using fissurotomy bur and sealants were applied onto the cavities.
The teeth were then thermocycled and exposed to acidified gelatin gel for 6 weeks to induce caries like lesions. A 150 μm section was taken from each tooth and observed under polarized light microscope to measure the depth of advancing front of outer enamel lesion. The outer lesion depths of all three groups were compared.
Results: Enamel demineralization was least in glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant while the demineralization exhibited by nonfluoridated resin and fluoridated resin were comparable. Wall lesion frequency was found to be 0% in all groups.
Conclusion and interpretation: The glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant exhibited highest anticariogenic efficacy and hence can be advocated as a means of preventing dental caries.
Newbrun E. History and early theories of the etiology of caries. In: Newbrun E (Ed). Cardiology (3rd ed). Chicago: Quintessence;1989. 13-28 p.
Mc-Donald RE, Avery DR, Stookey GK. Dental caries in the child and adolescent. In: McDonald RE, Avery DR, Dean JA, editors. Dentistry for the child and adolescent (8th ed). New Delhi: Elsevier; 2005. 203-235 p.
Hicks J, Flaitz CM. Pit and fissure sealants and conservative adhesive restorations: Scientific and clinical rationale. In: Pinkham JR, Casamassimo PS, McTigue DJ, Fields, Jr, HW, Nowak AJ, editors. Pediatric Dentistry Infancy through Adolescence (4th ed). New Delhi: Saunders An Imprint of Elsevier; 2005. 520-576 p.
Nikiforuk G. Occlusal sealants. In: Nikiforuk G (Ed). Understanding dental caries, etiology and mechanisms, basic and clinical aspects. New York: Karger 1985;2:145-173.
Salar DV, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz CM, Hicks MJ. Potential inhibition of demineralization in vitro by fluoride releasing sealants. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138(4):502-506.
Ellwood RP, O'Mullane D. The association between developmental enamel defects and caries in populations with and without fluoride in their drinking water. J Public Health Dent 1996;56(2):76-80.
Moura JS, Rodrigues LKA, Del Bel Cury AA, Lima EMCX, Garcia RMCR. Influence of storage solution on enamel demineralization submitted to pH cycling. J Appl Oral Sci 2004;12(3):205-208.
Ansari G, Oloomi K, Eslami B. Microleakage assessment of pit and fissure sealant with and without the use of pumice prophylaxis. Int J Pediatr Dent 2004;14(4):272-278.
Garcia-Godoy F, de Araujo FB. Enhancement of fissure sealant penetration and adaptation: The enameloplasty technique. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1994;19(1):13-18.
Salama FS, Al-Hammad NS. Marginal seal and compomer materials with and without enameloplasty. Int J Pediatr Dent 2002;12(1):39-46.
Buonocore MG. A Simple method of increasing the adhesion of acrylic filling materials to enamel surfaces. J Dent Res 1955;34(6):849-853.
Aboush YE, Jenkins CBG. An evaluation of the bonding of glass ionomer restoratives to dentin and enamel. Br Dent J 1986; 161(5):179-184.
Smith LA, O'brain JA, Retief DH, Marchman JL. Microleakage of two dentinal bonding restorative systems. J Dent Res 1988;67:309.
el Mallakh BF, Sarkar NK. Fluoride release from glass ionomer cements in deionized water and artificial saliva. Dent Mater 1990;6(2):118-22.
Kidd E. The early carious lesion in enamel. In: Murray JJ (Ed). The prevention of dental diseases. Oxford, England: University Press, 1983:192-217.
Arends J, ten Bosch JJ. Demineralization and remineralization evaluation technique. J Dent Res 1992;71:924-928.
Gordon PH, Nunn JH. Fissure sealants. In: Murray JJ (Ed). The prevention of oral disease (3rd ed). New York: Oxford University Press;1996. 78-94 p.
Sanders BJ, Feigal RJ, Avery DR. Pit and fissure sealants and preventive resin restorations. In: Mc-Donald RE, Avery DR, Dean JA (Ed). Dentistry for the child and adolescent (8th ed). New Delhi: Elsevier 2005:355.
Jensen ME, Wefel JS, Triolo PT, Hammesfahr PD. Effects of a fluoride-releasing sealant on artificial enamel caries. Am J Dent 1990;3(2):75-78.
Page DJ. A study of the effect of fluoride delivered from solution and dentifrices on enamel demineralization. Caries Res 1991;25(4):251-55.
Cain K, Hicks J, English J, Flaitz C, Powers JM, Rives T. In vitro enamel caries formation and orthodontic bonding agents. Am J Dent 2006;19(3):187-192.
Bynum AM, Donly KJ. Enamel de/remineralization on teeth adjacent to fluoride releasing materials without fluoride dentifrice exposure. ASDC J Dent Child 1999;66(2):89-92.
Francci C, Deaton TC, Arnold RR, Swift EJ Jr, Perdigao J, Bawden JW. Fluoride release from restorative materials and its effects on dentin demineralization. J Dent Res 1999;78(10): 1647- 1654.
Donly KJ. Enamel and dentin demineralization inhibition of fluoridereleasing materials. Am J Dent 1994;7(5):275-278.
Swartz ML, Philips RW, Clark HE. Long-term fluoride release from glass ionomer cements. J Dent Res 1984;63(2):158-160.
Garcia-Godoy F. Preventive glass ionomer restorations. Am J Dent 1988;1(3):97-99.
Lee H, Ocumpaugh DE, Swartz ML. Sealing of developmental pits and fissures: II. Fluoride release from flexible fissure sealants. J Dent Res 1972;51(1):183-190.
Rock WP, Foulkes EE, Perry H, Smith AJ. A comparative study of fluoride releasing composite resin and glass ionomer materials used as fissure sealants. J Dent 1996;24(4):275-280.
Kuhn AT, Wilson AD. The diffusion mechanism of silicate and glass ionomer dental cements. Biomaterials 1985;6(6):378-382.
Wessenberg G, Hals E. The in vitro effect of glass ionomer cement on dentin and enamel walls. J Oral Rehabil 1980;7(1):35-42.
Hatibovic-Kofman S, Koch G, Ekstrand J. Glass ionomer materials as rechargeable fluoride release system. Int J Paediatr Dent 1997;7(2):65-73.
Arrow P, Riordan PJ. Retention and caries preventive effects of a GIC and a resin-based fissure sealant. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995;23(5):282-285.
Glasspoole EA, Erickson RL, Davidson CL. Demineralization of enamel in relation to the fluoride release of materials. Am J Dent 2001;14(1):8-12.
Asmussen E, Peutzfeldt A. Long-term fluoride release from glass ionomer cement, a compomer, and from experimental resin composites. Acta Odontol Scand 2002;60(2):93-97.
Preston AJ, Agalamanyi EA, Higham SM, Mair LH. The recharge of esthetic dental restorative materials with fluoride in vitro - two years’ results. Dent Mater 2003;19(1):32-37.
Roydhouse RH. Prevention of occlusal fissure caries by use of a sealant: A pilot study. ASDC J Dent Child 1968;35(3):253-262.
Hatibovivic-Kofman S, Wrigth GZ, Braverman I. Microleakage of sealants after conventional, bur, and air-abrasion preparation of pits and fissures. Pediatr Dent 1998;20(3):173-176.