International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE S1 ( Special Issue (Pediatr Orthodont), 2021 ) > List of Articles


Arch Measurements, Bigonial Width, Dental Caries, and Their Effect on Occurrence of Mandibular Incisors Crowding in Early Mixed Dentition Period

Saumya Paul, Megha Chawla, Siji E Saji

Keywords : Available space, Mandibular incisor crowding, Mixed dentition, Total incisor width

Citation Information :

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-2018

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 27-12-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: To assess the effect of various arch parameters, bigonial angle, and caries occurrence on mandibular incisors crowding during the early mixed dentition period. Materials and methods: Sixty children (mean age of 7.5 years) with mandibular anterior incisors crowding and class I molar relationship in early mixed dentition were selected. Bigonial width (BW) and caries occurrence were recorded during patient examination. The study casts were prepared divided into a normal group (NG) and crowded group (CG). Different vertical and transverse arch perimeters along with space available for the permanent mandibular incisors were measured manually. Statistical analysis was done to establish the association of all these variables with two crowding groups. Results: The total incisor width or the tooth material was significantly more, and all arch parameters were less in measurements in CG than NG. The available space, BW, and caries occurrence did not differ significantly between NG and CG. Conclusion: The amount of tooth material and individual variations in arch parameters significantly contribute to mandibular anterior crowding in the early mixed dentition period irrespective of the age and gender of the child. Clinical significance: All cases of early mixed dentition mandibular incisors crowding should be individually assessed for arch length discrepancy, and transverse discrepancy results of this study help in the prediction of crowding before an establishment of a customized treatment plan with the use of lingual arch or lip bumper appliances in patients with anterior mandibular crowding may be valuable.

  1. Das UM, Venkatsubramanian DR. Prevalence of malocclusion among school children in Bangalore, India. Int J Clin Pediat Dentis 2008;1(1):10. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1002.
  2. Sardarian A, Ghaderi F. Prediction of the occurrence and severity of mandibular incisor crowding in the early mixed dentition using craniofacial parameters. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2018;153(5):701–707. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.08.025.
  3. Sayin M, Türkkahraman H. Factors contributing to mandibular anterior crowding in the early mixed dentition. The Angle Orthod 2004;74(6):754–758. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2004)0742.0.CO;2.
  4. Chen KJ, Gao SS, Duangthip D, et al. Dental caries status and its associated factors among 5-year-old Hong Kong children: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2017;17(1):121. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-017-0413-2.
  5. Gaikwad SS, Gheware A, Kamatagi L, et al. Dental caries and its relationship to malocclusion in permanent dentition among 12-15 year old school going children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(5):27.
  6. Baskaradoss JK, Geevarghese A, Roger C, et al. Prevalence of malocclusion and its relationship with caries among school children aged 11-15 years in southern India. The Korean J Orthod 2013;43(1):35–41. DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2013.43.1.35.
  7. Moorrees CFA, Chadha JM. Available space for the incisors during dental development—a growth study based on physiologic age. Angle Orthod 1965;35:12–22. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1965)0352.0.CO;2.
  8. Gayathri M, Arun AV. Relationship and correlation between lower anterior crowding and collective mesiodistal width of mandibular central incisors-an in vitro study. Res J Pharma Technol 2017;10(6):1641–1644. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00288.8.
  9. Mills LF. Arch width, arch length, and tooth size in young adult males. The Angle Orthod 1964;34(2):124–129.
  10. Smith RJ, Davidson WM, Gipe DP. Incisor shape and incisor crowding: a re-evaluation of the peck and peck ratio. Am J Orthod 1982;82(3):231–235. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(82)90143-9.
  11. Hwang HS. Relationship of dental crowding to tooth size and arch width. Kor J Ortho D 2004;4(6):488–496.
  12. Bugaighis I. An odontometric study of tooth size in normal crowded and spaced dentitions. J Orthod Sci 2013;2(3):96–100. DOI: 10.4103/2278-0203.119681.
  13. Ludstrom A. Changes in crowding and spacing of the teeth with age. Dent P D R 1969;19:218–224.
  14. Proffit WR, Fields HW. Contemp Orthod. St. Louis, Mo: CV Mosby; 1986. 72–74.
  15. Sanin C, Savara BS. Factors that affect the alignment of the mandibular incisors. Am J Orthod 1973;64(3):248–257. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(73)90018-3.
  16. Indriyanti R, Efendi SH, Maskoen AM, et al. Predisposing factors analysis of mandibular anterior tooth crowding in the mixed dentition period by the tooth size and dental arch width. Padjadjaran J Dentis 2018;30(3):208–214. DOI: 10.24198/pjd.vol30no3.18375.
  17. Norderval K, Wisth PJ, Boe OE. Mandibular anterior crowding in relation to tooth size and craniofacial morphology. Scand J Dent Res 1975;83(5):267–273. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1975. tb00436.x.
  18. Doris JM, Bernard DW, Kuftinec MM. A biometric study of tooth size and dental crowding. Am J Orthod 1981;79(3):326–336. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(81)90080-4.
  19. Puri N, Pradhan L, Chandna A, et al. Biometric study of tooth size in normal, crowded, and spaced permanent dentitions. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2007;132(3):279.e7–279.e14. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.01.018.
  20. Forsberg CM. Tooth size, spacing, and crowding in relation to eruption or impaction of third molars. Am J Orthod Dentofac Ortho 1988;94(1):57–62. DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(88)90451-9.
  21. Rahbar MI, Chaudhry NA. Dental crowding and its relationship to arch dimensions–gender dimorphism. Pakistan Oral Dent J 2010;30(2).
  22. McKeown M. The diagnosis of incipient arch crowding in children. NZ Dent J 1981;77:93–96.
  23. Hagberg C. The alignment of permanent mandibular incisors in children. A longitudinal prospective study. The Eur J Orthod 1994;16(2):121–129. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/16.2.121.
  24. Howe RP, Mc Namara JA, O'Connor KA. An examination of dental crowding and its relationship to tooth size and arch dimension. Am J Orthod 1983;83(5):363–373. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(83)90320-2.
  25. Kaundal JR. Evaluation of crowding in relation to tooth size, arch size and arch form in North-East Indian population. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2013;31(31):1199–1204.
  26. Sayin MO, Turkkahraman H. Comparison of dental arch and alveolar widths of patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion and subjects with Class I ideal occlusion. The Angle Orthod 2004;74(3):356–360. DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2004)0742.0.CO;2.
  27. Luzzi V, Guaragna M, Ierardo G, et al. Malocclusions and non-nutritive sucking habits: a preliminary study. Progress Orthod 2011;12(2):114–118. DOI: 10.1016/j.pio.2011.03.002.
  28. Buczkowska-Radlinska J, Szyszka-Sommerfeld L, Wozniak K. Anterior tooth crowding and prevalence of dental caries in children in Szczecin, Poland. Community Dent Health 2012;29(2):168.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.