International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2022 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effect of Fluoride-based Varnishes with Added Calcium and Phosphate on Microhardness of Esthetic Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Study

Raksha S Shetty, K Sundeep Hegde, Vidya S Bhat

Keywords : CPP–ACP, Glass ionomer cements, Microhardness, Nanocomposites, Varnishes

Citation Information : Shetty RS, Hegde KS, Bhat VS. Effect of Fluoride-based Varnishes with Added Calcium and Phosphate on Microhardness of Esthetic Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (2):187-193.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2367

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Background and objectives: Fluoride varnishes are being used to prevent caries in children. The high concentration of fluoride in varnishes apart from caries prevention may cause changes in surface properties of esthetic restorations. The study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of four commercially available fluoride varnishes with added calcium and phosphate on microhardness of three esthetic materials namely conventional GIC (Fuji II), high viscosity GIC (Fuji IX), and nanocomposite (Filtek Z350). Materials and methods: A total of 28 pellets were made of each material and stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 48 hours. The microhardness of the pellets was tested which served as a baseline. These were then randomly divided into four subgroups. In one subgroup Profluorid varnish was applied, second subgroup MI varnish was applied, third subgroup Embrace varnish was applied, and in the fourth subgroup Enamel Pro varnish was applied as per protocol. Thereafter, all the pellets were subjected to microhardness testing (load = 100 g for 15 seconds). Results: The fluoride varnishes increased the microhardness of conventional GIC (Fuji II) whereas in case of high viscosity GIC (Fuji IX) the application of varnishes reduced the microhardness. In case of nanocomposite restorative material (Filtek Z350) only Profluorid varnish increased its microhardness. Conclusion: Fluoride varnish and calcium-phosphate containing fluoride varnish effect on the microhardness of restorative material is material dependent. So, the choice of fluoride varnish with or without proprietary additives depends on the nature and composition of the restorative material.


PDF Share
  1. Tuloglu N, Bayrak S, Tunc ES, et al. Effect of fluoride varnish with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the acid resistance of the primary enamel. BMC Oral Health 2016;16(1):103. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-016-0299-4
  2. Mujeeb A, Mansuri S, Hussain SA, et al. In vitro evaluation of topical fluoride pH and their effect on surface hardness of composite resin-based restorative materials. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(2):190–194. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1513
  3. Debner T, Warren DP, Powers JM. Effects of fluoride varnish on color of esthetic restorative material. J Esthet Restor Dent 2000;12(3):160. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2000.tb00215.x
  4. Gill NC, Pathak A. Comparative evaluation of the effect of topical fluorides on the microhardness of various restorative materials: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2010;28(3):193–199. DOI: 0.4103/0970-4388.73784
  5. Awliya WY, Al-Alwani DJ, Gashmer ES, et al. The effect of commonly used types of coffee on surface microhardness and color stability of resin-based composite restorations. Saudi Dent J 2010;22(4):177–181. DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2010.07.008
  6. Okada K, Tosaki S, Hirota K, et al. Surface hardness change of restorative filling materials stored in saliva. Dent Mater 2001;17(1):34–39. DOI: 10.1016/s0109-5641(00)00053-1
  7. Subramaniam P, Telegeti S. Effect of different concentrations of fluoride varnish on enamel surface microhardness: an in vitro randomized controlled study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14(3):344. DOI: 10.4103/2319-5932.187172
  8. Ambarkova V, Goršeta K, Jankolovska M, et al. Effect of the fluoride gels and varnishes comparing to CPP-ACP complex on human enamel demineralization/remineralization. Acta Stomatol Croat 2013;47(2):99–110. DOI: 10.15644/asc47/2/1
  9. Mohd Said SN, Ekambaram M, Yiu CK. Effect of different fluoride varnishes on remineralization of artificial enamel carious lesions. Int J Paediatr Dent 2017;27(3):163–173. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12243
  10. Cross KJ, Huq NL, Palamara JE, et al. Physicochemical characterization of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes. J Biol Chem 2005;280(15):15362–15369. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M413504200
  11. Simmons JO, Meyers EJ, Lien W, et al. Effect of surface treatments on the mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity of desiccated glass ionomers. Dent Mater 2016;32(11):1343–1351. DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2016.08.214
  12. Khoroushi M, Kachuie M. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients. Contemp Clin Dent 2017;8(1):11. DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_216_17
  13. Mishra P, Fareed N, Battur H, et al. Role of fluoride varnish in preventing early childhood caries: a systematic review. Dental Res J 2017;14(3):169. DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.208766
  14. Frencken JE, Van't Hof MA, Van Amerongen WE, et al. Effectiveness of single-surface ART restorations in the permanent dentition: a meta-analysis. J Dent Res 2004;83(2):120–123. DOI: 10.1177/154405910408300207
  15. Milburn JL, Henrichs LE, Banfield RL, et al. Substantive fluoride release from a new fluoride varnish containing CXP™. Dentistry 2015;5(12):1–6. DOI: 10.4172/2161-1122.1000350
  16. Salama F, Mousa S, AlOmran M. Effects of anticaries agents on microhardness of different restorative materials. Int J Dent Med Sci Res 2018;2(1):7–17
  17. Shen P, Bagheri R, Walker GD, et al. Effect of calcium phosphate addition to fluoride containing dental varnishes on enamel demineralization. Aust Dent J 2016;61(3):357–365. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12385
  18. Bayrak S, Tuloglu N, Bicer H, et al. Effect of fluoride varnish containing CPP-ACP on preventing enamel erosion. Scanning 2017;2017:1897825. DOI: 10.1155/2017/1897825
  19. Babu KG, Subramaniam P, Teleti S. Remineralization potential of varnish containing casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride and varnish containing only fluoride: a comparative study. Saudi J Oral Sci 2018;5(1):35. DOI: 10.4103/sjos.SJOralSci_44_17
  20. Cochrane NJ, Shen P, Yuan Y, et al. Ion release from calcium and fluoride containing dental varnishes. Aust Dent J 2014;59(1):100–105. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12144
  21. Msallam FA, Grawish ME, Hafez AM, et al. Decalcification prevention around orthodontic brackets bonded to bleached enamel using different topical agents. Prog Orthod 2017;18(1):15. DOI: 10.1186/s40510-017-0170-4
  22. Moshaverinia M, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Sameni A, et al. Effects of incorporation of nano-fluorapatite particles on microhardness, fluoride releasing properties, and biocompatibility of a conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Dent Mater J 2016;35(5):817–821. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2015-437
  23. Fatima N, Nayab T, Farooqui WA. Effect of fluoride agents on the color stability of esthetic restorative materials. Tanta Dent J 2016;13(2):63. DOI: 10.4103/1687-8574.188911
  24. Xu HH, Weir MD, Sun L, et al. Strong nanocomposites with Ca, PO4, and F release for caries inhibition. J Dent Res 2010;89(1):19–28. DOI: 10.1177/0022034509351969
  25. Yeh ST, Wang HT, Liao HY, et al. The roughness, microhardness, and surface analysis of nanocomposites after application of topical fluoride gels. Dent Mater 2011;27(2):187–196. DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2010.10.013
  26. Kula K, Nelson S, Thompson V. In vitro effect of APF gel on three composite resins. J Dent Res 1983;62(7):846–849. DOI: 10.1177/00220345830620071901
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.