International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Association of Early Childhood Caries with Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits, and Socioeconomic Status among Preschool Children of Kelambakkam

Anisha Suresh, Daya Srinivasan, AR Senthil Eagappan, Shruthi Mahadevan, Harish Sumathi Suresh Babu

Keywords : At risk of overweight, Body mass index for age, Decayed, missing, or filled teeth, Early childhood caries, Healthy eating index, Overweight, Socioeconomic status

Citation Information : Suresh A, Srinivasan D, Eagappan AS, Mahadevan S, Babu HS. Association of Early Childhood Caries with Body Mass Index, Dietary Habits, and Socioeconomic Status among Preschool Children of Kelambakkam. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2023; 16 (4):565-571.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2606

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 11-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Introduction: One of the most prevalent oral diseases affecting preschoolers, early childhood caries (ECC), can significantly lower a child's quality of life. The pain and discomfort that ECC causes will alter the child's eating habits, which will have an impact on both their physical and mental health, as shown by the deviation from the body mass index (BMI). Dental caries and deviation from the normal BMI are both significantly influenced by children's eating habits and socioeconomic status (SES). Aim: To determine the association of ECC with BMI, dietary habits, and SES among 3–6-year-old preschool children. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 preschool children of 3–6 years of age. The decayed, missing, or filled teeth (deft) index was used to determine the caries status. Measurement of height (m) and weight (kg) was done using a stadiometer and electronic weighing machine. For each child, the BMI (kg/m2) was calculated, and the child's body weight status was assessed using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-based classification. Questionnaires were collected with demographic details, 3 days diet diary, and the SES of parents. The dietary habit and SES were obtained from the healthy eating index-2005 (HEI-2005) score and Modified Kuppuswamy's Scale 2018. All the data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software V 20.0. Result: The prevalence of ECC was 44.8%. On comparison of mean height, weight, and BMI scores, there was a significant difference in mean weight (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.001) among the two study groups. Children with ECC had a lower HEI-2005 score and belonged to a lower social class compared to caries-free children (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Children with ECC are significantly associated with BMI being overweight, or risk of being overweight; lower grades of SES and lower total score of HEI-2005 with poor diet and diet that needs improvement.

  1. Abbass MMS, Mahmoud SA, El Moshy S, et al. The prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian children and adolescences and its association with age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits and other risk factors. A cross-sectional study. F1000Res 2019;8:8. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.17047.1
  2. Bangash M, Mustafa L, Idrees S, et al. Association of weight, height and body mass index with early childhood caries among primary school children of Peshawar. TPMJ 2019;26(9):1592–1596. DOI: 10.29309/TPMJ/2019.26.09.3863
  3. Tinanoff N, Baez RJ, Diaz Guillory C, et al. Early childhood caries epidemiology, aetiology, risk assessment, societal burden, management, education, and policy: global perspective. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019;29(3):238–248. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12484
  4. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): Classifications, consequences, and preventive strategies. The Reference Manual of Pediatric Dentistry. Chicago, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; 2020:79–81.
  5. Ganesh A, Muthu MS, Mohan A, et al. Prevalence of early childhood caries in India – a systematic review. Indian J Pediatr 2019;86(3):276–286. DOI: 10.1007/s12098-018-2793-y
  6. Kirthiga M, Murugan M, Saikia A, et al. Risk factors for early childhood caries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case control and cohort studies. Pediatr Dent 2019;41(2):95–112.
  7. Bener A, Al Darwish MS, Tewfik I, et al. The impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the risk of dental caries among young children in Qatar. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2013;88(2):67–73. DOI: 10.1097/01.EPX.0000430962.70261.8e
  8. Chopra A, Rao NC, Gupta N, et al. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight. N Am J Med Sci 2015;7(4):151–159. DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.156011
  9. Bagherian A, Sadeghi M. Association between dental caries and age-specific body mass index in preschool children of an Iranian population. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24(1):66–70. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.114956
  10. Aluckal E, Anzil K, Baby M, et al. Association between body mass index and dental caries among anganwadi children of Belgaum City, India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):844–848. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1941
  11. Bhoomika W, Ramakrishna Y, Munshi A. Relationship between severe early childhood caries and body mass index. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;37(3):235–242. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.37.3.u56q1554r67g4g31
  12. Alverez JO, Lewis CA, Saman C, et al. Chronic malnutrition, dental caries, and tooth exfoliation in Peruvian children aged 3-9 years. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 48(2):368–372. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/48.2.368
  13. Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj SV. Early childhood caries and its correlation with maternal education level and socioeconomic status. J Orofac Sci 2014;6(1):53–57. DOI: 10.4103/0975-8844.132582
  14. Gibson S, Williams S. Dental caries in pre–school children: associations with social class, toothbrushing habit and consumption of sugars and sugar–containing foods. Further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. Caries Res 1999;33(2):101–113. DOI: 10.1159/000016503
  15. Peter S. Essentials of Public Health Dentistry. 5th Edition. New Delhi: Arya Medi Publishing House. 2013
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using the BMI-for-age growth charts (2001).
  17. Saleem SM. Modified Kuppuswamy scale updated for year 2018. Indian J Res 2018;7(3):6–7.
  18. Guenther PM, Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM, Reeve BB, Basiotis PP. Development and Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 Technical Report.:41.
  19. Britten P, Marcoe K, Yamini S, et al. Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid food guidance system. J Nutr Educ Behav 2006;38(6 Suppl):S78–92. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneb.2006.08.007
  20. Reddy VP, Reddy VC, Krishna Kumar RVS, et al. Dental caries experience in relation to body mass index and anthropometric measurements of rural children of Nellore district: a cross-sectional study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2019;37(1):12–17. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_52_18
  21. El Tantawi M, Folayan MO, Mehaina M, et al. Prevalence and data availability of early childhood caries in 193 United Nations countries, 2007–2017. Am J Public Health 2018;108(8):1066–1072. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304466
  22. Kurian J, Renganathan S, Gurusamy K, et al. Association between early childhood caries and age and gender specific height, weight and mid upper arm circumference of school children in Puducherry- ”a comparative study”. Biol Eng Med Sci Rep 2016;2(1):13–17. DOI: 10.5530/BEMS.2016.1.3
  23. Davidson K, Schroth RJ, Levi JA, et al. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries. BMC Pediatr 2016;16(1):137. DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0679-6
  24. Marshall TA, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Broffitt BA, et al. Dental caries and childhood obesity: roles of diet and socioeconomic status. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007;35(6):449–458. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00353.x
  25. Vázquez-Nava F, Vázquez-Rodríguez EM, Saldívar-González AH, et al. Association between obesity and dental caries in a group of preschool children in Mexico. J Public Health Dent 2010;70(2):124–130. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2009.00152.x
  26. Sharma A, Hegde AM. Relationship between body mass index, caries experience and dietary preferences in children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2009;34(1):49–52. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.34.1.17364206hqm0477h
  27. Reddy KV, Thakur AS, Moon N, et al. Association between overweight and dental caries among 8-13 year old school children in central India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2018;16(1):22–25. DOI: 10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_91_17
  28. Sharma B, Indushekar KR, Saraf BG, et al. Are dental caries and overweight/obesity interrelated? A cross-sectional study in rural and urban preschool children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2019;37(3):224–231. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_140_18
  29. Zhou N, Zhu H, Chen Y, et al.Dental caries and associated factors in 3 to 5-year-old children in Zhejiang Province, China: an epidemiological survey. BMC Oral Health 2019;19(1):9. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-018-0698-9
  30. Hong L, Levy SM, Warren JJ, et al. Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars: a cohort study. Caries Res 2009;43(5):345–353. DOI: 10.1159/000231571
  31. Alm A, Isaksson H, Fåhraeus C, et al. BMI status in Swedish children and young adults in relation to caries prevalence. Swed Dent J 2011;35(1):1–8.
  32. Sheller B, Churchill SS, Williams BJ, et al. Body mass index of children with severe early childhood caries. Pediatr Dent 2009;31(3):216–221.
  33. Vania A, Parisella V, Capasso F, et al. Early childhood caries underweight or overweight that is the question. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2011;12(4): 231–235.
  34. Oliveira LB, Sheiham A, Bönecker M. Exploring the association of dental caries with social factors and nutritional status in Brazilian preschool children: dental caries and nutritional status. Eur J Oral Sci 2008; 116(1):37–43. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2007.00507.x
  35. Shiny S. Child welfare schemes in Tamil Nadu (1975-1987). Sparkl Int J Multidiscipl Res Studies 2019;2(3):30–36.
  36. Priyadarshini P, Gurunathan D. Role of diet in ECC affected South Indian children assessed by the HEI–2005: a pilot study. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9(2):985–991. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_851_19
  37. Nadine AAZ, Dowidar KML, Wafaa EEA. Assessment of the healthy eating index–2005 as a predictor of early childhood caries. Inter J Paed Dent 2014;25(6):436–443. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12150
  38. Shraddha N, Ashwin J. Prevalence of factors predisposing and association of childhood obesity and dental conditions in Indian urban preschool children. Oral Health Dental Sci 2018;2(3):1–8. DOI: 10.33425/2639-9490.1021
  39. Sridevi T, Pranoti S, Anand S, et al. Factors associated with early childhood caries among 3 to 6 year old children in India: a case control study. J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2018;11(1):45–50. DOI: 10.3233/NPM-181723
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.