Association of Early Childhood Caries with Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits, and Socioeconomic Status among Preschool Children of Kelambakkam
Anisha Suresh, Daya Srinivasan, AR Senthil Eagappan, Shruthi Mahadevan, Harish Sumathi Suresh Babu
At risk of overweight, Body mass index for age, Decayed, missing, or filled teeth, Early childhood caries, Healthy eating index, Overweight, Socioeconomic status
Citation Information :
Suresh A, Srinivasan D, Eagappan AS, Mahadevan S, Babu HS. Association of Early Childhood Caries with Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits, and Socioeconomic Status among Preschool Children of Kelambakkam. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2023; 16 (4):565-571.
Introduction: One of the most prevalent oral diseases affecting preschoolers, early childhood caries (ECC), can significantly lower a child's quality of life. The pain and discomfort that ECC causes will alter the child's eating habits, which will have an impact on both their physical and mental health, as shown by the deviation from the body mass index (BMI). Dental caries and deviation from the normal BMI are both significantly influenced by children's eating habits and socioeconomic status (SES).
Aim: To determine the association of ECC with BMI, dietary habits, and SES among 3–6-year-old preschool children.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 preschool children of 3–6 years of age. The decayed, missing, or filled teeth (deft) index was used to determine the caries status. Measurement of height (m) and weight (kg) was done using a stadiometer and electronic weighing machine. For each child, the BMI (kg/m2) was calculated, and the child's body weight status was assessed using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-based classification. Questionnaires were collected with demographic details, 3 days diet diary, and the SES of parents. The dietary habit and SES were obtained from the healthy eating index-2005 (HEI-2005) score and Modified Kuppuswamy's Scale 2018. All the data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software V 20.0.
Result: The prevalence of ECC was 44.8%. On comparison of mean height, weight, and BMI scores, there was a significant difference in mean weight (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.001) among the two study groups. Children with ECC had a lower HEI-2005 score and belonged to a lower social class compared to caries-free children (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Children with ECC are significantly associated with BMI being overweight, or risk of being overweight; lower grades of SES and lower total score of HEI-2005 with poor diet and diet that needs improvement.
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