International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2022 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparative Evaluation of Cariostatic and Remineralizing Potential of Two Commercial Silver Diamine Fluoride Preparations Using Confocal Laser Microscopy and EDX-SEM Spectroscopy: An In Vitro Study

Yogesh J Kale, Sagar D Misal, Mahesh Dadpe, Prasanna T Dahake, Shrikant B Kendre, Mukul Jain

Keywords : Confocal laser scanning microscopy, Dental caries, Fluoride, Silver diamine fluoride, X-ray emission spectroscopy

Citation Information : Kale YJ, Misal SD, Dadpe M, Dahake PT, Kendre SB, Jain M. Comparative Evaluation of Cariostatic and Remineralizing Potential of Two Commercial Silver Diamine Fluoride Preparations Using Confocal Laser Microscopy and EDX-SEM Spectroscopy: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (4):442-449.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2423

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: To investigate the cariostatic and remineralizing effect of two commercial silver diamine fluoride (SDF) preparations on enamel and dentinal caries using a plaque bacterial model. Materials and methods: Thirty-two extracted primary molars were divided into two groups (n = 16) as group I (Advantage Arrest) and group II (e-SDF). Plaque bacterial model was used to induce caries on enamel and dentin. Preoperative evaluation of samples was done using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning electron microscope (EDX-SEM). All samples were treated with test materials and evaluated for postoperative remineralization quantification. Results: EDX revealed that mean preoperative levels (in weight%) of silver (Ag) and fluoride (F) in enamel carious lesions were 0.0 and 0.0, which increased postoperatively to 11.40 and 31.05 for Advantage Arrest and 13.61 and 31.87 for e-SDF, respectively. For dentinal caries, EDX revealed mean preoperative levels (in weight%) of Ag and F were 0.0 and 0.0, which increased to 11.47 and 48.71 for Advantage Arrest and 10.16 and 47.82 for e-SDF, respectively postoperatively. Both groups showed evident demineralization with exposed collagen under SEM. The mean values of enamel lesion depth for the group I and II were 38.64 and 39.30 µm, that reduced to 28.02 and 28.70 µm, while for dentinal caries, the mean depth from 38.05 to 38.29 µm that reduced significantly to 28.96 and 30.10 µm, respectively (p < 0.001). Caries depth declined significantly after the application of both Advantage Arrest and e-SDF (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Advantage arrest and e-SDF show similar cariostatic and remineralization potential for dental caries. The plaque bacterial model used in this study is an efficient method to induce artificial carious lesions in teeth.


PDF Share
  1. Momoi Y, Hayashi M, Fujitani M, et al. Clinical guidelines for treating caries in adults following a minimal intervention policy–evidence and consensus based report. J Dent 2012;40(2):95–105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2011.10.011
  2. Rajakumari TN, Thiruvenkadam G, Vinola D, et al. Silver diamine fluoride – a review. J Academy Dent Educ 2020;6(1 & 2):5–10.
  3. Caglar E. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for caries reduction in primary teeth and first permanent molars of schoolchildren: 36-month clinical trial. J Dent Res 2007;86(1):95. DOI: 10.1177/154405910708600116
  4. Chu CH, Lo EC. Promoting caries arrest in children with silver diamine fluoride: a review. Oral Health Prev Dent 2008;6(4):315–321.
  5. Chu CH, Mei L, Seneviratne CJ, et al. Effects of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesions induced by Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii biofilms. Int J Paediatr Dent 2012;22(1):2–10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01149.x
  6. Mei ML, Li QL, Chu CH, et al. The inhibitory effects of silver diamine fluoride at different concentrations on matrix metalloproteinases. Dent Mater 2012;28(8):903–908. DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2012.04.011
  7. Liu BY, Lo ECM, Li CMT. Effect of silver and fluoride ions on enamel demineralization: a quantitative study using microcomputed tomography. Aust Dent J 2012;57(1):65–70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01641.x
  8. Chu CH, Lo ECM. Microhardness of dentine in primary teeth after topical fluoride applications. J Dent 2008;36(6):387–391. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2008.02.013
  9. Momoi Y, Shimizu A, Hayashi M, et al. Root caries management: evidence and consensus based report. Curr Oral Health Rep 2016;3:117–123. DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0084-0
  10. Mei ML, Ito L, Cao Y, et al. Inhibitory effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine demineralisation and collagen degradation. J Dent 2013;41(9):809–817. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.06.009
  11. Thanatvarakorn O, Islam MS, Nakashima S, et al. Effects of zinc fluoride on inhibiting dentin demineralization and collagen degradation in vitro: a comparison of various topical fluoride agents. Dent Mater J 2016;35(5):769–775. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2015-388
  12. Savas S, Kucukyılmaz E, Celik EU, et al. Effects of different antibacterial agents on enamel in a biofilm caries model. J Oral Sci 2015;57(4):367–372. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.57.367
  13. Arnold WH, Gaengler P, Sabov K, et al. Induction and 3D reconstruction of caries-like lesions in an experimental dental plaque biofilm model. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28(8):748–754.
  14. Retief LD, O'Brien JA, Smith LA, et al. In vitro investigation and evaluation of dentin bonding agents. Am J Dent 1988;1(Special Issue):176–183.
  15. Bullard RH, Leinfeider KF, Russell CM. Effect of coefficient thermal expansion on microleakage. J Am Dent Assoc 1988;116(1):871–874. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1988.0291
  16. Fejerskov O. Concepts of dental caries and their consequences for understanding the disease. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997;25(1):5–12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1997.tb00894.x
  17. Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ. Dental plaque as a biofilm. J Ind Microbiol 1995;15(3):169–175. DOI: 10.1007/BF01569822
  18. Silverstone LM. The surface zone in caries and in caries-like lesions produced in vitro. Br Dent J 1968;125(4):145–157.
  19. Arnold WH, Gaengler P, Kalkutschke L. Three-dimensional reconstruction of approximal subsurface caries lesions in deciduous molars. Clin Oral Investig 1998;2(4):174–179. DOI: 10.1007/s007840050066
  20. Buchalla W. Histological and clinical appearance of caries. Caries management–Science and clinical practice. Stuttgart. 2013:39–63.
  21. West NX, Joiner A. Enamel mineral loss. J Dent 2014;42(1):S2–S11. DOI: 10.1016/S0300-5712(14)50002-4
  22. Mei ML, Ito L, Cao Y, et al. An ex vivo study of arrested primary teeth caries with silver diamine fluoride therapy. J Dent 2014;42(4):395–402. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.12.007
  23. Wahengbam P, Tikku AP, Lee WB. Role of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) in conservative dentistry: a systematic review. J Conserv Dent 2011;14(2):98–102. DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.82598
  24. Cao Y, Mei ML, Xu J, et al. Biomimetic mineralisation of phosphorylated dentine by CPP-ACP. J Dent 2013;41(9):818–825. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.06.008
  25. Mei ML, Ito L, Cao Y, et al. The inhibitory effects of silver diamine fluorides on cysteine cathepsins. J Dent 2014;42(3):329–335. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.11.018
  26. Mei ML, Lo ECM, Chu CH. Arresting dentine caries with silver diamine fluoride: what's behind it?. J Dent Res 2018;97(7):751–758. DOI: 10.1177/0022034518774783
  27. Zhao IS, Gao SS, Hiraishi N, et al. Mechanisms of silver diamine fluoride on arresting caries: a literature review. Int Dent J 2018;68(2):67–76. DOI: 10.1111/idj.12320
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.