Citation Information :
Kukreja P, Sogi S, Badakar C, Thakkar P. Evaluation of the Effect of Fixed and Removable Appliances on Salivary Parameters (Salivary Flow Rate pH and Buffering Capacity) in Children Aged 5–12 Years: An In Vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021; 14 (6):774-778.
Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of fixed and removable space maintainers or appliances on salivary factors (“salivary flow rate,” pH, and buffering capacity of saliva) in children aged 5–12 years over a period of 3 months.
Materials and methods: Sixty children were selected for the study and equally alienated into two groups as group I for fixed appliances and group II for removable appliances). Unstimulated saliva was collected from children wearing fixed and removable space maintainers or appliances at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months.
Results: At the end of 3 months, there was a slight decrease in the buffering capacity and pH of saliva, which was not statistically significant in both the groups. An increase in unstimulated salivary flow rate was also seen in both the groups at the end of 3 months.
Conclusion: Fixed and removable space maintainers or appliances act as opportunistic plaque retentive sites in children, necessitating appropriate oral hygiene maintenance and its reinforcement. Failure to adhere to a strict oral hygiene regimen can cause considerable enamel decalcification and plaque retention leading to alteration in oral microflora which has detrimental effects.
Clinical significance: This study paves way for provision of incorporating practice guideline information for both dentists and children undergoing long-term space maintainer or appliance therapy in children.
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on management of the developing dentition and occlusion in pediatric dentistry. Paeditr Dent 2009–2010;31(6):196–205.
Attack NE, Sandy JR, Addy M. Periodontal and microbiological changes associated with the placement of orthodontic appliances. A review. J Periodontol 1996;67(2):78–85. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1918.104.22.168
Kipoti AD, Gusberti FA, Lang NP. Clinical and microbiological effects of fixed orthodontic appliances. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:326–333. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1987.tb00979.x
Topaloglu-Ak A, Ertugrul F, Eden E, et al. Effect of orthodontic appliances on oral microbiota- 6 month follow-up. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011;35(4):4433–4436. DOI: 10.17796/jcpd.35.4.61114412637mt661
Wong DT. Salivary Diagnostics, 1st edn. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Publication.
Preethi BP, Reshma D, Anand P. Evaluation of flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total proteins and total antioxidant capacity of saliva in caries free and caries active children: an in vivo study. Indian J Clin Biochem 2010;25(4):425–428. DOI: 10.1007/s12291-010-0062-6
Crielaard W, Zaura E, Schuller AA, et al. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health. BMC Med Genomics 2011;4(22):1–13. DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-4-22
Navazesh M, Kumar SKS. Measuring salivary flow: challenges and opportunities. JADA 2008;139(2):35S–40S. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0353
Kaufman E, Lamster IB. The diagnostic application of saliva: a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13(2):197–212. DOI: 10.1177/154411130201300209
Wu KP, Ke J-Y, Chung C-Y, et al. Relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and saliva composition of healthy children in Taiwan. Chang Gung Med J 2008;31(3):281–286.
Chang HS, Walsh LJ, Freer TJ. The effect of orthodontic treatment on salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity, and levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Aust J Orthod 1999;15(4):229–234.
Ulukapi H, Koray F, Efes B. Monitoring the caries risk of orthodontic patients. Quintessence Int 1997;28:27–29.
Chang HS, Walsh LJ, Freer TJ. Enamel demineralization during orthodontic treatment. Aetiology and prevention. Aust Dent J 1997;42(5):322–327. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.1997.tb00138.x
Arendorf T, Addy M. Candidal carriage and plaque distribution before, during and after removable orthodontic appliance therapy. J Clin Periodontology 1985;12:360–368. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1985.tb00926.x