International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2020 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Association between Dental Caries and Passive Smoking and Its Related Factors in Children Aged 3–9 Years Old

Shahram Mosharrafian, Shayan Lohoni, Saeedeh Mokhtari

Keywords : Children, Cigarette smoking, Cross-sectional study, Dental caries

Citation Information : Mosharrafian S, Lohoni S, Mokhtari S. Association between Dental Caries and Passive Smoking and Its Related Factors in Children Aged 3–9 Years Old. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020; 13 (6):600-605.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1831

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-03-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Aims: Dental caries is the most common chronic and infectious childhood disease. Several studies have investigated the side effects of cigarette smoke on oral health. Caries appear to be higher in children exposed to environmental cigarette smoke, but this relationship has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and passive smoker children aged 3–9 years old. Materials and methods: This descriptive analytical study was performed on 75 children aged from 3 to 9 years. The study included two groups (first group: control, second group: passive smoker). Demographic data, frequency of toothbrushing and using toothpaste, sugar consumption, and number of dental visits were recorded in a questionnaire. Then, the children were examined, and dmft and DMFT index and plaque index were recorded. Children's saliva was then collected and sent to the laboratory for determination of cotinine levels. Then, the relationship between passive smoker and caries index and other factors were statistically analyzed. Results: Studying dmft and DMFT, it was found that except for component M (Missing) which was zero in both groups, the other components of these two indices were significantly higher in the group exposed to passive smoker. Plaque index and salivary cotinine level were also significantly different in the two groups and were lower in the control group. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, children exposed to passive smoker have a higher rate of caries than other children. It seems that it is primarily due to its effect on increasing plaque accumulation and then the effect of passive smoker on the physiological structures of the mouth and so on. Clinical significance: We can perform preventive care for children if we know that passive smoking may cause more dental caries.

PDF Share
  1. Marcenes W, Kassebaum NJ, Bernabé E, et al. Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. J Dent Res 2013;92(7):592–597. DOI: 10.1177/0022034513490168.
  2. Law V, Seow WK. A longitudinal controlled study of factors associated with mutans Streptococci infection and caries lesion initiation in children 21 to 72 months old. Pediatr Dent 2006;28(1):58–65.
  3. Bartal M. Health effects of tobacco use and exposure. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2001;56(6):545–554.
  4. Williams SA, Kwan SY, Parsons S. Parental smoking practices and caries experience in pre-school children. Caries Res 2000;34(2):117–122. DOI: 10.1159/000016578.
  5. Aligne CA, Moss ME, Auinger P, et al. Association of pediatric dental caries with passive smoking. JAMA 2003;289(10):1258–1264. DOI: 10.1001/jama.289.10.1258.
  6. Leroy R, Hoppenbrouwers K, Jara A, et al. Parental smoking behavior and caries experience in preschool children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2008;36(3):249–257. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00393.x.
  7. Schou L, Uitenbroek D. Social and behavioural indicators of caries experience in 5-year-old children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995;23(5):276–281. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1995.tb00248.x.
  8. Etzel RA. A review of the use of saliva cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Prev Med 1990;19(2):190–197. DOI: 10.1016/0091-7435(90)90020-K.
  9. Tanaka S, Shinzawa M, Tokumasu H, et al. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2015;351:h5397. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h5397.
  10. Boyle P, Autier P, Bartelink H, et al. European code against cancer and scientific justification: third version (2003). Ann Oncol 2003;14(7):973–1005. DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdg305.
  11. Shenkin JD, Broffitt B, Levy SM, et al. The association between environmental tobacco smoke and primary tooth caries. J Public Health Dent 2004;64(3):184–186. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2004.tb02750.x.
  12. Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Arakawa M, et al. Household smoking and dental caries in schoolchildren: the ryukyus child health study. BMC Public Health 2010;10(1):335. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-335.
  13. Ayo-Yusuf OA, Reddy PS, van Wyk PJ, et al. Household smoking as a risk indicator for caries in adolescents’ permanent teeth. J Adolesc Health 2007;41(3):309–311. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.012.
  14. Sakki T, Knuuttila M. Controlled study of the association of smoking with lactobacilli, mutans streptococci and yeasts in saliva. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104(5-6):619–622. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1996. tb00151.x.
  15. Huang R, Li M, Gregory RL. Effect of nicotine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. Eur J Oral Sci 2012;120(4):319–325. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2008.00552.x.
  16. Liu S, Qiu W, Zhang K, et al. Nicotine enhances interspecies relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:7953920. DOI: 10.1155/2017/5803246.
  17. Golpasand Hagh L, Zakavi F, Ansarifar S, et al. Association of dental caries and salivary sIgA with tobacco smoking. Aust Dent J 2013;58(2):219–223. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12059.
  18. Nakayama Y, Mori M. Association of environmental tobacco smoke and snacking habits with the risk of early childhood caries among 3-year-old Japanese children. J Public Health Dent 2015;75(2):157–162. DOI: 10.1111/jphd.12085.
  19. Hu L, Sekine M, Gaina A, et al. Association of smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, work, lifestyle and mental health of Japanese civil servants. J Occup Health 2007;49(6):443–452. DOI: 10.1539/joh.49.443.
  20. Majorana A, Cagetti MG, Bardellini E, et al. Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study. BMC Pediatr 2014;14(1):45. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-45.
  21. Yamamoto Y, Nishida N, Tanaka M, et al. Association between passive and active smoking evaluated by salivary cotinine and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2005;32(10):1041–1046. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00819.x.
  22. Nishida N, Yamamoto Y, Tanaka M, et al. Association between passive smoking and salivary markers related to periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33(10):717–723. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00982.x.
  23. Goto Y, Wada K, Konishi K, et al. Association between exposure to household smoking and dental caries in preschool children: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Prev Med 2019;24(1):9. DOI: 10.1186/s12199-019-0764-1.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.