Even in the 21st century, dental caries are considered a global burden, severely upsetting the health and quality of life of those affected. Apart from the fluoride use and regular oral hygiene, one of the most important prophylactic approaches against caries occurrence is the sealing of pits and fissures. Pit and fissure sealants are a core part of the preventive program in pediatric dentistry and should be considered as a key component of minimally invasive dentistry due to their broad patient benefit. The primary sealant efficacy measure is retention. If the sealant remains bonded to the tooth and offers a good seal, then it is right to expect the occurrence of caries to be diminished. Traditional pit and fissure sealants are hydrophobic. These materials are based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and other monomers requiring a dry field which is hard to achieve in an oral environment, especially for children. This review highlights the literature on the effectiveness of moisture tolerant pit and fissure sealant, which are the hydrophilic pit and fissure sealant, and a general overview of the pit and fissure sealant materials used for sealing occlusal surfaces, its classification as well as indications and possible side effects.
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