International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE S1 ( Supplement, 2020 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Little Color, Little Flavor of Different kinds of Commercially Available Flavored Milk and their Consumption Effect on Salivary pH Value in Children: An In Vivo Study

Saumya Navit, Shagun Agarwal, Suleman A Khan, Anshul Sharma, Seema Jaebeen, Nishi Grover

Keywords : Dental caries, Flavored milk, Saliva, Salivary pH

Citation Information :

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1867

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to compare the effect of different flavored kinds of milk on salivary pH value in 6 to 14 years old children. Materials and methods: The impact of these different kinds of flavored milk on the salivary pH is evaluated between two groups of children, caries-active group (n = 35) constituted children who had decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT) ≥2, and the caries-free group (n = 35) constituted children who had DMFT = 0. Four different flavors of milk are taken for the study, and plain sweetened milk is chosen as the control baseline. The endogenous pH of the salivary samples is measured at baseline and after consumption of the flavored milk immediately and then at 5-, 10-, 15-, and 30-minute intervals. The results are statistically analyzed by using the paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: It is shown in the present study that caries-active group subjects had a more evident salivary pH fall than the caries-free group subjects which was statistically significant. For caries-active group, subject\'s salivary pH value took a longer duration to return to baseline pH as compared to caries-free subjects. However, salivary pH value is restored to standard/baseline value after 30 minutes for all the flavored milk taken in both groups; hence, their intake can be regarded safe for the oral environment. Conclusion: It is concluded from the current study that the consumption of flavored milk can be considered as non-cariogenic for children. Clinical significance: In the present study, the salivary pH fall in both caries-active and caries-free subjects was found above the critical pH level. Hence, all these flavored milk used in the study did not cause a threat to oral environment health as there was no significant decrease in salivary pH value so their consumption can be regarded as safe for children.


PDF Share
  1. Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM. Textbook of oral pathology. 6th ed., New Delhi: Elsevier; 2009. p. 409.
  2. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India. National Oral Healthcare Program in India. Available from: http://www.aiims.edu/aiims/events/de. [Last accessed on 2014 Mar 03].
  3. Bhure S, Musani I, Survashe P. Effect on salivary pH value after consumption of commercially marketed “Health Drinks.” An in vivo study. Univ Res J Dent 2016;6:34–38.
  4. Roberson TM. Cariology: the lesion, etiology, prevention and control. In: Roberson TM, Heymann HO, Swift EJ, ed. Art and science of operative dentistry. 5th ed., North Carolina: CV Mosby; 2006. pp. 64–134.
  5. Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB. Dental caries. Lancet 2007;369(9555):51–59. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60031-2.
  6. Mc Donald RE, Avery DR, Stookey GK, et al. Dental caries in the child and adolescent. In: Mc Donald RE, Avery DR, Dean JR, ed. Dentistry for the child and adolescent. 8th ed., St.Loise, Missouri: Mosby Ink; 2004. pp. 205–214.
  7. Pinkham JR, Casamassimo PS, Fields HW. The dynamics of change. In: Pinkham JR, Casamassimo PS, Field HW, Metigue DJ, et al., ed. Pediatric dentistry infancy through adolescence. 4th ed., St. Louise, Missouri: Elsevier Inc; 2005. pp. 199–204.
  8. Strokey GK. The effect of saliva on dental caries. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139(Suppl 5):11S–17SS. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0347.
  9. Takahashi N. Microbial ecosystem in the oral cavity: metabolic diversity in an ecological niche and its relationship with oral diseases. International Congress Series, vol. 8. Elsevier; 2005. pp. 103–112.
  10. Lagerlog F, Oliveby A. Caries protective factors in saliva. Adv Dent Res 1994;8(2):229–238.
  11. Gustafsson BE, Quensel CE, Lanke LS, et al. The Vipeholm dental caries study; the effect of different levels of carbohydrate intake on caries activity in 436 individuals observed for five years. Acta Odontol Scand 1954;11(3-4):232–264. DOI: 10.3109/00016355308993925.
  12. Banan LK, Hegde AM. Plaque and salivary pH. changes after consumption of fresh fruit juices. J ClinPediatr Dent 2005;30(1):9–13.
  13. Levine RS. Milk, flavoured milk products and caries. Br Dent J 2001;191(1):20. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4801080.
  14. Khodadadi E, Ghasemi N, Pouramir M, et al. Total antioxidant property and pH change of dental plaque and saliva in 6-11-year-old children after consumption of flavoured milk. Caspian J Dent Res 2013;2(2):15–22.
  15. Mcintyre IM, Norman TR, Burrows GD. Melatonin rhythm in human plasma saliva. Journal of Pineal Research 1998,4:177–183.
  16. Mandel I. Relation of saliva and plaque to caries. J Dent Res 1974;53(2):246–266. DOI: 10.1177/00220345740530021201.
  17. Siqueira L, Mustacchi Z, Nicolau J. Electrolyte concentrations in the saliva of children aged 6-10 years with down syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;98(1):76–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2004.04.007.
  18. Stephen RM. Intraoral hydrogen ion concentration associated with dental caries activity. J Dent Res 1944;23(4):257–266. DOI: 10.1177/00220345440230040401.
  19. Hans R, Thomas S, Garla B, et al. Effect of various sugary beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Scientifica 2016;2016:5027283. DOI: 10.1155/2016/5027283.
  20. Manipal S, John J, Saravanan S, et al. The effect of different beverages on salivary pH in 12-year-old school children in Chennai. J Orofac Res 2013;3(3):166–169.
  21. Saigal A, Tewari A. Cariogenicity of milk, apple juice and shikanjvi, a dental plaque study. J American Dent Assoc 1979-80;51-52:373–377.
  22. Schatele CF, Jenkins ME. Comparison of methods for monitoring changes in the pH of human dental plaque. J Dent Res 1982;61(10):1117–1125. DOI: 10.1177/00220345820610100201.
  23. Rodriquez R. Relationship between oral hygiene, salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity, secretion rate and caries experience in 6 years old and 12 years old in Riga. Stomatologija, Baltic Dent and Maxillofac J 2008;10:76–80.
  24. Preethi BP, Maitreyee DS, Dodawad R. Effect of four fruit juices on pH of dental plaque-A four period cross-over study. J ClinDiagnos Res 2010;4:2587–2593.
  25. Banan LK, Hedge AM. Plaque and salivary pH changes after consumption of fresh fruit juices. J Clin Ped Dent 2005;30(1):9–13.
  26. Stephan RM. Changes in hydrogen ion concentrations on tooth surfaces and in carious lesions. J Am Dent Assoc 1940;27:718–723.
  27. Vratsanos SM, Mandel ID. Comparative plaque acidogenesis of caries resistant vs caries susceptible adults. J Dent Res 1982;61(3):465–468.
  28. Azrak B, Willershausen B, Meyer N, et al. Course of changes in salivary pH-values after intake of different beverages in young children. Oral Health Prev Dent 2008;6(2):159–164.
  29. Anisimova IV, Galiulina MV, Ganzina IV et al. Structural properties of mixed saliva in persons with different levels of tooth resistance to caries. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2005;84(4):8–10.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.