International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 2 ( February, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of the Effect of Parental Smoking on Gingival Melanin Pigmentation in Children

Ashish Anand, Tinesh Raja, Vabool Thakur, Nidhi Agarwal

Keywords : Gingival pigmentation, Melanin pigmentation, Parental smoking

Citation Information : Anand A, Raja T, Thakur V, Agarwal N. Evaluation of the Effect of Parental Smoking on Gingival Melanin Pigmentation in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2024; 17 (2):173-175.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2773

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 22-04-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Background: The presence of melanin pigmentation of the gingiva has unfavorable effects on esthetics in children. Although there are several local and systemic factors that cause melanin pigmentation, they may also be induced by the stimulation of melanocytes by stimuli present in tobacco smoke. Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the effect of parental smoking on the pigmentation of gingiva in children of Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and methods: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. The study sample was formed by all children between 8 and 14 years of age. Only medically compromised children were excluded from the study. The children were examined for the presence of gingival melanin pigmentation. The status was recorded as present or absent. Determination of the smoking status of family members was done by a self-formulated questionnaire. Results: The presence of pigmentation was seen in 114 (82%) children, whereas pigmentation was absent in 26 (18%) children. Out of the total sample of 140 children, 95 had one or more family members who were smoking. The Chi-squared test performed to form an association between pigmentation and the type of tobacco used revealed high significance (p = 0.00) for the father who smokes bidi. Conclusion: There is a correlation between parental smoking and melanin pigmentation in the gingiva of children, and the correlation is very high when the father is a smoker, especially when he smokes bidi.

PDF Share
  1. Hajifattahi F, Azarshab M, Haghgoo R, et al. Evaluation of the relationship between passive smoking and oral pigmentation in children. J Dent (Tehran) 2010;7(3):119–123.
  2. Sridharan S, Ganiger K, Satyanarayana A, et al. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke from smoker parents on gingival pigmentation in children and young adults: a cross-sectional study. J Periodontol 2011;82(7):956–962. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.100479
  3. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 2004;83:1–1438.
  4. Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, et al. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control 2003;12(4):e4. DOI: 10.1136/tc.12.4.e4
  5. Madani SM, Thomas B. Evaluation of gingival pigmentation in children exposed to and not exposed to environmental tobacco smoking. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2014;5(1):21–25. DOI: 10.4103/0976-433X.129066
  6. Dave BH, Thomas PS, Joshi PB, et al. Prevalence of oral melanin pigmentation among children of 4–14 years of age and its association with passive smoking. J South Asian Assoc Pediatr Dent 2020;3(1):19–22. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10077-3034
  7. Hassona Y, Sawair F, Al-karadsheh O, et al. Prevalence and clinical features of pigmented oral lesions. Int J Dermatol 2016;55(9):1005–1013. DOI: 10.1111/ijd.13133
  8. Hanioka T, Tanaka K, Ojima M, et al. Association of melanin pigmentation in the gingiva of children with parents who smoke. Pediatrics 2005;116(2):e186–e190. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-2628
  9. Boyaci H, Etiler N, Duman C, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in school children: parent report and urine cotinine measures. Pediatr Int 2006;48(4):382–389. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2006.02225.x
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.