Evaluation of Changes in Soft and Hard Tissues of TMJ among Class II Division 2 Patients after Prefunctional Orthodontics and Twin Block Functional Appliance Therapy: A Prospective MRI Study
Bhumika Patel, Manisha Kamal Kukreja, Ambika Gupta, Seema Rohilla
Class II malocclusion, Magnetic resonance imaging, Myofunctional
Citation Information :
Patel B, Kukreja MK, Gupta A, Rohilla S. Evaluation of Changes in Soft and Hard Tissues of TMJ among Class II Division 2 Patients after Prefunctional Orthodontics and Twin Block Functional Appliance Therapy: A Prospective MRI Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (5):479-488.
Introduction: No study has been conducted to explore soft and hard tissue changes brought by functional appliances within the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) after correction of class II division 2 (div 2) malocclusion. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate the mandibular condyle disk-fossa relationship before and after prefunctional and twin block therapy using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
Methodology: This prospective observational study was conducted among 14 males treated with prefunctional appliances for 3–6 months, followed by 6–9 months of fixed mechanotherapy. MRI scan was evaluated for changes in the TMJ at baseline after completion of prefunctional phase and after completion of functional appliance therapy.
Results: At pretreatment, there was a flat contour on the posterosuperior surface of the condyles and a notch-like projection on its anterior surface. After functional appliance therapy, slight convexity appeared on the posterosuperior surface of the condyle and the prominence of the notch was reduced. There was a statistically significant anterior shift of condyles both after prefunctional and twin block treatment. The meniscus on both sides had significantly shifted posteriorly over three stages with respect to the posterior condylar (PC) plane and Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane. The superior joint space had significantly increased with significant linear glenoid fossa displacement between pre and posttreatment stages.
Conclusion: Prefunctional orthodontics induced favorable changes in TMJ soft and hard tissues of patients, but they were not sufficient to place the soft and hard tissues in their normal positions. A functional appliance phase is needed to place the TMJ in their respective normal positions.
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