International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Comparative Evaluation of an Audiovisual Distraction Aid and Print Format Entertainment on Pain Perception, Anxiety and Children Behavior in the Dental Setting

Nanika Mahajan, Bhanu Kotwal, Ankita Gupta, Bhavana Kaul, Rakesh K Gupta, Sambhav Kaul

Keywords : Audio-visual, Behavior assessment, Dental anxiety

Citation Information : Mahajan N, Kotwal B, Gupta A, Kaul B, Gupta RK, Kaul S. Comparative Evaluation of an Audiovisual Distraction Aid and Print Format Entertainment on Pain Perception, Anxiety and Children Behavior in the Dental Setting. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2022; 15 (1):54-59.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2329

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using audio-visual entertainment aids and print format entertainment aid (comics) on children's pain and anxiety. Materials and methods: This randomized parallel trial was performed on 60 patients aged 5 and 9 years, who required pulp therapy. The study consisted of three study groups, Group 1- treatment along with PlayStation, Group-2 treatment along with comic group, and Group 3- control group (treatment without any entertainment). Results: Mean age was 7.1 ± 0.29 years. There was a significant improvement in the patients who were given treatment along with PlayStation. (p < 0.001) Statistically significant differences were found (p < 0.001) in terms of parental perception of the patient's anxiety during the visits. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that use of distraction method techniques is effective in reducing situational anxiety and parental perception of pain distress in younger children. Clinical relevance: Entertainment while treating pediatric patient can help in improving the comfort level of patient in a clinical setup.

  1. Arslan S, Erta E, Ülker M. The relationship between dental fear and sociodemographic variables M. Erciyes Med J 2011;33(4): 295–300.
  2. Bankole O, Aderinokun GA, Denloye OO, et al. Maternal and child's anxiety – effect on child's behaviour at dental appointments and treatments. Afr J Med Med Sci 2002;31(4):349–352.
  3. Folayan MO, Fatusi A. Effect of psychological management techniques on specific item score change during the management of dental fear in children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005;29(4):335–340. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.29.4.d431t7024u4037u6
  4. Agras S, Sylvester D, Oliveau D. The epidemiology of common fears and phobia. Compr Psychiatry 1969;10(2):151–156. DOI: 10.1016/0010-440x(69)90022-4
  5. Jaakkola S, Rautava P, Alanen P, et al. Dental fear: one single clinical question for measurement. Open Dent J 2009;3:161–166. DOI: 10.2174/1874210600903010161
  6. Berggren U, Hakeberg M, Carlsson SG. No differences could be demonstrated between relaxation therapy and cognitive therapy for dental fear. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2001;1(2):117–118. DOI: 10.1016/S1532-3382(01)70020-6
  7. Barber T. Pediatric Dentistry. St Louis: Mosby; 1982.
  8. Pinkham JR. Behaviour management of children in the dental office. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44(3):471–486.
  9. Lai HL, Hwang MJ, Chen CJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of music on state anxiety and physiological indices in patients undergoing root canal treatment. J Clin Nurs 2008;17(19):2654–2660. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02350.x
  10. Akmal NLHBI, M D. Effects of audio visual aids on convincing patients for dental treatment –a review. Int J Indian Psychol 2019;7(2):224–233. DOI: 10.25215/0702.027
  11. Baghdadi ZD. Evaluation of audio analgesia for restorative care in children treated using electronic dental anesthesia. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2000;1(1):9–12.
  12. Sullivan C, Schneider PE, Musselman RJ, et al. The effect of virtual reality during dental treatment on child anxiety and behavior. ASDC J Dent Child 2000;67(3):193–196, 160-161.
  13. Stark LJ, Allen KD, Hurst M, et al. Distraction: its utilization and efficacy with children undergoing dental treatment. J Appl Behav Anal 1989;22(3):297–307. DOI: 10.1901/jaba.1989.22-297
  14. Ingersoll BD, Nash DA, Blount RL, et al. Distraction and contingent reinforcement with pediatric dental patients. ASDC J Dent Child 1984;51(3):203–207.
  15. Venham LL, Goldstein M, Gaulin-Kremer E, et al. Effectiveness of a distraction technique in managing young dental patients. Pediatr Dent 1981;3(1):7–11.
  16. Ram D, Shapira J, Holan G, et al. Audiovisual video eyeglass distraction during dental treatment in children. Quintessence Int 2010;41(8):673–679.
  17. Prabhakar AR, Marwah N, Raju OS. A comparison between audio and audio visual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25(4):177–182. DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.37014
  18. El-Sharkawi HF, El-Housseiny AA, Aly AM. Effectiveness of new distraction technique on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia for children. Pediatr Dent 2012;34(2):142–145.
  19. Hoge MA, Howard MR, Wallace DP, et al. Use of video eye wear to manage distress in children during restorative dental treatment. Pediatr Dent 2012;34(5):378–382.
  20. Niharika P, Reddy NV, Srujana P, et al. Effects of distraction using virtual reality technology on pain perception and anxiety levels in chidren during pulp therapy of primary molars. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2018;36(4):364–369. DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_1158_17
  21. Garra G, Singer AJ, Domingo A, et al. The Wong-Baker pain FACES scale measures pain, not fear. Jr Pediatr Emerg Care 2013;29(1):17–20. DOI: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31827b2299
  22. Corah NL, Gale EN, Illig SJ. Assessment of dental anxiety scale. J Am Dent Assoc 1978;97(5):816–819. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1978.0394
  23. Venham LL, Gaulin-Kremer E. A self-report measure of situational anxiety for young children. Pediatr Dent 1979;1(2):91–96.
  24. Kakkar M, Wahi A, Thakkar R, et al. Prevalence of dental anxiety in 10–14 years old children and its implications. J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2016;16(3):199–202 DOI: 10.17245/jdapm.2016.16.3.199
  25. Inan G, Inal S. The impact of 3 different distraction techniques on the pain and anxiety levels of children during venipuncture a clinical trial. Clin J Pain 2019;35(2):140–147. DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000666
  26. Mishra R, Singh AK, Singh P. A comparison of audio and audio-visual distraction techniques in managing dental anxiety in pediatric patients: a clinical study. Int J Med Res Prof 2019;5(3);88–91. DOI: 10.21276/ijmrp.2019.5.3.019
  27. Al-Khotani A, Bello LA, Christidis N. Effects of audio-visual distraction on children's behaviour during dental treatment: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Acta Odontol Scand 2016;74(6):494–501. DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2016.1206211
  28. Patel A, Schieble T, Davidson M, et al. Distraction with a hand-held video game reduces pediatric preoperative anxiety. Paediatr Anaesth 2006;16(10):1019–1027. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.01914.x
  29. Sinha M, Christopher NC, Fenn R, et al. Evaluation of nonpharmacologic methods of pain and anxiety management for laceration repair in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics 2006;117(4);1162–1168. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-1100
  30. Aitken JC, Wilson S, Coury D, et al. The effect of music distraction on pain, anxiety and behaviour in pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent 2002;2(2):114–118.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.