International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2022 ) > List of Articles

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Topical Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry: An Update

Keywords : Children, Efficacy, Surface anesthesia, Topical anesthesia

Citation Information : Topical Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry: An Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (2):240-245.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2355

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Topical anesthetics are very important tools for improving comfort in any dental procedure in children. different methods, techniques of achieving topical anesthesia are reported in the literature. The present narrative review focuses on explaining different types of topical anesthesia with a special focus on pediatric dentistry.


PDF Share
  1. Dasarraju RK, Svsg N. Comparative efficacy of three topical anesthetics on 7–11–year–old children: a randomized clinical study. J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2020;20(1):29–37. DOI: 10.17245/jdapm.2020.20.1.29
  2. Boyce RA, Kirpalani T, Mohan N. Updates of topical and local anesthesia agents. Dent Clin North Am 2016;60(2):445–471. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2015.12.001
  3. Lee H-S. Recent advances in topical anesthesia. J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2016;16(4):237–244. DOI: 10.17245/jdapm.2016.16.4.237
  4. Bhalla J, Meechan JG, Lawrence HP, et al. Effect of time on clinical efficacy of topical anesthesia. Anesth Prog 2009;56(2):36–41. DOI: 10.2344/0003-3006-56.2.36
  5. Gupte T, Modi UA, Gupte S, et al. Determination of onset of action and efficacy of topical lignocaine anesthesia in children: an In vivo study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;12(3):178–181. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1615
  6. Stern I, Giddon DB. Topical anesthesia for periodontal procedures. Anesth Prog 1975;22(4):105–108.
  7. Hameed NN, Sargod SS, Bhat SS, et al. Effectiveness of precooling the injection site using tetrafluorethane on pain perception in children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2018;36(3):296–300. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_222_17
  8. Ghaderi F, Banakar S, Rostami S. Effect of pre-cooling injection site on pain perception in pediatric dentistry: “a randomized clinical trial”. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2013;10(6):790–794.
  9. Aminabadi NA, Farahani RM. The effect of pre-cooling the injection site on pediatric pain perception during the administration of local anesthesia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2009;10(3):43–50. DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-10-3-43
  10. Lathwal G, Pandit IK, Gugnani N, et al. Efficacy of different precooling agents and topical anesthetics on the pain perception during intraoral injection: a comparative clinical study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):119–122. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1296
  11. Hassanein PH, Khalil A, Talaat DM. Pain assessment during mandibular nerve block injection with the aid of dental vibe tool in pediatric dental patients: a randomized clinical trial. Quintessence Int 2020;51(4):310–317. DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.a44145
  12. Bilsin E, Gungormus Z, Gungormus M. The erfficacy of external cooling and vibration on decreasing the pain of local anesthesia injections during dental treatment in children: a randomized controlled study. J Perianesth Nurs 2020;35(1):44–47. DOI: 10.1016/j.jopan.2019.06.007
  13. Hegde KM, R N, Srinivasan I, et al. Effect of vibration during local anesthesia administration on pain, anxiety, and behavior of pediatric patients aged 6–11 years: a crossover split–mouth study. J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2019;19(3):143–149. DOI: 10.17245/jdapm.2019.19.3.143
  14. Tandon S, Kalia G, Sharma M, et al. Comparative evaluation of mucosal vibrator with topical anesthetic gel to reduce pain during administration of local anesthesia in pediatric patients: an in vivo study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(4):261–265. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1523
  15. Tung J, Carillo C, Udin R, et al. Clinical performance of the dentalvibe(R) injection system on pain perception during local anesthesia in children. J Dent Child (Chic) 2018;85(2):51- 57.
  16. Raslan N, Masri R. A randomized clinical trial to compare pain levels during three types of oral anesthetic injections and the effect of dentalvibe((R)) on injection pain in children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2018;28:102–110. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12313
  17. Bagherian A, Sheikhfathollahi M. Children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: a randomized controlled trial. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2016;13(3):272–277. DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.182189
  18. Shilpapriya M, Jayanthi M, Reddy VN, et al. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33(3):173–176. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.160343
  19. Elbay M, Sermet Elbay U, Yildirim S, et al. Comparison of injection pain caused by the dentalVibe injection system versus a traditional syringe for inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia in paediatric patients. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2015;16(4):123–128. DOI: 10.5395/rde.2019.44.e40
  20. Ching D, Finkelman M, Loo CY. Effect of the dentalVibe injection system on pain during local anesthesia injections in adolescent patients. Pediatr Dent 2014;36(1):51–55.
  21. Aminabadi NA, Farahani RM, Balayi Gajan E. The efficacy of distraction and counterstimulation in the reduction of pain reaction to intraoral injection by pediatric patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9(6):33–40. DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-9-6-33
  22. Johnson J, Primosch RE. Influence of site preparation methods on the pain reported during palatal infiltration using the wand local anesthetic system. Am J Dent 2003;16:165–169.
  23. Jayasuriya NSS, Weerapperuma ID, Amarasinghe M. The use of an iced cotton bud as an effective pre-cooling method for palatal anaesthesia: a technical note. Singapore Dent J 2017;38:17–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.sdj.2017.07.001
  24. Bansal N, Saha S, Jaiswal J, et al. Pain elimination during injection with newer electronic devices: a comparative evaluation in children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):71–76. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1240
  25. Baghdadi ZD. Evaluation of audio analgesia for restorative care in children treated using electronic dental anesthesia. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2000;25(1):9–12.
  26. Munshi AK, Hegde AM, Girdhar D. Clinical evaluation of electronic dental anesthesia for various procedures in pediatric dentistry. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2000;24(3):199–204.
  27. Baghdadi ZD. A comparison of parenteral and electronic dental anesthesia during operative procedures in children. Gen Dent 2000;48(2):150–156.
  28. Baghdadi ZD. Evaluation of electronic dental anesthesia in children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;88(4):418–423. DOI: 10.1016/s1079-2104(99)70055-7
  29. Cho SY, Drummond BK, Anderson MH, et al. Effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia for restorative care in children. Pediatr Dent 1998;20(2):105–111.
  30. Oztas N, Olmez A, Yel B. Clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation for pain control during tooth preparation. Quintessence Int 1997;28:603–608.
  31. Modaresi A, Lindsay SJ, Gould A, et al. A partial double-blind, placebo-controlled study of electronic dental anaesthesia in children. Int J Paediatr Dent 1996;6(4):245–251. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263x.1996.tb00253.x
  32. Jones CM, Blinkhorn AS. Dental electro-anaesthesia in children: a pilot study. Int J Paediatr Dent 1996;6(2):107–110. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263x.1996.tb00221.x
  33. Croll TP. Electronic anesthesia for primary molar restoration in a 27-month-old child: a case report. Quintessence int 1995;26(8):549–551.
  34. Copeland JS. Dental electronic anesthesia as an adjunct to local anesthesia. Northwest Dent 1995;74(3):25.
  35. Croll TP, Simonsen RJ. Dental electronic anesthesia for children: technique and report of 45 cases. ASDC J Dent Child 1994;61(2):97–104.
  36. teDuits E, Goepferd S, Donly K, et al. The effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia in children. Pediatr Dent 1993;15(3):191–196.
  37. Jedrychowski JR, Duperon DF. Effectiveness and acceptance of electronic dental anesthesia by pediatric patients. ASDC J Dent Child 1993;60(3):186–192.
  38. Esposito CJ, Shay JS, Morgan B. Electronic dental anesthesia: a pilot study. Quintessence Int 1993;24(3):167–170.
  39. Gangarosa Sr LP. Iontophoresis for surface local anesthesia. J Am Dent Assoc 1974;88(1):125–128. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1974.0038
  40. Tharian EB, Tandon S. Iontophoresis. A novel drug administration for extraction of deciduous teeth. A clinical evaluation. Indian J Dent Res 1994;5(3):97–100.
  41. Deepika A, Rao CR, Vinay C, et al. Effectiveness of two flavored topical anesthetic agents in reducing injection pain in children: a comparative study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;37(1):15–18. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.37.1.h4jl152t334j3802
  42. Kreider KA, Stratmann RG, Milano M, et al. Reducing children's injection pain: lidocaine patches versus topical benzocaine gel. Pediatr Dent 2001;23(1):19–23.
  43. Primosch RE, Rolland-Asensi G. Comparison of topical EMLA 5% oral adhesive to benzocaine 20% on the pain experienced during palatal anesthetic infiltration in children. Pediatr Dent 2001;23(1):11–14.
  44. Meechan JG, Winter RA. A comparison of topical anaesthesia and electronic nerve stimulation for reducing the pain of intra-oral injections. Br Dent J 1996;181(9):333–335. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4809252
  45. Shehab LA, Basheer B, Baroudi K. Effectiveness of lidocaine denti patch(R) system versus lidocaine gel as topical anesthetic agent in children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33:285–290. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.165664
  46. Sharma A, Suprabha BS, Shenoy R, et al. Efficacy of lignocaine in gel and spray form during buccal infiltration anesthesia in children: a randomized clinical trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):750–754. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1611
  47. Nayak R, Sudha P. Evaluation of three topical anaesthetic agents against pain: a clinical study. Indian J Dent Res 2006;17(4):155–160. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.29871
  48. Paschos E, Huth KC, Benz C, et al. Efficacy of intraoral topical anesthetics in children. J Dent 2006;34(6):398–404. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2005.09.002
  49. Nair M, Gurunathan D. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of two anesthetic gels (2% lignocaine and 20% benzocaine) in reducing pain during administration of local anesthesia - a randomized controlled trial. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2019;35(1):65–69. DOI: 10.4103/joacp.JOACP_73_18
  50. Bong CL, Hilliard J, Seefelder C. Severe methemoglobinemia from topical benzocaine 7.5% (baby orajel) use for teething pain in a toddler. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2009;48(2):209–211. DOI: 10.1177/0009922808324491
  51. Balicer RD, Kitai E. Methemoglobinemia caused by topical teething preparation: a case report. Scientific World Journal 2004;4:517–520. DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2004.109
  52. Markman L. Teething: facts and fiction. Pediatr Rev 2009;30(8): e59–e64. DOI: 10.1542/pir.30-8-e59
  53. Sood S, Sood M. Teething: myths and facts. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2010;35(1):9–13 DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.35.1.u146773636772101
  54. Coudert AE, Ostertag A, Baaroun V, et al. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topical 2 % lidocaine for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal pain in children. Clin Oral Investig 2014;18(4):1189–1194. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-013-1063-7
  55. Lim S, Julliard K. Evaluating the efficacy of EMLA topical anesthetic in sealant placement with rubber dam. Pediatr dent 2004;26(6): 497–500.
  56. Yoon RK, Chussid S. Topical anesthesia for rubber dam clamp placement in sealant placement: comparison of lidocaine/prilocaine gel and benzocaine. Pediatr dent 2009;31(5):377–381.
  57. Stecker SS, Swift JQ, Hodges JS, at al. Should a mucoadhesive patch (DentiPatch) be used for gingival anesthesia in children? Anesth Prog 2002;49(1):3–8.
  58. Munshi AK, Hegde AM, Latha R. Use of EMLA: is it an injection free alternative? J Clin Pediatr Dent 2001;25(3):215–219. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.25.3.hn62713500418728
  59. Taware CP, Mazumdar S, Pendharkar M, et al. A bioadhesive delivery system as an alternative to infiltration anesthesia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997;84(6):609–615. DOI: 10.1016/s1079-2104(97)90360-7
  60. McNulty RJ, Handley TP, Devlin MF. Reducing the need for general anaesthesia in children: use of LAT gel in treating facial lacerations. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013;51:e130–e131. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2012.04.259
  61. Smith GA, Strausbaugh SD, Harbeck-Weber C, et al. Tetracaine-lidocaine-phenylephrine topical anesthesia compared with lidocaine infiltration during repair of mucous membrane lacerations in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1998;37(7):405–412. DOI: 10.1177/000992289803700702
  62. DeNunzio M. Topical anesthetic as an adjunct to local anesthesia during pulpectomies. J Endod 1998;24(3):202–203. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(98)80185-4
  63. Vickers ER, Punnia-Moorthy A. Pulpal anesthesia from an application of a eutectic topical anesthetic. Quintessence Int 1993;24(8):547–551.
  64. Kravitz ND, Kusnoto B. Placement of mini-implants with topical anesthetic. J Clin Orthod 2006;40(10):602–604.
  65. Kluemper GT, Hiser DG, Rayens MK, et al. Efficacy of a wax containing benzocaine in the relief of oral mucosal pain caused by orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2002;122(4):359–365. DOI: 10.1067/mod.2002.126405
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.