International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy and Remineralization Potential of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel with Herbal Dental Gel Containing Zingiber officinale, Salvadora persica, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum: An In Vitro Study

Neha Kohli, Shivayogi M Hugar, Seema Hallikerimath, Niraj Gokhale, Krishna Kadam, Sanjana P Soneta

Keywords : Antibacterial, Dental caries, Fluoride, Herbal, Remineralization

Citation Information : Kohli N, Hugar SM, Hallikerimath S, Gokhale N, Kadam K, Soneta SP. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy and Remineralization Potential of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel with Herbal Dental Gel Containing Zingiber officinale, Salvadora persica, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2024; 17 (3):307-315.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2796

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy and remineralization potential of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel with herbal dental gel containing Zingiber officinale, Salvadora persica, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Materials and methods: Ethanolic extracts of Z. officinale, S. persica, and C. zeylanicum were prepared. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of these extracts were determined against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using the resazurin method and agar plate streaking method, respectively. The herbal dental gel was formulated, and its cytotoxicity was evaluated using an 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The antibacterial susceptibility of APF gel and the herbal dental gel was assessed using the agar well diffusion method and time-kill assay. The remineralizing potential was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results: Herbal dental gel showed better antibacterial efficacy as depicted by the zone of inhibition of 20 and 21 mm obtained against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, respectively, compared to 11.50 and 16.50 mm zone of inhibition obtained by APF gel. The herbal dental gel also showed better remineralization potential than APF gel after a time interval of 24 and 48 hours, as depicted with a statistically significant p-value of 0.0061 and 0.0219, respectively. In the cytotoxicity test, the fibroblasts showed 100% viability in the presence of both study groups. Conclusion: The results of our study concluded that herbal dental gel is safe and nontoxic, having anticariogenic potential due to its good antibacterial action and remineralization potential as compared to conventional APF gel.

PDF Share
  1. Petersen PE. The global burden of oral diseases and risk to oral health. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83(9):661–669.
  2. Goldberg M. Fluoride: double-edged sword implicated in caries prevention and in fluorosis. J Cell Dev Biol 2018;1(1):10–22.
  3. Gazzano E, Bergandi L, Riganti C, et al. Fluoride effects: the two faces of janus. Curr Med Chem 2010;17(22):2431–2441. DOI: 10.2174/092986710791698503
  4. Seraj B, Shahrabi M, Shadfar M, et al. Effect of high-water fluoride concentration on the Intellectual development of children in Iran. J Dent (Tehran) 2012;9(3):221–229.
  5. Kumar G, Jalaluddin M, Rout P, et al. Emerging trends of herbal care in dentistry. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7(8):1827–1829. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6339.3282
  6. Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, et al. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(2):409–420. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.085
  7. Khatak M, Khatak S, Siddqui AA, et al. Salvadora persica. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4(8):209–214. DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.70920
  8. Kawatra P, Rajagopalan R. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient. Pharmacognosy Res 2015;7(Suppl 1):S1–S6. DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.157990
  9. Thakkar PJ, Badakar CM, Hugar SM, et al. An in vitro comparison of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste with fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate varnish on the inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of enamel. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2017;35(4):312–318. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_308_16
  10. Kelber O, Steinhoff B, Nauert C, et al. Ethanol in herbal medicinal products for children : data from pediatric studies and pharmacovigilance programs. Wien Med Wochenschr 2017;167(7-8):183–188. DOI: 10.1007/s10354-016-0474-x
  11. Aas JA, Griffen AL, Dardis SR, et al. Bacteria of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children and young adults. J Clin Microbiol 2008;46(4):1407–1417. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01410-07
  12. Kirthiga M, Murugan M, Saikia A, et al. Risk factors for early childhood caries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case control and cohort studies. Pediatr Dent 2019;41(2):95–112.
  13. Elshikh M, Ahmed S, Funston S, et al. Resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of biosurfactants. Biotechnol Lett 2016;38(6):1015–1019. DOI: 10.1007/s10529-016-2079-2
  14. Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: a review. J Pharm Anal 2016;6(2):71–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpha.2015.11.005
  15. Safitri FI, Nawangsari D, Febrina D. Overview: application of carbopol 940 in gel. Int Conf Health Med Sci 2021;27:80–84. DOI: 10.2991/ahsr.k.210127.018
  16. Balto H, Al-Sanie I, Al-Beshri S, et al. Effectiveness of Salvadora persica extracts against common oral pathogens. Saudi Dent J 2017;29(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2016.11.001
  17. Giriraju A, Yunus GY. Assessment of antimicrobial potential of 10% ginger extract against Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24(4):397–400. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.118356
  18. Elgamily H, Safy R, Makharita R. Influence of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus: an in-vitro study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019;7(14):2328–2334. DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.653
  19. Patel RV, Thaker VT, Patel VK. Antimicrobial activity of ginger and honey on isolates of extracted carious teeth during orthodontic treatment. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1(1):58–61. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60124-X
  20. Siddeeqh S, Parida A, Jose M, et al. Estimation of antimicrobial properties of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Salvadora persica (miswak) on oral microbial pathogens - an invitro study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(9):FC13–FC16. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/22213.8524
  21. Hasan S, Danishuddin M, Khan AU. Inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale towards Streptococcus mutans virulence and caries development: in vitro and in vivo studies. BMC Microbiol 2015;15(1):1. DOI: 10.1186/s12866-014-0320-5
  22. Bhati N, Jaidka S, Somani R. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Meswak containing dentifrices with fluoridated dentifrice: an in vivo study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015;5(5):394–399. DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.165924
  23. Mahanani ES, Khamis MF, Arief EM, et al. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing tooth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies. Dent J. 2012;45(4):217–220. DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i4.p217-220
  24. Aneja KR, Joshi R, Sharma C. Antimicrobial activity of Dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark) extracts on some dental caries pathogens. J Pharm Res 2009;2(9):1387–1390.
  25. Jeong YJ, Kim HE, Han SJ, et al. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of cinnamon essential oil nanoemulsion against multi-species oral biofilms. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):1–8. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-85375-3
  26. Gupta D, Jain A. Effect of cinnamon extract and chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) on the clinical level of dental plaque and gingival health: a 4-week, triple-blind randomized controlled trial. J Int Acad Periodontol 2015;17(3):91–98.
  27. Saini J, Gupta A, Srivastava A, et al. Agents to maintain tooth integrity: an equilibrium between remineralization and demineralization - a review article. Int J Dent Med Spec 2019;6(1):9–14. DOI: 10.30954/IJDMS.1.2019.4
  28. Bawazeer TM, Alsoufi MS, Katowah D, et al. Effect of aqueous extracts of Salvadora persica “Miswak” on the acid eroded enamel surface at nano-mechanical scale. Mater Sci Appl 2016;7(11):754–771. DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.711059
  29. Chaurasia A, Patil R, Nagar A. Miswak in oral cavity - an update. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2013;3(2):98–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2012.09.004
  30. Nurmalasari DL, Damiyanti M, Eriwati YK. Effect of cinnamon extract solution on human tooth enamel surface roughness. J Phy: Conf Ser 2018;1073:1–3.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.