International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, and Buffering Capacity of Saliva in Children with Caries, Fluorosis, and Caries with Fluorosis

RE Rajendra, S Srikant, M Kiranmayi, SP Swathi, Lalitha D Dutta, Anil Kumar

Keywords : Buffering capacity, Dental caries, Fluorosis, pH, Salivary flow rate

Citation Information : Rajendra R, Srikant S, Kiranmayi M, Swathi S, Dutta LD, Kumar A. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, and Buffering Capacity of Saliva in Children with Caries, Fluorosis, and Caries with Fluorosis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2023; 16 (4):587-590.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2645

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 11-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Saliva is one of the most important aids in the diagnosis of various oral diseases. Few physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity often vary with the occurrence of dental caries, fluorosis, and other systemic conditions. Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity in healthy children, children with caries, children with fluorosis, and children with both caries + fluorosis. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 144 children aged 7–14 years and were divided into four groups of 36 children each. Group I, 36 healthy children with no caries and fluorosis; group II, 36 children with caries (dmfs ≤ 10); group III, 36 children with fluorosis (moderate to severe); and group IV, 36 children with caries + fluorosis. Unstimulated saliva is collected from all the selected subjects and evaluated for the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. The recorded data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using a paired t-test. Results: The mean salivary flow rate and buffering capacity were found to be highest in group III when compared with all the other groups. The mean pH was greater in group I when compared with groups I, II, and III. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva like pH, buffering capacity, and salivary flow rate alter with caries and fluorosis conditions. Hence, more clinical and laboratory studies are needed to determine the exact relationship between these physicochemical properties of saliva in dental caries and fluorosis.

  1. Kaufman E, Lamster IB. The diagnostic applications of saliva— a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13(2):197–212. DOI: 10.1177/154411130201300209
  2. Sanchiz V, Herreros B, Hernandez V, et al. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2004;96(11):773–783. DOI: 10.4321/s1130-01082004001100005
  3. Edgar WM. Saliva: its secretion, composition and functions. Br Dent J 1992;172(8):305–312. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4807861
  4. Awadia AK, Birkeland JM, Haugejorden O. Caries experience and caries predictors – a study of Tanzanian children consuming drinking water with different fluoride concentrations. Clin Oral Investig 2002;6(2):98–103. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-001-0150-3
  5. Reddy ER, Raju SS, Merum K, et al. Postgraduates’ perspective of pediatric dental chair: a questionnaire study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(3):251–254. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1758
  6. Scully CM. Comparative opsonic activity for Streptococcus mutans in oral fluids, and phagocytic activity of blood, crevicular, and salivary polymorphonuclear leucocytes in rhesus monkeys. Immunology 1980;39(1):101–107.
  7. McDonald RE, Avery DR, Stookey GK. Dental caries in the child and adolescents. In: McDonald RE, Avery DR, Dean JA, editors. Dentistry for child and adolescent. 8th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2005.
  8. AR P, Gulati A, Mehta D, et al. Diagnostic applications of saliva in dentistry. Int J Clinic Ped Dent 2009;2(3):7–13. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1012
  9. Humphrey SP, Williamson RT. A review of saliva: normal composition, flow, and function. J Prosthet Dent 2001;85(2):162–169. DOI: 10.1067/mpr.2001.113778
  10. Dawes C. Physiological factors affecting salivary flow rate, oral sugar clearance, and the sensation of dry mouth in man. J Dent Res 1987;66:648–653. DOI: 10.1177/00220345870660S107
  11. Stookey GK. The effect of saliva on dental caries. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139:11S–17S. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0347
  12. Mandel ID. The diagnostic uses of saliva. J Oral Pathol Med 1990;19(3):119–125. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.1990.tb00809.x
  13. Dodds MW, Johnson DA, Yeh CK. Health benefits of saliva: a review. J Dent 2005;33(3):223–233. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2004.10.009
  14. Hidas A, Noy AF, Birman N, et al. Oral health status, salivary flow rate and quantity in children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Arch Oral Biol 2011;56(10):1137–1141. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.03.018
  15. Nazavesh M, Kumar SK. Measuring salivary flow challenges and opportunities. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139:35S–40S. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0353
  16. Gopinath VK, AR A. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for assessment of dental caries. Arch Orofac Sci 2006;1:57–59.
  17. Tulunoglu O, Demirtas S, Tulunoglu I. Total antioxidant levels of saliva in children related to caries, age and gender. Int J Paed Dent 2006;16(3):186–191. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00733.x
  18. Preethi B P, Pyati A, Dodawad R. Evaluation of flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant levels of saliva in caries free and caries active children – an invivo study. Int J Clinic Ped Dent 2010;25(4):289–294. DOI: 10.1007/s12291-010-0062-6
  19. Prabhakar A, Dodawad R, Os R. Evaluation of flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein, and total antioxidant levels of saliva in caries free and caries active children. Int J Clinic Ped Dent 2009;2(1):9–12. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1034
  20. Dogra S, Bhayya D, Arora R, et al. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of saliva and comparison of its relation with dental caries. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2013;31(4):221–224.
  21. Fiyaz M, Ramesh A, Ramalingam K, et al. Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: a study on 90 subjects. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013;17(4):454–460. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.118316
  22. Neil JG. The physiology and biochemistry of mouth. 4th ed. J Oral Pathol Med; 1978.
  23. Martins-Gomes AM, Nicolau J, de Souza DN, et al. A study of some parameters in stimulated saliva from adolescents with dental fluorosis. J Oral Sci 2001;43(4):225–231. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.43.22
  24. Zhou Q, Bai J, Qin M. Relationship between cariogenic microbe, salivary buffer capacity and early childhood caries. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007;42(10):581–584.
  25. Karshan M. Factors in saliva correlated with dental caries. J Dent Res 1939;18:395–407.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.