Aim and objective: To illustrate the most important general findings significant for dentists dealing with pediatric diabetic patients, as well as the effect of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on children's oral health.
Background: Type 1 DM is considered to be the most popular type of diabetes in children and adolescents which has a strong impact on their lifestyle. Diabetes mellitus (DM) mainly affect organs and tissues that are affluent with blood vessels including kidneys, eyes, and nerves. Adding to that oral cavity is covered with epithelial tissues that are rich with small blood vessels.
Materials and methods: An electronic search of English scientific papers was accomplished using PubMed, Google Scholar, and King Abdulaziz University digital library. Search terms used were children, DM, dental health, gingival health, oral hygiene, periodontal health, and teeth eruption.
Review results: Thirty-six articles were obtained from the electronic search and references of selected studies. In addition, other references were included from selected studies about DM and its relationship to oral health. Multiple studies confirmed that T1DM has a negative impact on oral hygiene, gingival and periodontal health, and teeth eruption. While other studies contradict these results.
Conclusion: There are contradictory studies regarding the effect of T1DM on oral health in children and adolescents. Well-established high-quality research with clear and concise materials and methods are required to have representative results.
Clinical significance: Studying the effect of T1DM on oral health in children and adolescents is indicated to set well-established guidelines to reach a high standard of care for those children.
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