International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Sports-related Orofacial Injuries in Children: Awareness and Experience among Sports Coaches in Delhi Region of India

Akanksha Tokas, Hind P Bhatia

Keywords : Awareness, Children, Games, Orofacial injuries, Sports coaches, Trauma

Citation Information : Tokas A, Bhatia HP. Sports-related Orofacial Injuries in Children: Awareness and Experience among Sports Coaches in Delhi Region of India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (4):450-454.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2381

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Background: Sports activities are the most important entity of human life for the holistic well-being of an individual. At the same time, it exposes them to a high risk of orofacial injuries. Aim: The study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of orofacial injuries in children among sports coaches. Materials and methods: The sample of this descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of 365 sports coaches across various sports academies in the Delhi region. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted and descriptive analysis was performed. The comparative statistics were computed using the Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among participating coaches, 74.5% of the coaches agreed on the risk of trauma during sports activities that they supervise. The most common type of injury reported by the coaches was ‘cut lip, cheek, and tongue’ (72.6%), followed by ‘broken/avulsed tooth’ (44.9%). The mechanism of injury was mainly due to falls (48.8%). Nearly 65.5% of coaches were not aware of the possibility of replantation of an avulsed tooth. Also, coaches exhibited poor knowledge about an ideal storage media for carrying an avulsed tooth to the dentist. The majority (71%) of coaches agreed that their academies had no tie-ups with nearby dental clinics/hospitals. Conclusion: The sports coaches exhibited inadequate knowledge about the primary management of orofacial injuries and were unaware of the possibility of re-implantation of an avulsed tooth. Clinical significance: This study also highlights the need for educating coaches about emergency management of orofacial injuries and postponement in immediate treatment or inappropriate treatment due to lack of knowledge may lead to the futile outcome of the treated injured teeth.

  1. Pinkham JR, Kohn DW. Epidemiology and prediction of sports-related traumatic injuries. Dent Clin North Am 1991;35(4):609–626. PMID: 1682167.
  2. Bahr R, Holme I. Risk factors for sports injuries—a methodological approach. Br J Sports Med 2003;37(5):384–392. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.37.5.384
  3. Patil RS, Dixit UB. Sports- related dental injuries in children: knowledge, past experiences and emergency preparedness in a group of sports coaches in two cities of India. Int Jour of Oral Health Dent 2018;4(2):98–103. DOI: 10.18231/2395-499x.2018.0022
  4. Padilha ACL, Constante HM, Fronza HP, et al. Orofacial trauma and mouthguard use in Brazilian rugby union players. Dent Traumatol 2021;37(1):53–57. DOI: 10.1111/edt.12592
  5. Micheli LJ, Jenkins MD. Sportswise: an essential guide for young athletes, parents and coaches. Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.; 1990;24–27.
  6. Affairs AC. Using mouth guards to reduce the incidence and severity of sports-related oral injuries. J Am Dent Assoc 2006;137(12): 1712–1720. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0118
  7. Dorney B. Dental screening for rugby players in New South Wales, Australia. FDI World 1998;7:10–13.
  8. Glendor U. Aetiology and risk factors related to traumatic dental injuries–a review of the literature. Dent Traumatol 2009;25(1):19–31. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00694.x
  9. Kerr IL. Mouth guards for the prevention of injuries in contact sports. Sports Med 1986;3(6):415–424. DOI: 10.2165/00007256-198603060-00003
  10. Kalaskar A, Kalaskar R. Knowledge and attitude of the sports teachers in central India towards oro-facial injuries and the use of mouth guard. J Sports Med Doping Stud 2016;6(179):2161–2173. DOI: 10.4172/2161-0673.1000179
  11. Bhadana S, Tayal E, Indushekar KR, et al. Knowledge and awareness of coaches and athletes regarding the sports-related dental injuries and their prevention in Faridabad. Current Med Res Prac 2015;5(6): 253–257. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmrp.2015.11.008
  12. Levin L, Friedlander LD, Geiger SB. Dental and oral trauma and mouthguards use during sport activities in Israel. Dent Traumatol 2003;19(5):237–242.
  13. Chan AW, Wong TK, Cheung GS. Lay knowledge of physical education teachers about the emergency management of dental trauma in Hong Kong. Dent Traumatol 2001;17(2):77–85. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-9657.2001.017002077.x
  14. Kaur M, Gupta K, Goyal R, et al. Knowledge and attitude of school teachers towards tooth avulsion in rural and urban areas. Int. J. Sci. Study 2014;1(4):17–20.
  15. Lieger O, von Arx T. Orofacial/cerebral injuries and the use of mouthguards by professional athletes in Switzerland. Dent Traumatol 2006;22(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00328.x
  16. Ranalli DN. Prevention of sports-related traumatic dental injuries. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44(1):35–51. PMID: 10635467.
  17. Azodo CC, Odai CD, Osazuwa PN, et al. A survey of orofacial injuries among basketball players. Int Dent J 2011;61(1):43–46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1875-595X.2011.00009.x
  18. Heintz WD. Mouth protectors: a progress report. Bureau of dental health education. J Am Dent Assoc 1968;77(3):632–636. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1968.0267
  19. Kvittem B, Hardie NA, Roettger M, et al. Incidence of orofacial injuries in high school sports. J Public Health Dent 1998;58(4):288–293. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.1998.tb03011.x
  20. Berkey DB, Tang JMW, Altman DS, et al. Knowledge and attitudes of Arizona high-school coaches regarding oral-facial injuries and mouthguard use among athletes. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129(10): 1425–1432. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1998.0077
  21. Al-Obaida M. Knowledge and management of traumatic dental injuries in a group of Saudi primary school teachers. Dent Traumatol 2010;26(4):338–341. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2010.00894.x
  22. Toure B, Benoist FL, Faye B, et al. Primary school teachers’ knowledge regarding emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. J Dent 2011;8(3):117–122. PMID: 22457838.
  23. Emerich K, Kaczmarek J. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention. Sports Med 2010;40(5):361–366. DOI: 10.2165/11530750-000000000-00000
  24. Blakytyn C, et al. Avulsed teeth knowledge of school teachers. Int J Dent 2001;11(5):327–332.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.